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sideration; the causes of this metamorphosis may, we apprehend, be detected.
A very particular account is given of the memorable auto de fe celebrated at Madrid, in the year 1680, in the presence of Charles II., the Queen, and the mother of the king. Of this auto, a painting is preserved in the palace of the BuenRetiro, and serves, says the Author, as a monument of shame to those kings who made so had a use of their power. Orders were sent to the various tribunals to expedite the causes before them, that as great a number of sufferers as possible might be procured. Sunday, the 30th of June, was appointed for * this great triumph of the Catholic faith,' and proclamations were solemnly made a month before the time, inviting the people to attend, who were assured of receiving on the occasion, those
graces and indulgences' which the Popes were accustomed to dispense to the members of the church aiding and accompanying such ceremonies. Almost every circumstance in the hands of D. Puigblanch affords the reader of his work an instance of appropriate remark.
• Let us pay particular attention to this custom of performing these autos on Sundays, a circumstance which alone would argue the great contrariety of ideas so remarkable in this tribunal. Among all nations the day destined to return thanks to the Sovereign Maker of all things, as a remembrance of his omnipoience, is held as a day of rejoicing, on which it behoves us to abstain from every thing that may tend to disturb it, and indeed all servile occupations ought to be avoided. It is on this account that all kinds of work are suspended, and for much greater reason ought the execution of public punishments to be withheld. Thus the Hebrews, at the same time that they were forbidden to practise all manual labour, were ordered to remove the dead bodies from the church porches before the sabbath commenced; and even among us the civil courts never proceed to give sentence in any cases of trial, and much less to execute capital punishments on days consecrated by religion. The Inquisition alone is an exception to this general rule; by order of this arrogant tribunal the civil magistrate putting on that obduracy to which on similar days he had been a stranger, imbues his hands in human blood, and profanes the solemn period of religious joy. It may perhaps be answered that these executions are performed in the service and behalf of religion ; if so, bloody puoishments are the offerings the Inquisition makes in honour of a meek and divine system of faith and worship.' pp. 311-12.
After the numerous preparations for this auto (one of the most direful tragedies ever performed) had been coinpleted, the prisoners, some in person, and others in efligy, amounting to the pumber of one hundred and twenty, seventy-two of whom were women, were marched in a grand procession to a magnificent theatre constructed for the occasion. Here mass was celebrated and a sermon preached by a Dominican friar, in a style of bom
bastic declamation and extravagant rant, of which the following specimen may be quite sufficient to satisfy the reader.
« To have killed these horrid wild-beasts and enemies of God whom we now behold on this theatre, some by taking life from their errors, reconciling them to our holy faith, and inspiring them with contrition for their faults; others by condemning them through their obduracy to the flanies where, losing their corporeal lives, their obstinate souls will immediately go to buru in hell; by this means God will be avenged of his greatest enemies, dread will follow these ex-. amples, the Holy Tribunal will remain triumphant, and we ourselves more strongly confirmed and rooted in the faith ; which, accompanied by grace and good works, will be the surest pledge of glory.' Vol. I.
Animated by this spirit, and whetted to madness by the ravings of this fanatic, the actors in the bloody tragedy proceeded to perform theiv respective parts, and this triumph' of the catholic faith was concluded by the deaths of six persons who were burnt alive, the rest of the prisoners having been converted, or consigned to other punishments; at the same tiine the bodies of thirteen who had been previously hanged were committed to the flames, together with the bones and effigies of those who had died in prison. When shall the mystery of God, which presents to the pious so many objects for the exercise of their faith and patience, be finished, and the long expected call be given" Fear God, and give glory to him ; for the hour of his judge« inept is come ?"
The author of Don Quixote, it would seem, has employed his satire in ridiculing the Inquisition. In support of this opinion there is a series of quotations and remarks included in a nuté (Vol. I. p. 839, &c.) which is extended through twelve pages. They are we believe, quite original, and no less satisfactory than curious.
Though it is not within the purpose of D. Puigblanch to give a complete detail of the various autos de fe celebrated by the Inquisition, he has taken notice of several of the most remarkable. At an auto which was attended by the princess Doña Juana, May 21st, 1559, fourteen persons were bumt, and sixteen more did public penance. On the 18th of October an auto was celebrated at which Philip II. was present, when 28 persons were burnt, and twelve more had penance imposed upon them. In Seville eighty individuals were punished, most of them by fire in groups of fifteen or twenty. So many were the victims offered in one year! In the year 1500 another auto was celebrated among the sufferers was professor Blanco, who having abjured through the dread of punishment, and preached against the reform of the Church, again declared himself for it, and died. with astonishing serenity after upbraiding bis judges to their faces
with their incapacity in matters of faith. In the auto of Toledo in Feb. 1501, sixty-seven women were delivered over to the flames for Jewish practices. The sare punishment was inflicted on 900 females for being witches in the duchy of Lorrain by one Inquisitor alone. Under this accusation upwards of thirty thousand women have perished by the hands of the Inquisition! In 1691 four Autos were celebrated in Majorca ; in the third of, these thirty-four persons were thrown into the flames, having been previously strangled, and three more were burnt alive, charged with being impenitent Jews whose names were Raphael Valls, Raphael Terongi, and Catherine Terongi.
• On seeing the flames near them, they began to shew the greatest fury, struggling to free themselves from the ring to which they were bourd, which Terongi at length effected, although he could no longer hold himself upright, and he fell side-long on the fire. Catherine, as soon as the flames hegan to encircle her, screamed out repeatedly for them to withdraw her from thence, although uniformly persisting not to invoke the name of Jesus. On the flames touching Valls, he covered himself, resisted, and struggled as long as he was able. Being fat he took fire in his inside, in such manner, that before the flames had entwined around him, his flesh burnt like a coal, and bursting in the middle his entrails fell out.'
To these instances of horrible cruelty, many others could be cited from the work befure us, and were the task of transcribing the revolting details necessary for the purpose of exciting the surprise and detestation of our readers at the proceedings of a tribunal which bas been recently revived in the most fertile soil of superstition, after its destruction had been decreed by a legis. lative body, we should force our minds to the painful work, from the feeling that an imperious duty was demanding its discharge at our hands. Our extracts however are already copious, and, we apprebend sufficient for the accomplishment of our wishes, whether they respect the inducement offered for the perusal of the Book, or the necessary effects on those to whom it may be inaccessible. We shall only add the following lines:
• Ah! if every thing that has happened in the Inquisition on this subject were only known! How often has the beauty of a female culprit been the only plea for subjecting her to the torture, and to the nakedness with which this was administered.-In Seville about the middle of the 15th Century (and this is a different case to the one mentioned by foreign writers) an inquisitor commanded a beautiful young female, accused of practising Jewish rites, to be scourged in his own presence; and, after committing lewdness with her, he de livered her over to the flames. “Oh! inquisitors," exclaims the historian who has transmitted this anecdote down to us, “ Oh! inquia sitors, savage beasts, how long will God endure your tyrannic and cruel acts !", Vol. 2. p. 381.
We are tru.y sorry to report that the means which the Author
proposes, in his concluding Chapter, for supplying the place of the Inquisition, are but too much in its spirit. We have no other opinion to pronounce upon them than a sentence of absolute condemnatiou. When we recollect the numerous occasions on which, as we have accompanied the Author through these volumes, we have found the expressions of an honest indignation against intolerance; when we advert to the instances, by no means infrequent, in which the temper of the Inquisition is denounced as diametrically opposed to the spirit of the gospel ; when we consider the propriety of the measures which he proposes respecting the freedom of the press, “ that the antidote to pernicious . publications be applied by writings of talent and erudition, ' whenever it is feared that a work will diffuse secret poison,
since in the end truth will always be triumphant;' when the pathos and energy with which he has advocated the cause of the persecuted are in our recollection ; we have the most painful feelings forced upon us in finding the adoption of the most rigorous penal laws included in the plan which he suggests for the support of religion, extending even to the awarding of capital punishment against the dogmatizer or propagator of sects seeking to make effective proselytes! Was it possible for such * proposition to find admission into the mind of the Author, without the consciousness that he was passing the strongest condemnation on Jesus Christ, and justifying all the opposition of his enemies,—the walice and cruelty of his murderers,-and giving his sanction to the worst crimes and the most guilty abuse of power? With bitterness of spirit we deplore this perversion of a miod so noble as that of D. Puigblanch. How are the mighty fallen! We would gladly allow ourselves, with the assistance of the largest charity, to search for reasons in the prejudices and associations of the Author, that might serve to mitigate the severity of our censure; but when the object of the book which he has written and published, is considered, we feel that it would be a gross dereliction of our duty, to withbold from the proposal of arrangements relative to religion, that include the propagation of theological tenets among crimes to be visited with fine, banishment, imprisonment, and death, the most un. reserved and unqualified condeinnation.
In concluding our review of this work, we shall endeavour to redeem the pledge which we gave by returning to the History of the Cortes. On this subject we have feelings, not perhaps in unison with popular sentiment, but against the concealment of which conscience would most indignantly protest. The Cortes had commenced the work of regenerating the constitution and correcting the abuses of their disordered country. By the laws which they prepared, and by the overthrow of the Inquisition which they decreed, they had entitled themselves to honourable commendation. Throughout their proceedings they had upheld the monarchy, and were even profuse in the declarations of their regard for the · Beloved Ferdinand.' To the reverence and gratitude of this personage they possessed peculiar claims; be was bound to distinguish them by his favour and to provide for them the rewards of inerit. What were bis proceedings towards them? Alt obligation, all decency was outraged in his conduct towards the patriots of Spain. No sooner had he resumed the reins of government, (which were never more misplaced than when in his brands,) than he dispersed the Cortes, annalled their acts, and by a decree dated July 23, 1814, re-establisbed the Inquisition in full powers. Nor was this the conclusion of his mischievous and abhorred measures. The enlightened patriots of Spain were exposed to every species of degradation and injury. They were inimured in different dungeons; they were tried as felons; and at last, by a horrible act of tyranny, were sent off, all in irons, às criminals to vanishment. This was the reward of patriotism! Oh! good God!' exclaims the editor of an English journal, on recording this atrocity, are there no 6 stones in heaven but such as serve for thunder!' " When I look • at this infernal list of proscriptions!' said an honourable Merober of the Commons, iv Parliament, and find at the bead of it
the name of M. Arguelles, every one who values talent, every one " who venerates patriotism,' every one who loves virtue, or who "admires eloquence, must share with me in the pain and indig.
nation I feel, to reflect, that this unfortunate, this ill-fated gentleinan, who never exerted his great abilities but to support
the cause of his country, and who zealously endeavoured to o obtain in the Cortes the abolition of the Slave Trade, which 6 was on the eve of being accomplished, has been condemned by
Ferdinand to serve as a common soldier in the garrison of • Ceuta, a pestilential dungeon on the coast of Africa, in sight 6 of our own fortress of Gibraltar !'* We would remind the reader that the Author of the Inquisition Unmasked' was iacluded in this ‘iofernah list of proscriptions.' To his merits a willing testimony must be given by all to whom the exposure of corrupt and wicked institutions call afford pleasure, and by whom superior talent can be appreciated. His declarations rel tive to the African slavery, should have been the means of procuring for him the countenance and influence of all persons friendly to the interests of humanity. At the present moment, said this intrepid advocate of the wretched, ecclesiastical laus perisit the
purchase and sale of negroes, nor is the sinaisest ohjation • Therein found': nevertheless, how horrid will not this traffic
* Mr. Brougham's speech, Feb. 15th, 1816: