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From this they had been made not only the servants, but the sons of God; and yet after this went, in some measure, back again ; not indeed to the condition of servants to false gods, but to an inferior state with respect to the true one.*

10. The Jewish festivals and other observances depended upon the seasons of the year.t

12. The last clause is not noticed by the Ethiopic translator. Mr. Wakefield conjectures it should be, as do me not so much injury, that is, as to make all my pains fruitless ;" the alteration from the present reading being slight.

16. The conduct of the Galatian Christians with respect to Paul, was the more extraordinary and reprehensible, from the consideration of the uncommon affection they had entertained for him, when they would have cheerfully made any sacrifice for his sake; whereas, though he continued the same with respect to them, and retained the same affection for them, they were become alienated from him.

17. The apostle intimates that the new teachers courted their favour, and wished to exclude him from it, to answer their own ends, not from any love they had for them.

18. If your former zeal and affection for me was reasonable, it ought to continue the same, and my presence with you, or my absence from you, ought not to make any difference with respect to it.

PARAPHRASE. Allow me to make use of another comparison, to shew you how inferior are those who are under the law to those who adhere to the pure gospel. I have said that the law may be considered in the light of a schoolmaster, or tutor, to prepare men for the gospel. Now, the situation of a young person under the care of a tutor, or governor, is not very different from that of a servant, though he be heir to the estate. Therefore before the promulgation of the gospel through Christ, we were only to be considered as children, learning elementary principles, and in subjection to a master. But in due time it pleased God, by means of Jesus, who was a man born under the law, to deliver us from that state of bondage, in order, as it were, to complete our education, • See Loche; Lardner, (Serm. on Gal. iii. 13, 14,) X. p. 514.

+ “ The Arabic and Coptic versions properly connect the 9th and 10th verses." Wakefield.

Rather odious, according to Le Clerc, who adds, devient pas ennemi, en disant la vérité, mais on devient odieux.”

s See Locke; N. T. 1729.

| Your enemy.

« On ne

and at the same time raise us to all the privileges of sons who are emancipated from their tutors, and give us a higher rank in the family. And that we are the sons of God, is evident from our behaving like sons, in addressing ourselves to God as our Father. We now, therefore, as Christians, are no more to be considered as servants, but as sons; and if sons, as heirs of God, destined to a noble inheritance along with Christ himself.

Having, therefore, attained to this freedom of sons in the family, why should you wish to return to a state of bondage, and, as it were, go to school again. Your superstitious observance of days and times, makes me fear that my labours among you have been to little purpose. Let me then intreat you to return to the principles which you received from me. Let us be one in sentiment and affection, in which I have not been deficient with respect to you. For I do not desire to have any advantage over you, but that in all respects we be as one. All that I desire is for your honour and advantage, not my own. For your present dispositions and conduct are no injury or discredit to me, but only to yourselves.

Your affection for me when I first came among you was, indeed, exceedingly great, notwithstanding such infirmities as might have prejudiced you against me. Nevertheless, such was your sense of the value of my instructions, that if I had been an angel from heaven, you could not have received me with more respect; nor was there any sacrifice that you would not have made to me. You then thought yourselves happy that I came among you. But where is this attachment now? Are you alienated from me because I teach you what is true? Your present teachers express a great regard for you, but their object is only to lessen me in your esteem, and for their own advantage, to gain the place that I possessed in your affections. But if I ever was deserving of your regard, I still am so; and as much now that I am absent from you, as I was when I was present

with you.

The apostle, after expressing his extreme concern for the defection of the Galatians from the genuine principles of the gospel to those of the law, directs their attention to some things that they might learn from the books of the law, in which they might see, in a figure, the different conditions of those that were under the law and those under the gospel.

IV. 19. The apostle, having represented himself as the parent of these Galatians, here intimates that, being relapsed into another state, they have occasion for another birth, so imperfect were they become.*

22—25. There is so great boldness in the apostle's allegorizing of the history of Sarah and Hagar, that it cannot be supposed that he really thought that it was originally intended to be applied as he does it.t But he made choice of this portion of Scripture in order to express his own idea of the different states of the Judaizing Christians, and the Gentile converts, the former as in a state of bondage, and the latter as free ; so much so, that they might be considered as the children of Sarah, who was a free woman, and the others as those of Hagar, who was a slave. I

26. As the Jews were in possession of the earthly Jerusalem, he represented the Christians as possessed of another Jerusalem in heaven, and therefore superior to the former.

27. In the passage of Isaiah [liv. 1] here quoted, the prophet describes the great number of Jews who should inherit the promised land on their return to it after their present long dispersion ; but the apostle applies it to the greater number of Christian converts, especially from the Gentiles. S

29. In this the apostle refers to the vexation that was given to Sarah by Hagar, in consequence of which the latter was sent out of the family, while Sarah and her child remained in it.

PARAPHRASE. My Christian converts, give me leave to consider you as my children, and observe that you have departed so far from the principles which you have received from me, that you have occasion for a second birth. I have been wishing to be with you, and to address you in a manner that I have not hitherto done, from my anxiety about you.

As you

• See Le Clere; Le Cene, p. 617; Locke.

† See the Author, ou vers. 21-31, Theol. Repos. III. pp. 202, 203. “ S. Paul semble citer une explication allégoriqne déjà connue, dont il ne fait que tirer une conséquence. Philo Juif, qui a vécu du tems des Apôtres, est plein de semblables allégories, qui étoient en usage depuis long-tems parmi les Juifs. Autrement le raisonnement de S. Paul ne seroit pas concluant, contre ceux qui rejetteroient cette explication allégorique.” Le Clerc. See Jeffery's Review, pp. 272-278; Bouyer.

1 On “ the practice of allegorical interpretation, which the early converts to Christianity brought out of the Jewish, into the Christian Church, see Enfield, (Hist. Phil.) B. vi. Ch. ii. ad init. II. p. 272. § See Jeffery's Review, pp. 129, 130, 272_278. VOL. XIV.


wish to be under the law, I will give you a lesson from the book of the law. You have heard that Abraham had two sons, Ishmael and Isaac, the former by a slave, and the latter by a free woman. In the birth of the former there was nothing extraordinary, but the latter was by a miracle, in consequence of a particular promise of God for that purpose, and is therefore to be considered in a superior light. Now, of this history we may make an allegory, or an interpretation different from the literal one; and suppose these two sons to represent two covenants, the one delivered from Mount Sinai, the parties concerned in which, like Hagar, who was a slave, are in a state of bondage. For this Hagar may denote Mount Sinai in Arabia, and correspond to the present Jerusalem, which is in servitude, together with its inhabitants; whereas our mother is another Jerusalem, which is from above, and is free, together with its inhabitants. It is of this Jerusalem that the prophet Isaiah [liv. 1] may be supposed to say, “Rejoice, O barren, that barest not, break forth, and cry, thou that travaillest not; for she that was desolate has many more children than she that had a husband;" that is, the Gentile converts shall be more numerous than the Jews. Now we Gentile Christians (for I class myself with you) are represented by Isaac, and are therefore the children of the promise ; and as in the history, he who was born in the natural course of generation, or after the flesh, used to vex him that was born after the spirit, or in consequence of the promise, so it is now; the Judaizing Christians giving much disturbance to the Gentile converts. But what says the Scripture for our consolation ? Send away the slave and her son, for the son of the slave shall not be heir together with the son of the free woman. They who adhere to the law will be rejected, and the preference will be given to those who are emancipated from it; and we are not represented by the child of Hagar the slave, but by Isaac, the son of the free woman.

V. The apostle, exhorting the Galatian Christians to maintain their liberty, forewarns them that, in submitting to the yoke of the law, they in effect abandoned the gospel. He then laments that a few Judaizing teachers should have influenced so many of them; and as it had been reported that he himself had preached obedience to the law, to Gentile converts in other places, though not in Galatia, he denies the charge, and shews from his sufferings that it could not be true.

4. That is, you will make yourselves mere Jewish proselytes,* undervaluing the gospel, and the privileges of it. This, however, is to be understood of the Gentile Christians only. For the apostles themselves, being Jews, were under obligations to observe all the laws of Moses, and strictly did so, as did all the Jewish Christians after them; and certainly this apostle would not have said that they were no better for their profession of Christianity.

6. It is the excellence of Christianity, that it is adapted to all mankind, however they may differ with respect to their origin, forms of government, or their condition of any kind here. Whereas the institutions of Moses, though of divine appointment, respected the Jews only. Thus Peter said to Cornelius, [Acts x. 34, 35,] “ God is no respecter of persons, but in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.”

8. This, I, who converted you to the faith of Christ, did not teach you. It has been an enemy who has sowed tares in my absence.

9. These principles have been insinuated by a few persons, or perhaps a single person, though numbers have been infected by them.

11, It had probably been said that Paul, as he conformed to the law himself, had enjoined the observance of it on his Gentile converts in other places, though not in Galatia. This be denies.

12. That is, expelled from Christian churches. He did not wish them any greater evil;t and this only for the sake of others, who were liable to be influenced by them to their hurt.

PARAPHRASE. Being, as I have represented, in a state of freedom, as Christians, let me intreat you not to submit to a yoke of bondage, without considering the necessary consequence of it. If you, being Gentiles, become circumcised, like other Jewish converts, you bring yourselves under an obligation to conform to the whole law, and must, like the native Jews, expect justification from your observance of it, and not from that free grace which is preached in the gospel. We do not expect salvation from the law, but only from our faith in the gospel, and in obedience to it; a dis

* “ Voulant ètre justifiés par la Loi.” Le Cene.

+ " Ceux qui causent du desordre parmi vous devroient être retranchés, et ils le seront." Le Clerc. See Bowyer; Impr. Vers.'

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