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and were freely speaking against and opposing it. This previous separation overthrows entirely the pretense of a new Creed as the cause.

In October, 1845, I was informed, from many sources, that one of the mis. sionaries had recently preached against remaining in the Armenian Church, and in consequence ten of their followers, who were not prepared for that doctrine, left them. This was the first open preaching of schism of which I know.

Immediately after this, the Patriarch requested one of the returned individuals to communicate to the missionaries from him, that their present proceedings were in violation of all their former professions.

The missionaries became more abusive and radical, sending their publications in parcels to the houses of respectable Armenians, leaving pamphlets at the doors, and taking other measures to force the Patriarch to an excom• munication.

The Priest Vertanes, the leader of the party, openly renounced the Priesthood about this time, and went about where he could find hearers in the city, reviling the Church and his own ministerial office.

Dec. 7, 1815, one of your party, in passing an Armenian Church, crying aloud, called it an “ idol-temple.” He was struck down by a rough Armenian who happened to meet him at the moment. Occasional acts of this kind showed the tendency of things on both sides. Some of you seemed determined to provoke deeds of violence for the purpose of bringing matters to an issue.

The Patriarch was forced to attend to these things. He called the disaffected one by one. He reasoned with them, expostulated with them, and offered them terms such as the missionaries had always professed to be satisfied with. One of the missionaries admitted to a Presbyter connected with my Mission the fact of these concessions. Many, the great majority, returned to their allegiance. Others were refractory, obstinate, and some of them personally abusive.

The Patriarch still delayed until the evil became monstrous, and the Church generally cried out against the factious proceedings of the Seceders. The clergy complained of the violence and confusion in their parishes. He then, in the latter part of January, 1846, having, as he believed, exhausted all pacific measures, excommunicated, first, Priest Vertanes ; afterwards the others who remained obdurate.

Immediately the missionaries, seeing the disturbances that must arise, professed that the schism was against their desire, they were content that their followers should remain in the Armenian Church, that they were driven out by the Patriarch. You made the same professions. I have quoted both yours and theirs. At last the “ new Creed” was laid hold of as justifying your resistance, and your defense made to rest upon that.

This is a simple bistory of the events as they occurred.

I disapproved your course in this matter, because it was a violation of pledges, some of them given to myself; because it was inconsistent with a desire to do good to the Armenian Nation generally, which the missionaries professed ; because it was a mere attempt to establish a congregational sect, too visible from the first.

4. The peculiar doctrines of the Congregationalists were openly declared by you before the schism. This was the main cause of offense to the Armenians.

5. As soon as you were formally excluded from the Armenian Church, you proceeded to do publicly what you had long been doing privately, viz. : to form yourselves into a Congregational sect, in exact imitation of the Pu8. This is the whole schism, and the whole cause of it, from beginning to end. Not one man who has not embraced Congregational views, has been excommunicated, or put himself into a position to be so. Those who have remained are as “ Evangelical" as yourselves can claim to be, but they are Churchmen; and not one who was a Churchman—whatever was bis opinion of the present state of the Church, whatever was his religious theorycould be brought to secede. It is purely, simply Congregationalism, and nothing else, which has separated you from the Armenian Church. It is purely, simply Congregationalism, forced upon institutions, civil and religious, quite unfit for it, which has produced all the disturbances of which we have heard, so far as reports of them have any foundation in truth. Without this, the missionaries would have had no occasion to desire a separation,

ritan seceders from the Church of England, and of their descendants in America, whose missionaries have taught you; thus showing what was the precise nature of the views and proceedings which had caused the interposition of the Armenian Patriarch.

6. In this new sect, you discarded every thing belonging to your ancient Church. The Creed of Nice you ceased to use. The ministry of your Church was so completely subdued that the single Priest among you was put into the congregatiou, while a young man, lately a schoolmaster, was elected by yourselves and placed over you as “ Pastor.” The Feasts of the Church were reduced to the “Sabbath.” The Fasts of the Church were uiterly aboli-hed.

The Liturgy of the Church was uiterly discarded, and extemporaneous prayers substituted in its stead. The organization, rules, “confession of faith,” and “covenant” of the Congregationalists, were adopted, thus making to yourselves a “ new Creed.” You made it a standing rule, that if a Bishop should join you he should be treated as a layınan. Your new “ Pastor” was examined by the missionaries, who testify that" his views on Church Government, the Sacraments, and the duties of the Pastoral Office," were satisfactory to them. He was ordained by them after the fashion of the Congregationalists. In fine, “every thing," say the missionaries, “ was arranged by our Puritan fathers."

7. To all this I make no objections; yon were bound to appear as you were. But there are two or three things that follow from it. First, calling yourselves merely “ Protestant” and “ Evangelical,” is a concealınent of your real character. You are bound to proclain yourselves under your specific denominational character of “ Congregationalists."* But this you have carefully avoided in every thing intended to produce an interest in your behalf in England and among Churchmen in Ainerica. Secondly, being Congregationalists immediately after your excommunication, and forming at once å Congregational Sect, you were evidently such before your excommunication; and all the troubles which have arisen, have flowed from this single

You were Congregationalists in the Armenian Church; separated from it by your own act before the act of the Church. Your excommunication merely brought you out in the character which you had long maintained.


• A member of your sect has been to me while I have been transcribing this letter, to effect a separation from you, on the ground that he finds himself cut off from all usefulness by your entire rejection by the Armenian Nation. In the course of our conversation, I asked him, how the denomination is called “Protestant ?” He replied, “ It is the title we have assumed." “ But among yourselves—to what denomination of Protestants do you belong ?” “Oh," he said " we are Congregationalisis among ourselves; but that is only among ourselves our public title is Protestant.”

no temptation to affect it. It is a slander upon the gospel to call it " Evangelical;" it is mere delusion to call it " Protestant." It is simply sectarian.

9. I have now done. If I have written harshly, I bey you to forgive me: it was not so intended ; the harm can only be my own. I have desired solely to tell you the whole truth. If I have told it unkindly, I have acted inconsistently with that love which rejoiceth in the truth. My desire has been to avoid all bi:terness of expression, all denunciation in language. My aim has been to speak the truth in love. I have no unkind feelings towards you; I have no desire to do you ill. I wish that I could see eye to eye with you, that I could convince you that the path which you have chosen does not lead to religious security in doctrine, nor to primitive purity in practice. But failing in this, I leave you in the hands of Him who will judge aright, and who can make the most untoward events to minister to His glory, and the salvation of souls.

10. I can have no farther controversy upon these subjects. I do not intend to make war upon you as Congregationalists. My relation to you will be the same here, as is that of our Bishops at home to Congregationalists there. The Church's mission will pursue its own way in Turkey, as does the Church in America the path of her allotted duty. There may be conflicts here, as there; but my general poliey will be to promote, by direct action on the Eastern Churches, the work to which I am sent, instead of turning aside to contend with others whose labors I do not approve, so far as they aim at schism. I am your well-wisher and humble servant,


Bishop of the Am. Epis. Church in Turkey. Constantinople, June 15, 1818.

P. S. I have seen in a newspaper, an anonymous communication, prosessing to give testimonials from certain members of yonr sect, in opposition to the first part of this letter. They purport to be proofs that the Patriarch did require subscription to a new and erroneous Creed, and the signatures are attached as certifying thereto. But when we come to examine them, they prove to be quite aside from the point.

1. Two are given as dated at Constantinople, (and I can have to do with no others.) These two contain 12 signatures: Not one of the signatures is the name of a person generally known as belonging to your sect. Not one of them is the name of any of the leaders or founders of your sect. They are all unknown to me, though the names of your leaders are familiar to my ears. Some of them are the signatures of females. Two of the names are merely Christian names, with no surnames attached. I have inquired among the Armenians for individuals bearing these 12 names, but can find none.

I doubt whether such individuals exist. At all events, the names are those of persons known and spoken of, out of yourselves, as belonging to your sect, as any one may see by comparing the signatures with those of documents issuing from, and signed by your principal members.

2. When we come to look at the import of the testimonials themselves, neither of them is found to testify to the point in hand. Both testify that the Patriarch required the individuals signing, to subscribe to the new Creed or some other document. This is certainly a safe position, especially when taken by those whose own existence requires a voucher, and introduced into the world by no one knows who. The other document was probably the one, and that was the list of names to which I have alluded. Otherwise, why not testily to the point in hand ?-why do not your leading and known members testify? This mode of testifying is itself a proof of the truth of what I have advanced.

H. S. VOL. I-NO. IV.




CHURCII OF IRELAND. Died, at Belfast, on Thursday evening, Nov. 2d, 1848, the Rt. Rev. Richard Mant, D. D., Bishop of Down, Conner, and Dromore. His Bampton Lectures, Notes on the Bible, (in connection with the late Dr. D'Oyley,) and his History of the Irish Church are well known. We have long considered his Commentary, in the American Edition, among the very best for family

Bishop Mant was born at Southampton, where his father was Rector of All Saints, on the 12th of February, 1776, and he was consequently in his seventy-third year. He was consecrated Bishop of Killaloe and Kilfenora in 1820, and translated to the see of Down and Conner in the spring of 1823, so that he has presided over this Diocese for about twenty-five years and a half. The care of the Diocese of Dromore also devolved upon him in 1842, under the provisions of the Church Temporalities Act, on the death of the last Bishop, Dr. Saurin. The deceased prelate had lately completed his seventh general confirmation of his extensive Diocese. He was taken ill on Friday, and after a short rally on Monday, the disease, typhoid erysipelas, gained ground so rapidly that his lordship's constitution gave way, and he sank most calmly and peacefully, retaining his intellectual faculties till within a few hours of his dissolution.

SCOTTISH CHURCH. SEE OF GLASGOW AND GALLOWAY.–At a Diocesan Synod, held in St. Andrew's Church, Glasgow, on the 30th July, the assembled Presbyters elected as their Bishop the Rev. W. J. Trower, M. A., late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, Rector of Wilson, Sussex, and Rural Dean, to fill the station of the lamented Bishop Russell.

Mr. Trower has the reputation of being a ripe scholar, a sound divine, a man of a loving, gentle, patient, moderate spirit, yet one who will be firm even to the death for any great principle; a true English Churchman-a man, in these days of division, eminently free from party spirit, and a humble servant of our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity and truth. His consecration took place on September 21st, 1848, in St. Mary's Chapel, Glasgow. There were present, the Rt. Rev. W. Skinner, D. D., of Aberdeen, the Primus; the Rt. Rev. C. H. Terrot, D.D., of Edinburgh; the Rt. Rev. Alexander Irvin, D. D., of Argyle, and the Isles; and the Rt. Rev. A. P. Forbes, D. C. L., of Brechin ; with about thirty of the clergy of the Scotch Episcopal Church, the Church of England, and the Pro'estant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. The Very Rev. W. Wilson, M. A., Dean of the Diocese, read the service. The Rev. Mr. Eden, of the Church of England, preached the sermon from St. John xxi, 15, 16.

The Episcopal see of Glasgow, anciently called Cumbria, was founded by St. Kentigern, (who founded also the see of St. Asaph, in Wales.) towards the end of the sixth century, and was restored by St David, when Prince of Cumbria, about the year 1116, It extended into England as far as the Rere Cross, on Stanmore, until the creation of the see of Carlisle, in the year 1133, when the English portion of its territory was assigned for that Diocese. The see of Galloway or Whithern owes its origin to St. Ninian, in the beginning of the fifth century; and the province having long been tributary in civil things to the Kings of Northumbria, its Bishops continued to be suifragans of the Archbishop of York, until the fourteenth, or perhaps even the


fifteenth century. York claimed also the suffraganship of Glasgow, but the claim was resisted, on the ground chiefly that the Bishop of the British kingdom of Cumbria was subject to no metropolitan. In the end of the fifteenth century, Glasgow itself was erected into a Metropolitan See, with the same privileges, immunities, and dignities as were enjoyed by the Archiepiscopal see of York; and received for its suffragans the sees of Dunkeld, Dunblane, Galloway, and Argyl, and subsequently that of the Isles, which, together with the see of Man, was long a suffragan of the Metropolitan Church of Drontheim. Among those who have been Bishops of Glasgow, since the Reformation, was the meek and pious Leighton. "It was from a Bishop of Galloway, Dr. Sydserf, that Archbishop Tillotson received Holy Orders.

The new Bishop of Glasgow and Galloway has taken up his residence at Glasgow.

The one hundred and forty-seventh Annual Report of this Society has just been published, from which we make the following extracts.

Owing to the scarcity so lamentably prevalent throughout Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland, and great straitness and distress in this country, the year 1847 was remarkable for an emigration beyond all former precedent. The total number of persons who went out from the United Kingdom was 258,270 ; of these 142,154 went to the United States, and all the rest, that is, one hundred and sixteen thousand, to the Colonies of Great Britain. Though it is hardly to be expected that so large an emigration will soon again occur, yet it is calculated that no fewer than 130,000 emigrants will have left our shores before the close of the present year. How to make adequate provision for the spiritual care and instruction of such vast multitudes, both during their voyage and on their arrival and settlement in their several Colonies, becomes a question of monentous importance. Every county, and almost every Parish, is sending forth a portion of its redundant population, to seek abroad the employment and compensation for their labor which they are unable to obtain at home.

It is no uncommon thing for the settler, who had been born and brought up within sight of his own village steeple, to find himself ten, twenty, or even thirty miles from the nearest Chapel or Missionary Station in Canada. So situated, he is fortunate if he has the opportunity, through the visits of an Itinerant Missionary, of attending public worship once in a month or six weeks. Every one must see the inevitable consequences of such a destitution of the means of grace; and fearful as they are to the parents themselves, they are yet more so to the children, who are in danger of growing up without the knowledge and fear of God. But if the case of our North American Colonies be thus deplorable, the state of things is even worse in the more remote districts of Australia, to many of which not even an Itinerant Missionary has ever been able to penetrate. In short, thousands upon thousands of the poor of this country are spreading themselves with unprecedented rapidity over every part of the British Colonies, and laying the foundation of large communities without religion or education. If this course of things be allowed to continue, the result in a generation or two must be, that the descendants of Christian settlers will become heathens and unbelievers; and such consequences can only be prevented by timely exertions on the part of the mother country.

The extra burden thus thrown upon the Society by the spiritual necessities of at least 50,000 yearly emigrants, makes its claim upon every class of people in this country irresistibly strong. For the adequate pastoral superintendence of that number alone, supposing one half only to be members of our

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