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the Church of Scotland. Be it so_ IVhat then? Why thien the House of Commons will compel the House of Lords to agree to such a Bill; this does not follow; I know not any legal or probable means of affecting such a compulsion; but for the sake of coming to a conclusion, let it be admitted that, at some distant period, of which rio man can form a reasonable conjecture, the House of Lords would by compulsion or choice, agree with the House of Commons, and that the king would agree with them both, in establishing Presa bytery in the room of Episcopacy-What then? Why then the present form of the Church of England would be changed into another ! And is this all?—this the catastrophe of so many tragical forebodings --this the issue of so many improbable contingencies--this tbe result of so much unchristian contention--this a cause for continuing distinctions by which the persons and properties of peaceful citizens are exposed to the fiery zeal of a senseless rabble ?--A great Protestant nation does not return to Popery--a great Christian nation does not apostatise to Paganism or Mohometanism ; it simply adopts an ecclesiastical constitution different from what it had before. What is there in this to alarm any man who liberally thinks with the late Dr. Powell, that there is nothing in the regimen of the Church of Eng. land, or in that of the Church of Scotland, repugnant either to the natural rights of man, or to the word of God.'

We perceive we must draw this extended article to a close. There

are various other passages of considerable interest which we had marked for quotation, but the whole volume is so bighly deserving of attentive perosal, that the task of selection becomes embarrassing. There is a letter to Mr. Wilberforce on a subject to which we shall have occasion to advert in a future article, and which has been recently brought before the public, as the subject of a recommendation from the Throne: we allude to the expediency of building an aditional number of new churches, a measure which the Bishop of Landaff strongly urges upon the attention of that gentleman, as a friend of the then Premier. It is due to the Bishop to remark on the interest which he always manifested in any ccclesiastical matters of public utility. In the same letter, le calls Mr. Wilberforce's attention to an evil which has increased

very much, if it has not entirely sprung up in many places

within the last thirty yearsthe travelling of waggons and stage coaches on Sundays.'

"There are laws, I believe, to prevent this being done, during the hours of divine service, but the difficulty of putting them in execution renders them, in a mapner, useless. This evil might be remedied by an act of parliament of ten lines, enacting the payment of a great additional toll at each turnpike-gate which should be passed by such carriages, between the hours of six and six on every Sabbath Day.'

Bishop Horsley, (Watson's great rival and opposite,) has

also, in bis admirable serions on the Sabbath,* denounced this scandalous practice as loudly calling for redress. The original temptation to this flagrant breach of the laws—the convenience of travelling when the roads were most empty, subsists Do longer, the roads being now crowded on the Sunday as ou other days ; but,' adds bis "Lordsbip, 'the reverence for the ! day among all orders is extinguisbed, and the abuse goes on from the mere habit of profaneness.'

Some respectable individuals have questioned the propriety of calling in the civil power to enforce, as they represent it, in this respect, the religion of Jesus. Our view of the matter is different. Overt acts of irreligion, (aud how frequently soever that term may have been misapplied, there is such a thing as irreligion,) appear to us to fall under the cognizance of the legislature on account of their bearings upou the social interests of the community. Admitting, therefore, what can bardly be a matter of doubt, that the open violatiou of the Lord's day tends to the demoralizing of the lower orders, and taking into consideration the constant, we may almost say insurmoun:able, temptation to their disregard of its religious observances, which is presented by the unrestrained licentiousness of the higher orders in this respect, the public weal seems to demand that the laws should interpose, not for the chimerical purpose of making tea religious, but in order to prevent their disturbing others in the practice of religion, and subverting what may be considered as a part of the established order of society. I'he Sabbath, independently of all religious obligation, is the law of the laud; it is a rightful law, for it trenches upon no man's natural rights; politically considered, it is a salutary law, as we think Necker has satisfactorily argued in his Treatise on the subject. Public opinion is, no doubt, the most unexceptionable and the most efficient means of carryiog the object of the law into effect, and it would be well, if that should be found to supersede the necessity of all legislative restrictions ; but we cannot but cordially approve of Bishop Watson's suggestion. The greatest obstacle to a reformation of the national habits in this respect, is presented by the practice of those who seem to stand too high for private admonition or public opinion to have its due operation upon their minds.

The Bishop's sentiments on the subject of the Catholic Ques. tion are repeatedly stated with his usual force of argumentation and expression. In a letter to the Duke of Rutland in 1784, he writes : No man upon earth, I trust, can have more en• larged sentiments of toleration than I have, but the Church of • Rome is a persecuting church, and it is our interest and our

* Horsky's Sermons. Vol. II. p. 234.

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duty, on every principle of religion and common sense, to guard ourselves against her machinations.! He expresses to the same vobleman his opinion, that that Protestant govern: 'ment is unwise, which trusts power to the Catholics, till it “shall be clearly proved that if they bad the opportunity they would not use it to the oppression of the Protestants.'

I am afraid of Popery,' he writes to Mr. Pitt ip 1791,' because, where it has the power, it assumes the right of persecution, and whilst it believes that in afflicting the body, it saves the soul of a convert, I do not see how it can abandon the idea of the utility of persecution.'

Nevertheless, when the petition of the Roman Catholics in Ireland, was in 1805 taken into consideration, the Bishop, cordially approving of the principle and purport of the petition, signified to Mr. Pitt bis conviction of the justice and expediency of granting it, but for his Majesty's conscientious scruples respecting the measure, which he thought ought to be regarded as a sufficient reason for deferring it.

• When I say, that I respect the conscience of the King, I do not mean to say that it is rightly formed; but I applaud his integrity in adhering to it whilst lie believes it to be so. I think that it is not rightly formed, because I see no danger occurring to the Church of England from Catholi Emancipation, either in Great Britain or Ireland."

We can afford no room for any comment on these extracts, but they serve to shew that a friend to what is termed Catholic Emancipation, on the ground of expediency, is not, on that account, justly to be suspected of an indifference to the distinctive character and evils of Popery.

In transcribing the manly expressions of enlightened and patriotic sentiment which abound in this volume, and which place in so favourable a light the intellectual character of the Bishop of Landaff, deep regret has been constantly blended with the feeling of satisfaction, when we have reflected how every such sentiment would have acquired the power of making a tenfold impression, had it been enforced by a life reflecting the glories of true greatness and genuine piety. Bishop Watson is not to be named with the father of modern science, whom Pope styled

• The wisest, greatest, meanest, of mankind;' but his character suggests the necessity of a similar qualification of our praise. He wanted just that one ingredient of genuine greatness which should have delivered him from the love of this world. To bim might our Saviour's address to the amiable young ruler have been with propriety applied : “ One " thing thou lackest.” Ambition was, at first, it is evident, his ruling passion, and it was as honourable an ambition as usually prompts the candidates for “ earthly things." When repeated Vol. IX. N. S.


disappointments had shewn bin the futility of all expectation of further advancement, he took refuge in the pride of retirement; but retirenient was, to a mind like bis, an element of peculiar danger. He forsook the world in the disgust produced by defeat, not with the lofty spirit of a conqueror. At every move ment on the episcopal bench, the rustling of lawn sleeves seemed to break upon his solitude, with the effect of a distant bugle upon an old bunter, will, though condemned to ignoble rest, bas pot lost his rolish for the chase. By the banks of romantic Windermere, still bis dreams were of Lambeth; he could neither forget por bear to be forgotten.

In this state of seclusion, it was inevitable that the action of bis mind should assume a morbid direction. Avarice, which has been termed the passion of age, is but a different modification of the selfism (to use his own phrase,) which at another period developed itself in the form of ambition. The life-long complaiuts of the retired bisiiop of the poorest diocese, terminated in his leaving behind Irim, it is said, not much less than a hundred thousand pounds. It is true that this accumulation of property was the fruit of his own honourable exertions : but there was, to say the least, an incongruity in a Regius Professor's driving the trade of an agriculturist, and in his disregarding those Episcopal duties which he had so solemnly pledged himself to dis. charge, that could not fail to strike even the peasantry of Westmoreland!, and all with whom the inoney-getting Bisbop came into contact.

• Who would pot laugh, if such a man there be,

• Who would not weep, if Atticus were be. Why did he not resign his station in the Establishment, and become respectable by avoning his preference for a secular life? Or why did not the powers of the world to come, seize in that solitude, upon his wooccupied faculties, and reuder it inpossible for him, thenectorih, to stoop to the drudgery of the world, producing a happy binilare:ss io the thing's which are seen, from the over rowering glory of the visions of eternity? One thing be lacked. "That one thing would have made the vacillating the ologian a tirnu believer, the despairing partizan a persevering patriot, she retired bishop' a holy and a happy recluse. For Want of this one reqnisie, he subscribed to what he did not beliero, undertook ducirs be never discharged, (as if in religious concerns alone, thot bold integrity, which never yielded to the fear or favour of nan, migiit be safely prevaricated away,) retaju si the care of a dio ese in which he never resided, and which he show vimiteri, and bas bequeathed us ouly the opinions of a sage, but, alas! the example of a saint ;

'Beyou the lim'ts of a vulgar fate, Beneath the Good bow far--but far above the Great'

a name


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Mr. Keats will publish in the present Mr. John Britton is preparing a chro- mooth, Endymion, a poem. nological illustration of the Ancient Ar. Mr. Hazle:l's Lectures on English chitecture of Great Britain, intended to Poetry, delivered at the Surry lastitáform a Supplement to the Architectural tion, will appear in a lew days. Antiquities, but it will constitute an inde. Mrs. Taylor, of Oogar, has a work in pendent work.

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Poems, Latin, Greek, and English, Mr. W. Hargrove will soon publish, with an account of the adminitration in two octavo volimes, a flistory of of government in England during the York, comprising the valuable part of king's minority, by Nicholas Hardinge, Drake's Eboracum, and much esq. collected by his son George Har- matter. dinge, esq. will soon appear in an oC- Dr. Paris is printing, at the request tavo volume,

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