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If any man of weak judgment do conceive that from the union of the body and mind, the sovereignty of the mind or its immortality should be doubted, let him be admonished, that an infant in the mother's womb, partakes of the accidents and symptoms of the mother, but, in due season, is separated from



FOR a tablet or picture of smaller volume, in my judgment the most excellent is that of Queen Elizabeth; a prince, that, if Plutarch were now alive to write lives by parallels, would trouble him, I think, for to find for her a parallel among women. This lady was endued with learning in her sex singular, and rare even amongst masculine princes; whether we speak of learning, of language, or of science modern or ancient, divinity or humanity; and unto the very last year of her life she accustomed to appoint set hours for reading: scarcely any young student in a university more daily or more duly. As for her government, I assure myself I shall not exceed, if I do affirm that this part of the island never had forty-five years of better

+ See the Preface to Ascham's Schoolmaster.

times; and yet not through the calmness of the season, but through the wisdom of her regimen.

For if there be considered on the one side the truth of religion established; the constant peace and security; the good administration of justice; the temperate use of the prerogative, not slackened, nor much strained; the flourishing state of learning, sortable to so excellent a patroness; the convenient estate of wealth and means, both of crown and subject; the habit of obedience, and the moderation of discontents; and there be considered on the other side, the difference of religion, the troubles of neighbour countries, the ambition of Spain, and opposition of Rome? and then, that she was solitary and of herself; these things, I say, considered, as I could not have chosen an instance so recent and so proper, so I suppose I could not have chosen one more remarkable and eminent to the purpose now in hand, which is concerning the conjunction of learning in the prince with felicity in the people.


ARISTOTLE thought young men not fit auditors of moral philosophy:-it is not true also that young men are much less fit auditors of politics than morality, till they have been thoroughly seasoned with religion, and the knowledge and manners of duties? lest their judgments be corrupted, and

made apt to think that there are no true and solid moral differences; but that all is to be valued according to utility and fortune.

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* Admitting that utility is the ultimate motive of moral conduct, is it the proximate motive? why do we eat and drink? why do we marry? why is the constable elated with his employment? why is a lad anxious to be a soldier or a sailor? would the same anxiety exist if all the military were dressed like quakers?

Do we approve of noble actions, from the supposition that they were performed from a calculation of utility, of Socrates, for instance, or of Latimer? are our sentiments upon the plains of Marathon and in the pass of Thermopyle, of the same nature as when passing through a pin-manufactory?

Is there not an aspiring to perfection with which all minds, and particularly ardent minds, sympathize, undisturbed by any calculations of utility?


Do we not dislike great minds attempting to regulate their actions by calculations of utility? Do we admire the intelligent soldier who runs away, Relicta non bene parmula." The philosopher, who had a petition to Dionysius and no ear given to him, fell down on his knees at the tyrant's feet; whereupon Dionysius staid, heard him, and granted his request; but a little after some person, tender of the power and credit of philosophy, reproved Aristippus that he would offer the profession of philosophy such an indignity as, for a private suit, to fall at a tyrant's feet? To which he replied, "Is it my fault that he has his ears in his feet?" Do we approve of this?

Do preceptors of the mind attempt to instruct by calculations of utility, like Jolter, in Smollet's novel, who endeavoured to persuade his pupil to make love by the rules of geometry?

If we attempt to act by a calculation of utility, as a proximate motive of conduct, will not the attempt thus to calculate end in self-gratification? When we reason under temptation, are we not almost sure to err? Did not Mr. Blifil


THE honest and the just bounds of observation by one person upon another extend no further but to understand him sufficiently whereby not to give him offence; or whereby to be able to give faithful counsel; or whereby to stand upon reasonable guard and caution with respect to a man's self; but to be speculative into another man, to the end to know how to work him or wind him, or govern him, proceedeth from a heart that is double and cloven, and not entire and ingenuous.

Power to do good is the true and lawful end of aspiring; for good thoughts (though God accept.

and Joseph Surface thus reason? Agnus was the only word which the wolf could make of all the letters of the alphabet.

Are not all general rules and laws, barriers fixed by society to prevent this self-gratification?

Is it not the distinguishing mark of a noble and generous mind to act without any such calculations?

Where you feel your honour grip,
Let that aye be your border:

Its slightest touches, instant pause,
Debar a' side pretences;

And resolutely keep its laws,
Uncaring consequences.

If this note should be read by any young man who imagines himself to be so benevolent as to prefer the interests of others to his own, and so intelligent as to be capable, regardless of general rules, to act upon the system of utility, he may be assured that there is nothing new in his opinions.

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them), yet towards men are little better than good dreams, except they be put in act; and that cannot be without power and place, as the vantage and commanding ground. Merit and good works is the end of man's motion: and conscience of the same is the accomplishment of man's rest: for if a man can be partaker of God's theatre, he shall likewise be partaker of God's rest, "Et conversus Deus, ut aspiceret opera, quæ fecerunt manus suæ, vidit quod omnia essent bona nimis;" and then the sabbath.

There have, at all times, been Utilitarians. To the objec-
tion made by divines to the advancement of learning that
"the aspiring to overmuch knowledge, was the original temp-
tation and sin, whereupon ensued the fall of man," Lord
Bacon says,
"It was not the pure knowledge of nature and
universality, a knowledge by the light whereof man did give
names unto other creatures in Paradise, as they were brought
before him, according unto their proprieties, which gave oc-
casion to the fall; but it was the proud knowledge of good
and evil, with an intent in man to give law unto himself, and
to depend no more upon God's commandments, which was
the form of the temptation." See ante, 173, where South
speaks of the Utilitarians of his time, as philosophy speaks to
them at all times. See Joseph Andrews, book iii. c. 3,
where Fielding speaks of the Utilitarians, of his time, the
passage begins, "This sort of life." See Robison's ac-
count of the Illuminati, a set of imagined philosophers, who
did, or were supposed to exist, during the French Revolu-
tion, let him there read the letters of Spartacus to Cato; but
particularly see a tract published by Mr. Green of Ipswich,
and Dr. Parr's Spital Sermon.


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