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of Adam introduced nothing into human nature which can properly be called a principle. But it remains to be considered, whether those depraved propensities, which are the main springs of fallen man's activity all over the world, are properly called principia or principles. Pride, in all its varied modifications, comprising the desire of dominion over other men, and of eclipsing them in every way in the race of honour; love of worldly property, or what can be purchased with it, or the consequence which it confers; love of animal indulgence and dissipated pleasure; and the malignant passions; constitute some of the most powerful of these propensities which every where continually stimulate fallen man to exertion. Now, in this respect, it must be of great importance to distinguish, if we can, between what God made man, when he pronounced him very good," and what the fall has occasioned: for, in this respect alone, he needs to "be born "again," and "new created unto holiness:" the latter, exclusively, is "the flesh," which must be "crucified with its affections and lusts." In one sense, indeed, it may safely be admitted that the principles, from which all the corrupt propensities have arisen, were implanted by the Creator. He formed man desirous of honour, pleasure, and riches; "the honour which cometh from God "only:" "the pleasures which are at his right "hand for evermore:" the riches of "an inheri
tance incorruptible, undefiled, and unfading in "heaven." Nay, he formed him capable of abhorring, and expressing abhorrence of, that which is evil.
But man, by the fall, having lost his happiness in God, and with it his capacity and relish for that holy felicity, turned to the creatures and to himself to find satisfaction. He "forsook the "Fountain of living waters, to hew out broken cisterns, which could hold no water:" and his love of honour, and pleasure, and possessions, with his capacity for hating and expressing hatred of evil, were diverted into wrong channels, and perverted into depraved propensities and hankerings after the several objects of his idolatrous affections: nor do I see any reason whatever for supposing EMULATION, as it now exists in fallen man, to be less diverted from its proper channel, or less corrupted and perverted, than the other principles of our fallen nature.
Man seeking happiness, not from God, but from the creatures, found the lawful and moderate possession and enjoyment of them insufficient; and this pushed him on to unlawful and excessive graspings and indulgence. The supposed good which all sought, being too scanty for all, men, as rivals for the same object, stood in each other's way, and interfered with each other; and hence came wars and fightings among them." In short, this apostacy from God and idolatrous love of the creature might easily be shewn to be the original source of all the crimes which have, in every age and nation, filled and desolated the earth and, without doubt, emulation of surpassing and obtaining eminence above others, has done its full share of the mischief. Probably it may be said with truth, that covetousness, and licentiousness, and malignant passions, have
slain their thousands, but EMULATION ITS TEN THOUSANDS."
God made man desirous of real, not comparative, excellence, of his approbation, and of the pure and immense honour conferred by it, and not of the honour conferred by his fellow creatures, as distinct from "the honour which "cometh from God only;" much less of that honour which cometh from man, on account of surpassing others in things of doubtful or inferior value; or such as "are abomination in the sight " of God." The perversion of this principle, and its diversion from God to the creatures, gave rise to all the varieties of pride, ambition, arrogance, envy, and the love of power to domineer and act as lords over others.
It may readily be conceived that holy angels contemplate, and even emulate, the holy excellence of God; and desire and delight in his approbation; and that they emulate the endowments which are superior to their own, with admiration and love but can we, for a moment, suppose them capable of the emulation of surpassing and outshining other angels, whom God formed superior to them? or of any emulation which would introduce self-gratulation and glorying over their fellows: This can scarcely, in imagination, be separated from the uneasiness of him who is thus surpassed and gloried over, and a regret nearly allied to envy; or from arrogance and contempt in him that thus excelleth. Probably an emulation somewhat of this kind, a desire of distinction above others, was the beginning of Satan's fall. "He kept not his first estate;" but,
aspiring at something beyond it, he fell under condemnation: and it certainly was part of his temptation to our first parents, when he said, "Ye shall be as gods." Had not man sinned, the desire of holy excellence and of the manifested approbation of God; together with a disposition to love, and imitate, and emulate the excellency of parents, seniors, and those whom there was neither the desire or expectation of surpassing, would have produced the same effects on earth, as these principles do among the blessed inhabitants of heaven, where all is contentment, peace, and love: but we cannot well conceive, among perfectly sinless creatures, any of those competitions for preeminence, distinction, and renown, which now interrupt mutual love and harmony, and produce gloryings, murmurs, and discontent, even when exercised about things truly valuable. I apprehend that they who observe what passes at our universities, after the academical honours have been conferred in various proportions, will perceive this both among the successful and the unsuccessful candidates; not to mention elections to the senate, and the attainment, by some, of the high stations which are sought by many. Now, if what has been described as existing among holy angels, and as what might exist among men on earth, still retaining the holy image of the Creator, and having his law of love perfectly written in their hearts, be called emulation, I would not blame either the thing or the name; but then let it be carefully distinguished from every perversion of the same original principle; even from that, which is called an honest
' emulation,' but is by no means, in general, a holy emulation: "for the things,, which are . highly esteemed among men, are abomination " in the sight of God."1
The apostle does not exclude even the idea of ambition, from his vocabulary, though it does not appear in our version. "Being ambitious " (Φιλολιμέμενον) "to preach the gospel where Christ "was not named." Thus he receded, as it were, in his ambition, from the field of competition, as seeking "the honour which cometh from God
only."-" We are ambitious" (piñoμμeña) “that, "whether present or absent, we may be accepted "of Him."—" Be ambitious" (piñotiμčiai) “to be "quiet, and to mind your own business."2
The word emulation occurs twice in our version: "That I may provoke them to emulation " пapasyλwow." The works of the flesh are ..... "emulations," &c. Zñños, and its derivatives, frequently occur, bearing a good or a bad sense, in the apostolical epistles; for the word merely implies a fervour of mind, of whatever sort, or about whatever object. Thus the apostle says, "Ye covet earnestly the best gifts," (re,)" but
yet shew I you a more excellent way." It is evident that the apostle regarded the coveting or emulation of the Corinthians, in respect of spiritual gifts, and their desire of excelling and surpassing others in the exercise of them, as very childish,, and as greatly interfering with that "love which envieth not," (7;) which constituted that more excellent way which he shewed
Luke xvi. 15.
'Rom. xv. 20; 2 Cor. v. 9; 1 Thess. iv. 11.