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of his own perceptions, be enabled to give to the number its appropriate term. In this way a distinct notion of all the combinations of which the units are susceptible is introduced. A knowledge of the figures which are the signs of numbers is next given. And then, again, by means of counters, which answer for tens, and the beans, which have represented units, the process is carried forward as far as may be found necessary. All the rules of Arithmetic are taught by Pestalozzi on the same principle. I say nothing of his tables, and other contrivances
for facilitating his purpose, as such apparatus, however usefal, F are by no means essential to the communication of clear ideas, which is the primary object in view.'
By an analogous method, this extraordinary man is represented to have succeeded in laying a solid foundation in the minds of bis pupils, for the belief and practice of the doctrines and duties of Christianity, and in producing a susceptibility of moral feeling, wbich enabled him to dispense alike with the terrors of penal restraint and the incentives of reward. The interrogatory
system of instruction is coming into vogue; but to render it efficient, the admirable hints suggested by Miss Hamilton in this volume, cannot be too carefully attended to. Unless the essential principles on which it ought to proceed, are thoroughly comprehended, many who may pique themselves on the adoption of the theory, will fail in rendering its application subservient to any real improvement.
We must now draw this article to a close. Miss Hamilton did not long survive the publication of the work we have referred to. A series of afflictive events annihilated, in the year succeeding its publication, many of her dearest hopes, and the melancholy state of her own health, enduced her to quit her comfortable home at Edinburgh ouce more.
• Proceeding by easy stages, she at first seemed to derive benefit from the change; and her sister began to indulge the hope, that the remedy would not be less effectual than it had proved on former occa. sions. She was, however, alarmed by appearances of weakness greater than had hitherto been observed; and before their arrival at Harrowgate which was to be their resting place, her heart suggested the most gloomy forebodings.
• After two or three unsuccessful trials of the Harrowgate spa, Mrs. Hamilton, with her usual promptitude of decision, pronounced her malady mortal; and having adjusted all her worldly concerns, pre. pared, without a murmur, for approaching dissolution. During some weeks she lingered, perfectly sensible to the progress of decay. The piety she had so long cherished did not desert her in these awful mo. ments : the few words she articulated were expressive of resignation to the divine will, of affection for her surviving friends, of aspirations for happiness and immortality. The torpor that was stealing over her mental faculties, had no power to reach her heart : “ Give my love, ten
times told,” was the last message she dictated to that incomparable jeg bosom friend so often mentioned in these memoirs. The last moments of existence were exempted from severe suffering : she sunk into a slumber thatprefigured death, and finally, without a struggle, breathed her last, on the 23d of July, 1816, having newly entered her 60th year.'
The Selections from Miss Hamilton's correspondence, comprized in the second volume, would afford many interesting extracts, but we can only recommend them to the perusal of our readers. The remarks on the Revelation were worth printing, chiefly as indicative of the deep attention with which the Author studied the sacred volume. From her private journal, we select the following reflections on .Her last birthday', as the most ex. plicit and striking exhibition of her sincere and humble piety.
Again permitted to see a return of the day of my birth, let me offer to the Most High the sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, and renew the vows I have so often made of devoting the re: mainder of my life to his service. Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not any of the mighty benefits which he has through life bestowed on thee. But how shall I number up blessings that are innumerable, - mercies that are beyond my comprehension great ! 1 From the first liour of my existence, how wonderfully have Ì been preserved! how mercifully provided for in things spiritual and tem poral! In all events that have befallen me, from infancy to the present day, I perceive the wisdom and goodness of an over-ruling Providence, distributing sickness and health, joy and sorrow, as were to me most needful for correction or comfort ; and in every instance alike salutary and beneficial. By the glorious light of the gospel, the path to life eternal was early displayed to my view: to walk in it has been the serious purpose of my life. But, alas ! how often have ! been in danger of straying from it, turned aside by the passions and desires of my own corrupt heart! How often in such instances have I been recalled, as if by the voice of my Lord and Master, in gentle accents, warning me of my danger! Though dark clouds have sometimes passed over me, never have they been permitted effectually to obscure the sun of truth, In the darkest hour I have still been enabled to say, “Lord, I believe ; help thou mine unbelief.” Not by my own strength have I been preserved, nor by the exertion of my own intellect enlightened. It is by the grace of God that I have been saved from destruction; and to it alone that I look for aid in working out my salvation by faith and holiness of life. But in taking a view of the goodness and mercy that have conspicuously followed me through the whole course of my life, I am inspired with confidence, and with the full assurance of hope, in regard to what remains. He, of whose love I have experienced such convincing proofs, will not forsake me when my strength fails. On him, then, let me cast my cares; and, firmly confiding in his wisdom and goodness, let me follow wherever his providence may lead; praying that he may so rule and govern the events before me, that if I change my place of residence, the change may be propitious to my eterual interests,-enabling me better
to discharge the duties of declining life, and more fully to devote to God the sabbath of my days. One year more, and the period of six tens of years will be completed. One ten years more is the date of human life : so near, so very near do I now approach to that awful and eternal change, to which the few years spent on earth are but the prelude. But glory be to him, who hath divested the grave of its terrors; and in and through whom I have the hope of everlasting life, the promise of eternal joy!' pp. 270—273.
Miss Benger has furnished a very pleasing and elegant speci: men of memoir-writing, free from all affectation of sentiment, yet displaying much genuine feeliog, as well as correct taste, and bearing all the marks of a cultivated and amiable mind.
Art. II. Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of
Corea, and the great Loo-Choo Island; with an Appendix, containing Charts and various hydrographical and scientific Notices. By Capt. Basil Hall, R.N. F.K.S. London and Edinburgh. And a Vocabulary of the Loo-Choo Language, by H. I. Clifford, Esq. Lieut. R.N. 4to. 21. 2s. London, 1818. WE
E confess that we had not anticipated from the present
work, any very material addition of facts generally interesting, to the spirited and satisfactory narration published by Mr. M'Leod, which was reviewed by us in a late Number. We were indeed aware that Capt. Hall was an able and
scientific officer, and that in the present instance, he possessed * peculiar advantages, which might enable him to give a more
complete account than could be derived from any other source ; but still
, our hopes of entertainment were rather languid, and We sat down to the perusal of his book, with the sobriety of persons preparing to be instructed at some little cost of labour and patience. We have, however, been agreeably disappointed. The book not only contains considerable novelty, but is uncommonly amusing; and while it adds greatly to our stock of scientific acquisition, it possesses almost as much interest as if it had been written for the mere purpose of general gratification.
In the arrangement of bis materials, Capt. Hall has had two objects in view; to furnish a clear and comprehensive account
T of a very singular and attractive people, and, in connexion with this, to communicate a very important series of geographical and hydrographical discoveries. Both these objects he has accomplished to the full extent of his means ; but the first he has much more completely effected than the second. With regard to the latter, he has furnished results only of a cursory survey; and the imperfection of this portion of the work, is the more to be regretted, as the investigation is not, we imagine, likely to be speedily resumed. We cannot help complaining a
. H. has thought fit to adopt ; 2 s
Vol. IX. N.S.
in the distribution of his matter. Instead of giving, by way of introduction, a connected narration of the whole of the naval proceedings in the Yellow Sea, or, at least, of such part of them as he was himself concerned in, he leaves us to collect the particulars, partly from bis Appendix, and partly from the publications of Messrs. Ellis and M*Leod.
Froin the ample details which we bave already extracted from the journals of these last named gentlemen, our readers have been already enabled to form a very sufficient notion of the general proceedings both of the Embassy and of the Naval part of the expedition, it will not, therefore, be necessary for us to incur the hazard of repetition, by adverting to the transactions of the squadron during its separation and cruise in the Yellow Sea. We shall take up the narrative where Capt. H. commences it, and accompany the Alceste and Lyra in their united voyage
down the western coast of Corea, By the publications above referred to, we have been already made acquainted with the fact, that the Corean coast is most erroneously laid down in the charts, and that from what has been hitherto taken for main land, not less than two degrees are to be abstracted; the space lying between the 125th and the 127th degrees of east longitude, which has been till now assigned to the Corean Peninsula, being in reality a sea, thickly studded with innumerable islands. The first of these on which they landed, were distinguished by the name of Sir James Hall's group: A village which they had an opportunity of exploring, did not afford a very favourable specimen of the habits of the islanders.
• The village consists of forty houses rudely constructed of reeds plastered with mud, the roofs are of all shapes, and badly thatched with reeds and straw, tied down by straw ropes. These huts are not disposed in streets, but are scattered about without order, and without any neatness, or cleanliness, and the spaces between them are occupied by piles of dirt and pools of muddy water. The valley in which this comfortless village is situated is, however, pretty enough, though not wooded; the hills forming it are of an irregular shape, and covered at top with grass and sweet scented flowers: the lower parts are cultivated with millet, buckwheat, a kind of French bean, and tobacco, which last grows in great quantity; and here and there is a young oak tree.
• We saw bullocks and poultry, but the natives would not exchange them for our money, or for any thing we had to offer. They refused dollars when offered as a present, and, indeed, appeared to set no value upon any thing we shewed them, except wine glasses; but even these they were unwilling to receive. One of the head men appeared particularly pleased with a glass, which, after a good deal of persuasion, he accepted, but, in about five minutes after, be, and another man to whom a tumbler had been given, came back and
insisted upon returning the presents: and then, without waiting for further persuasion, returned to the village, leaving with us only one man, who, as soon as all the rest were out of sight, accepted one of the glasses with much eagerness.
• These people have a proud sort of carriage, with ar air of com. posure and indifference about them, and an absence of curiosity, which struck us' as being very remarkable.''pp. 5, 6.
Repelled from these shores by the inhospitable behaviour of the inhabitants, the squadron proceeded on the voyage, and passed through islands countless in number, and exibiting every variety of form and extent; but wherever the navigators attempted to establish a free intercourse with the natives, they invariably found the same averseness from communication. It seemed as if some awful interdict hung over these unsocial coasts, and it was inferred from the gestures and deportment of the inhabitants, that they were prohibited from welcoming intruders, under the penalty of death. In one instance, we cannot help thinking the conduct of our countrymen extremely reprehensible. The ships had anchored off the main land of Corea, at the entrance of Basil's bay, and were visited by a chief of most interesting appearance and engaging manners, who behaved with the utmost courtesy, but manifested the most intense anxiety for their departure. In direct opposition to all his signs and intreaties, Capt. Maxwell resolved to land. The account given of this transaction, cannot fail to excite the most painful feelings. The aged chief signified by gesticulations, the meaning of which it was impossible to misunderstand, that his life was endangered by their proceedings; the party still persisted, and it was not until the agitation of the poor old man became excessive, and his grief burst forth in tears and lamentations, that they abandoned their intention. Some of the scenes which took place while the old chief was visiting the ship, are related by Capt. Hall, with a glee which shews bow acceptably any thing eccentric comes in a seanian's way.
• On passing the gun-room sky-light, he heard the voices of some of his people whom the officers had taken below, and who were enjoying themselves very merrily amongst their new acquaintance. The old Chief looked down, and observing them drinking and making a noise, he called to them in a loud passionate voice, which made them leave their glasses, and run up the ladder in great terror. From thence the alarm spread along the lower deck, to the midshipmen's birth, where another party was carousing. The grog and wine with which they had been entertained was too potent for this party, as they did not seem to care much for the old Chief, who, posting himself at the hatchway, ascertained, by personal examination, who the offenders were. On this occasion, his little rod of office was of much use ; he pushed the people about with it to make them speak, and used it to turn them round, in order to discover