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THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS. Vol. VI. No. 18. 8vo.
pp. 158. New Haven : Day & Fitch. November, 1848. In our July Number we sketched the history of this useful publication. The present number of the work contains articles upon the following subjects. Explanations and Illustrations of the plan of the Smithsonian Institution, by Prof. Joseph Henry. On a new empirical Formula for ascertaining the Tension of Vapor ot Water at any Temperature, by J. H. Alexander, Esq. Considerations on the Divisibility of Magnitude, by Alexander Mac Whorter. Researches on Salts, by C. Gerhardt. Observations on Rammelsberg's Analysis of the Juvenas Meteoric Stone and on the Conclusion of Fischer's Examination of the Braunau Meteoric Iron, by Charles Upham Shepard, M. D. Contributions to the Mycology of North America, by M. A. Curtiss. Geology of South Alabama, by C. 8. Hale. On the Oxydation of Uric Acid by means of Potassa and Ferrid-cyanid of Potassium, by Adolph Schlieper. New Mexico and California. Notice of the Meeting of the American Association for the Promotion of Science at Philadelphia, Sept. 1848. Report of Meteorites, by Charles U. Shepard, M. D.
The November number also contains fifty pages of Scientific Intelligence; on Chemistry, Physics, Mineralogy, Geology, Zoology, Astronomy, Miscellaneous Intelligence, Bibliography, and list of Books.
The “ Journal of Science and Arts” is a thoroughly learned work. The amount of labor requisite to getting out one such number as that before us is amazing. Some of the papers are too purely scientific for ordinary readers ; but a large portion of the articles are within the range of any person of ordinary intelligence. There is, we think, in the public miod, a popular mistake as to the practical value of such labors as those to which Prof. Silliman and his associates are devoting their lives. They are among the greatest benefactors of mankind. In the experiments of the Laboratory they are evolving principles and discovering powers, which are facilitating the commerce of Nations; are bringing the most distant points of our continent within speaking distance; and are recovering to the husbandman large surfaces on the earth once thought hopelessly unfruitful.
We need not urge upon our readers the importance of keeping pace with the advance of Modern Science. Three ADDRESSES at the Commencements of St. James' College, Maryland.
By John B. KERFOOT, A. M., Rector.
These Addresses, forming a pamphlet of fifty-two pages, are dedicated to the Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg, whose name is associated with the earliest efforts in our Church to establish a system of Christian Education. The first Address gives the history of the College; the second, is a defense of " definite and authoritative teaching in the religious education of the young;" and the third is a well written dissertation on " reality of character.”
We have no confidence in any system of education which is not thoroughly Christian; because no other is adapted to the necessities of human nature. We are glad to see this position so ably vindicated, and the systein so thoroughly carried out at St. James' College. It is the bounden duty, as it is the true policy of the Church, to make Christianity the basis of instruction in her Colleges; and then, to render these Institutions in every respect adequate to the rapidly growing wants of the Church and the country. The noble liberality, the alınost prodigality, with which at least one University in our country is endowed, and which is iimbued with a faith unsound and dangerous, awakens feelings of humiliation, as we are forced to see our own feeble Colleges languishing for want of a mere pittance of that abundant wealth which
has entrusted to the members of our Communion. There are single individuals, who can lay broad and deep the foundations of an Oxford or a Cambridge, an imperishable monument of their beneficence, and a fuuntain of infinile blessings to the immense Empire growing up around us. “ EvidENCES OF NATURAL AND REVEALED RELIGION, ALSO THE DOCTRINES
AND I.STITUTIONS OF CHRISTIANITY," &c.
The reception from the publisher of a new and neatly bound copy of this work, furnishes us an occasion to notice an important objection to the method of argument there employed, preferred by the learned Editor of the True Catholic.
We certainly must express some surprise at the ground of his objection; not only because several of the ablest writers in the Church, in speaking of this book, differ entirely from him ; but for other reasons, which wi.l appear in the course of our remarks.
The position of the True Catholic is, that to teach to the young even the Evidences of Revealed Religion," is of very doubtful expediency;" while to teach them the Evidences of Natural Religion, is positively“ mischievous. The Editor denies “a capacity in the human mind” to appreciate the Evidences of Natural Religion. Yet St. Paul affirms that capacity: he says, “ the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead.” The whole argument of the Apostle is based upon the fact of this capacity of the human mind without the knowledge of a Revelation.
The Editor objects, also, that the light of Nature is raised to the rank of an antagonist to the light of Revelation. We do not feel the force of this objection. If the “light of Nature” makes nothing known to us, then it is not “ light.” If it does make any thing known, though imperfectly, yet to make that imperfection an antagonism, is to forge an argument even against Revelation. For doubtless, the mysteries of Nature, solved by Revelation, are fewer than the mysteries of Revelation, to be solved, when Faith shall be lost in Sight.
But what is the safeguard of our faith” which the Editor would throw around the young? Is it the safeguard of an “infallible authority ?" This we could undersiand; and in respect to a certain period of childhood, and a certain class of Truths, we would not demur. But no. The weapon which is to contend with infidelity is “the logic of Love !" Love? Love of what ? or of whom? Love of a Being who has filled the earth with pri ofs of his wisdom and goodness ? No. To gather up these proofs, we are told is “mischievous.” Love of that Savior whose plan of redemption is sketched on the pages of Prophecy? No. To study these evidences is of very “ doubtful expediency." But what shall we do with the positive command of our Blessed Savior, “Search the Scriptures ?” A command unlimited in its application—a command which embraced the “ Evidences of Christianity" as its very object-for “ they are they which testify of me.” We leave it with the ingenious Editor to relieve his argument from such an embarrassment. And what then? Is “ignorance the mother of devotion ?" We can not tell. Of course, that immortal volume of Bishop Butler, the “ Analogy of Natural and Revealed Religion,” must be a very "mischievous". work; a work which has received the grateful acknowledgment of some of the noblest minds on earth, for having convinced them of the truth of Christianity; which has again and again silenced the infidel clamor that Christianity shrinks from examination. Of course, also, those Christian scholars among us, who are now rescuing Egyptian Chronology, and the advance of VOL. I.-NO. IV.
modern science, from infidel grasp, are upon labors of doubtful value; and in-tead of contesting their ground inch by inch, as they are triumphantly doing, they had beiter at once surrender the trophies of modern science to the foes of the Cross. If we understand the reasoning of the True Catholic, it leads immediately and inevitably to this result; bidding us cultivate a piety which lacks intelligence, and which has, and can have, no hołd upon the strongest powers of our intellectual nature.
We freely admit that the secret of infidelity is generally not the want of light. It is in the perverted state of the affections, or to speak more correctly, of the will. Faith, like every good gift, is from above. Yet God is pleased to sanctify men, not through ignorance, but through the Truth; whether that Truth is written in the book of Nature, or of Providence, or of Revelation. That tribute of a pious heart, must, in God's sight, have highest value, which most appreciates the perfections of His character. Hence we say, let us teach to the young all we can of God; and even if we do not subdue the obduracy of intide ity, we can guard the minds of the thoughtsul against its
approach, and gather every whı re incentives to love and obedience. THE AGED CHRISTIAN'S COMPANION; containing a variety of Essays, adapted
to the improvement, consolation, and encouragement, of persons advanced in life. By the Rev. John STANFORD, D. D. With a Memoir of the Author by the Rev. GEORGE UPFOLD, D. D., Rector of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. Second Edition. New York: Stanford & Swords, 1849. 8vo. pp. 436.
More than a merely passing tribute is due to the memory of this most excellent man. Though a member of the Church of England by Baptism, yet owing to defective education, and early influences, he formed a connection with ihe Baptist denomination, in which he became a preacher, and to which he was attached to the end of his life. At the age of thirty-two he came to this country, had a pastoral charge in Providence, R. I., for a short time, and then removed to the City of New York, where he remained until his death. For nearly thirty-six years he was employed as a teacher of youth, for which profession he possessed rare qualifications. In 1812 he was appointed Chaplain of the State Prison, and in 1813, Chaplain of the Alms House and City Hospital, and in these employments he continued until at the age of 80 years he calmly fell asleep in the LORD. He was intimately connected with the origin of nearly all ihe institutions in the city for the reclaiming of the vicious and the relief of the indigent, in which sphere of labor it has been said that “his place has never since been filled, and perhaps never will.” In the midst of such self-denying duties he labored with eminent diligence and suc
If he did not dazzle a fastidious and fashionable congregation with splendid tropes, suffering the heart to remain untouched, yet, like his Master, he was the guest of publicans and sinners, and having been baptized with the baptism of Christ, doubtless will receive a bright crown at last. The papers which form the larger portion of this volume, are admirably fitted, both in subject and style, to engage the attention of those for whom it was especially designed; while the large type and fair paper furnished by the publishers present a most grateful page to the eye dimmed with age.
The biographical sketch by Dr. Úpfold, who was intimately associated with him for many years, is written with propriety and taste. HIERARCHICAL DESPOTISM. In four Lectures. New York: Saxton & Miles.
12mo. pp. 310. New Haven : T. H. Pease.
This volume has been placed in our hands, and we have promised to notice it; but it is a nauseous dose. Its author is the Rev. Geo, B. Cheever,
D. D., who boasts, we believe, a somewhat vapory reputation. At a courteous and valorous knight, we might, perhaps, be willing to tilt our lance; but we must bey to decline the contest altogether, and at once give an open field to one who enters the tournament with such a blade as this. He says “ Fishing in the troubled waters of prelatical antiquity, the school of the famous Apostolical Succession have drawn up the great oyster of diocesan episcopacy.”. And again, he says, in language still more graphic, “ Fol ow it still onward, and sometimes it flows like ihe river of Letle, through hell. It leads you where, as in a Southern swamp, the trees grow in dripping festoons of impurity; where it is dark at noonday; where, below you, the black backs of alligators look like the trunks of trees for you to step upon."
This “fishing for oysters," and "then stepping on the black backs of alligators,” mistaking them for the trunks of trees, may do for Dr. Cheever, but we shall at once bow ourselves out of the lists. The ANALOGY OF Truth, in four Diseourses, together with a Discourse on
the Connection between Practical Piety and Sound Doctrine. By the Rev. Silas Totten, D. D., late President of Trinity College. New York : Stanford & Swords, 1818. 12mo. pp. 108.
The design of this volume, as we learn from its preface, and its scope, is to vindicate the right and to guard the exercise of private judgment "The author has written with great freedom, as might be anticipated, in a series of popular discourses; and yet we find occasionally a passage, which, if we understand them, we regret to see. The following, apparently recognizes a theory of Church membership not usually regarded as in accordance with our standards.
“ By natural generation and birth, men come within the pale of civil government, and continue there, while they retain the characteristics of a rational and moral nature : by spiritual generation and baptism, they become members of the Church of Christ, and continue such while they retain the characteristics of a renewed and holy nature.” p. 76.
Membership in the Church of Christ is not lost, even under the contingency that these latter characteristics are not retained. Our SAVIOR teaches that the net drawn to the shore may contain both the good and the bad ; that the vine has branches both fruitful and unfruitful; that the wheat and the tares both grow in the one same field. So it has been, from the days of Judas Iscariot, so it is now, and will be to the end of time, when the Lord of the Kingdom shall come to sever the wicked from among the good.
The author's views of Church authority, as presented in the several discourses, we do not clearly understand; but we have no room now to adduce sentences which do not seem to us consonant with each other ; some of which apparently recognize the extreme doctrine of infallibility, while others scarcely allow the prerogative of authority at all. At a time when the prevailing tendency is to set at naught the authority of the Church, a clear delineation of the dividing line between the due exercise of private judgment and the legitimate province of Church Authority, would be a seasonable and serviceable work.
We ought to add that the work is written with ability, and mostly in a vig. orous style. Kirwan UNMASKED. A Review of Kirwan, in Six Letters, addressed to the
Rev. Nicholas Murray, D D., of Elizabet wn, N. J. By the Rt. Rev.
tory attached to it, worthy of notice. Kirwan, it appears, had been addressing a series of letters to Bi-hop Hughes, through a Presbyterian paper, in which he attacks some of the corruptions of the Rornish Church with decided point and effect. His letters have had a surprising popularitv, and are now haviny a large foreign circulation. Bishop Hughes thought it necessary to reply to his anonymous correspondent, and hence these -- six letters." We think he had better have said more, or said less. In genuine Irish wit, he is no match for Kirwan; and as for argument, his book is merely a “ much ado about nothing." We regret an antagonist of so much power as Kirwan, did not p!aut himself on the firm basis of the Aposto'ic Faith and Practice; but then, his mi-siles would have demolished his own Pre-byterianism, as well as the strong holds of Romanism. As it is, the controversy is a curious phenomenon of the times, from which apparently little good will result. Kirwan, like most writers of his class, does not clearly distinguish between what is Rumish and what is Catholic.
A Fable FOR Critics, or a Glance at a few of our Literary Progenies, &c.
New York: G. P. Putnam, 12mo. pp. 78. 1848.
This is a labored attempt at keen and caustic satire. The cynic, having discharged his blunderbu-s at several gentlemen more or less distinguished in the cause of letters, snugly conceals hinself in the tub of Diogenes, awaiting the results. We think he may safely dismiss all apprehensions of dan. ger, as no body will wish to hurt him. INFIDELITY AND BENEVOLENT Societies. A Discussion between the Rev.
William Watson and the Editor of the Waterbury American. With an Appendix. Waterbury: E. B. Cooke & Co. 8vo. pp. 64. 1848.
This pamphlet contains many matters of a personal or local nature, growing out of the controversy, of no general interest. The discussion itself, involves principle- of the greatest importance; and is conducted with very decided ability on both sides. • Much as such agitations are to be deprecated on account of their temporary evils, they will yet do great good, in leading reflecting minds to examine more closely into the remote causes, and the ultimate tendencies of the points at issue. The True CATHOLIC.
The November number of this able monthly contains an excellent article on " the Romish Ordinal,” by the Editor. The Romish objection to the Eng. lish Succession, on the ground of the alleged insufficiency of the Form of Edward VI, is triumphanily met; and is thrown back upon the Romanists themselves with a pertinency and force which they must feel.
The December number contains an elaborate Review of Dr. Totten's “ Analogy of Truth.” The Editor's remark, that“ understatement of unpopular truth appears to be the besetting sin of recent Connecticut Theology, is ceriainly amusing. The theology of Connecticut is not “ Connecticut theology E-chewing all provincialisms in religion, doctrinal and practical, Connecticut is, perhaps, in the judgment of some, quite behind the age; (a grievous charge in this nineteenth century :) but she allows no inan to call in question, either her attachment to the True Faith, or her zeal in defending it. THE LITERARY WORLD.
Since the issue of our last number, this able weekly has passed into the hands of new conductors ; Mr. Hoffinan having retired from the Editorial chair, which has been resumed by Mr. Duyckinck, the original projector of