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those seeds of wisdom and piety, which, in after yoars, produced such a glorious harvest. On the other hand, the sons of Eli, of whom one might have expected better things, were, it seems, almost totally negJected, and left to the indulgence of every sinful propensity. It is painful to relate this neglect of a proper and pious education in a parent who was otherwise, we hope, a good man. But, for the good of society, it is necessary that the evils of a bad education be publicly known and exposed! It appears that Eli had no authority in his family; and if authority iş not exercised over children, it will be in vain to attempt it, at a later period. "If the land be left uncultivated, we know that it will naturally produce thorns and briars : and if the mind be left uneducated, the most baneful weeds of vice may be expected. It was owing to this shameful neglect, in conjunction with their own native depravity, that the sons of Eli were not only a disgrace to the sacred profession, but even to human nature. How should those young persons who have been favoured with a wise, a virtuous, and a pious education, have their hearts filled with gratitude to their serious parents, to their affectionate ministers, to their tutors, governesses and friends, for the anxious solicitude they discovered to promote their best interest, and for their endeavours to impress their minds with a deep sense of the infinite importance of real religion, and to direct their feet into the path that leadeth to the heavenly Zion.'

A second edition of a work which may with so much propriety be put into the hanels of young persons, may, we presume, be pretty confidently expected; in which case, a third volume, of additional memoirs, taken from the New Testament, would render the work more complete, and would, doubtless, be acceptable: Should another impression be called for, there are various verbal improvements of which most of the papers will be found to be susceptible, and which the Author will, we apprehend, see it expedient to adopt. Some of these will relate to figurative allusions ; others to sentences in which no figure occurs, but which may be transposed to some advantage ; and in some few instances, those doctrinal sentiments in which all serious Christians are agreed, might be rendered less ambiguous.

The orthodoxy of Mr. S. cannot however be questioned'; a spotless life, accompanied with an undeviating zeal for the doctrines of grace, bas, we understand, marked bis ministerial career, in a large congregation, about forty years. On the whole, we must cordially approve of the work, and confidently recoininend it, as a valuable present for young persons, it being unquestionably calculated to inform the judgement, allure the heart, and promote a growiog attachment to the Holy Scriptures. It is got up, to say the least, in a respectable manner, and compared with many modern publications, it is remarkably cheap.


Art. VII. Directions and Encouragements for Travellers to Zion: be: ing an earnest and affectionate Address to professing Christians in general, on several important Subjects. By Joseph Freeston. 8vo.

pp. 318. Price 5s. 6d. NOTWITHSTANDING the quaintness of the title, this

is a volume of considerable merit, and one from the perusal of which every pious reader may gain much useful instruction. It is made up of a series of addresses, in the form of distinct chapters, upon the following subjects.

• On the important change effected in the situation of the real Christian.--On the invaluable privileges which Christians enjoy in the present life.- On the necessity of close attention to inward personal religion. On the importance of domestic and relative duties. -On a proper attention to public duties.-On the necessity of maintaining a character for uprightness in the world.--How to improve afflictions and other adversities.--How to recover lost peace of mind.-Short directions for walking with God. On heavenlymindedness and guarding against undue love of the world. -On seeking the salvation of others.--On death and the heavenly state. -Address to unbelievers and backsliders. The true Christian a spiritual person.-On progressive holiness.-Meditation on the death of a beloved child. On religious declension. On the doubts and fears of Christians.'

These subjects are handled tlıroughout in a familiar and plain style; and are illustrated by copious references to the Scriptures, and by interesting extracts from a great variety of authors. lo introducing these practical and experimental essays to the reader's attention, the Author says,' he is daily expectsing to be called to his eternal home, and it bas been in the • vearest view of eternity, that he has penued the following Ad« dress. He has but little expectation of either pleasing or s profiting any besides plain and serious minds. Such can s overlook the defects of composition; and if the matter does • but suit them, they do not much regard the manner.'—Preface, p. 5.

Religious experience is a theme not always treated in the most judicious manner, even by divines of eminence. And when inen of education and taste look at the fool's coat in xvhich some, both from the pulpit and the press, have dressed up their experience, they are induced to think but lightly of all thiat passes under that name; and sometimes, the religion itself with wbich these fooleries bave been associated, has been brought into disrepute. But men of a bolder character, and more malignant intentions, have found here an inexhaustible source of ridicule. Too often such men have imagined, that by holiling up these weaknesses and deformities to public scorn, they bave thoroughly exploded the doctrine of expe.

rience, and even manfully reasoned down the whole system of faith with which it stands connected.

To the more grave and reasonable of the objectors to the doctrine of religious experience, we beg leave to offer a few remarks. The sentiment we would wish them deliberately, or, if they please philosophically, to review is this : that revealed religion, when it becomes, in a man's conscience and heart, the prevailing system of belief, must be productive of what is generally understood among pious Christians, by experience. A wide field of illustration and argument presents itself in those analogies which are furnished by every department of our intellectual and moral constitution. Science also gives abundant countenance to the priuciple in question. The philosophy which is founded ou experience, is the only philosophy, which, in the present age, we are allowed to value. The highest attainments are not possessed at once, and excellence, iu any intellectual operation, is most usually the result of experience and babit. Is there then experience in every thing but religion? In intellectual, and natural, and political philosophy, is experience so valuable, and must it be rejected from religion ? Is there bere nothing to feel, nothing to learn, nothing to enjoy, by experience? Does creation, in all its various departments, and almost infinite details, afford so many illustrations of the power and wisdom of the Supreme Being, and shall the heart of man, which every consistent theist must view as equally subject to Divine control, with every part of material nature, be exempted from the exercise of that moral power, or Xhose spiritual agencies, which in the economy of the world, must be supposed to belong to the great Lord and Head of the system? Have the natural attributes of the Deity their appropriate spheres of operation, and is he either destitute of moral perfections, or have they no appropriate sphere or system of purely moral and spiritual subjects in which they exert their influence, and rule in all the glory of moral supremacy? If, in the human mind, the passions and the will are the secret springs of action, have we not every reason to conclude, that be who formed this mysterious and complex machine, retains in his own hand the power of regulating and touching these springs, at his pleasure !--that he is most likely to operate upon these powers

man by means suited to their na, ture, that is, by intellectual means ?--and that he no more disdains to let his power, and wisdom, and goodness, be seen in

this part of his own works, than in the most minute or most majestic operations of the material world?

But we are not disposed to rest the whole argument here, The doctrine of religious experience is inseparable from the


compound character of man, as an intellectual and moral being; a creature both of reason and affection, and thus capable of moral discipline. He is not wholly affection; for then he would be the mere slave of impulse, and, consequently, could not be accountable, nor in any sense the subject of moral goverp:nent. His affection would be nothing better than instinct, and its motions involuntary. Neither is he wholly judgemnent or reason: for then he would be but an intellectual machine, moving with all the certainty and all the sameness of inechanism : in this case he would be incapable of either virtue or vice, and incapable of being the subject of a system either of rewards or punishments. But he is made up both of reason and affection ; and, admitting him to be an apostate creature, it necessarily follows, that when he is brought under the influence of a sound judgement, it will be at this very point of conjunction between reason and feeling, that a contention will be exhibited : “ the fiesh lusting against the spirit, and the spi" rit against the flesh." It is at this very point, too, that, more or less, all men are conscious of an internal wrestling or striving. And what is religious experience but this very same contention, carried on, not indeed under the mere iotluence of natural conscience, but with the powerful weapons of a spiritual warfare, and by the mighty aids of Divine grace? Experience is but the variation of the state of the mind, under ihe influence of external circumstances, in conjunction with the aids of religion. It is the history of the spiritual affections, or of the internal warfare which must exist when an enlightened and sanctified reason has to contend with vicious habits and sensual passions. This state of internal contention is delineated in the Scripture, with a force of imagery and copiousness of illustration, interwoven with the whole texture of Divine truth, abundantly sufficient to convince and instruct those that oppose themselves to the truth. Here, the Christian is a soldier fighting ; a scholar learning; a pilgrira travelling; a child advanciog to youth, the youth to manhood, the man to old age'; --- all of these images, at once, of change and progression; and referrible, exclusively, to that growth of the prin'ciples of Christian belief and feeling, which comes by exercise : this is experience in the sense of Scripture and of every judicious theological writer.

An additional source of argument might be found in the pri. mary design and actual constitution of the Gospel. This design is two-fold.. The one part is accomplished without our concurrence; the other cannot be. The one part consists in the alteration of our legal condition, the other is the renoxation of our personal character. The one part of Christianity,


contemplates the man relatively as he is the subject of a moral dispensation, or as he is obnoxious to the Divine displeasure on account of sin; and from this state he is released by that sacrifice which is said to “ redeem us fiom the curse of the law." Bilt the other part of salvation contemplates man, individually, in his heart and character, in liis moral, not his legal state; and it provides remedies, to effect his restoration ; or means to s create him anew in Christ Jesus.” It reasons, and entreats, and exhorts; it proinises, and threatens, and in every respect treats him as a creature both of reason and feeling. To the adaptation of these means to his case, therefore, it evinces at once the most perfect knowledge of his constitution, and the design of proceeding in the work of renovation by the most reasonable and the most effectual methods; by manifestation of the truth to his conscience, and the application of suitable objects to his affections. This is the source of experience. The progressive inanifestation of truth to the mind, in connexion with the influence of the objects of hope and fear, necessarily produces changes of feeling; and when these feelings are contemplated ag further varied by prosperity or adversity, health or affliction, and all the circumstances of private, domestic, or public life, it will then be seen what is intended by religious experience, and that in fuct it is inseparable froin a cordial belief in Divine Revelation. To most of our readers these remarks inay appear superfluous, especially when viewed in connexion with the truly pious and excellent little volume before us. But our apology for offering thein, rests on the very exceptionable character of many publications which come before the world, which treat on religious experience. The one before us is not of the pumber. That our readers may judge for themselves of the merit of the performance, we make the following extract.

• It is one great 'excellence of the Christian Scriptures, that they are so comprehensive and complete a rule of practice, that every social and relative duty is contained in them, and enforced by them by suitable and energetic motives. They are “a light to our feet " and a lamp to our path.” They are graciously intended and eminently, calculated, not only to regulate practice, but to infuse prin ciples; to direct the affections, to supply the most effective motives, and to form the character to a resemblance of that of their divine master; so that sincere and conscientious readers may find ample instruction in the word of life,” to enable them to conduct them, selves in every relation and situation in life, in such a manner as to secure the confidence and esteem of the righteous, and bring honour to the truth and cause of Christ. They begin this moral renovation by first " making the tree good;" that is by renewing the heart; giving a new and right direction to the affections and volitions of the mind, and subduing all the powers of the soul to " the obedience of Christ.” They make the glory of God paramount in the design and

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