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by St. Peter, in this second Epistle; nor is the Holy Spirit mentioned, except as speaking by the ancient prophets.
P. xxxv. 1. 1. The precept, &c." This, modern Calvinists would generally allow; provided, the word, consequence, were explained to mean, our duty, of 66 giving all diligence," and the proportion which is to be expected, of our "growth in grace," to the degree of our diligence, according to the truths, promises, and precepts of scripture." I laboured "more abundantly than they all; yet not I, but the 66 grace of God which was with me."2
P. xxxv. l. 15. First, &c.' But few Calvinists, and still fewer of the evangelical clergy, would object to the general import of this quotation.
P. xxxv. 1. 27. In what manner, &c.'s It
The precept, "Grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ," proves, that there are degrees in grace and Christian knowledge, and that the growth ' and increase of these spiritual endowments must be the consequence of our own exertions.'
21 Cor. xv. 10. - 3 On Phil. ii. 12, 13.
First, That the personal exertions of Christians are necessary for salvation, else why should they be commanded "to "work out their salvation," and that too" with fear and trem"bling," with an anxious care lest, their exertions should not be successful, and lest from their negligence, the furthering help of the Spirit should be withdrawn? And, secondly, That God influences both the wills and the actions of Christians, "God "worketh in you, both to will and to do." Thus does this " passage incontestably prove, both the energy of man and the < operation of God, in the great work of salvation.'
♪ In what manner, or in what proportion, if I may so say, God and man co-operate, I am utterly unable to explain.or
would be well, if persons on both sides in respect of these controverted points, would adhere to this, that they are utterly unable to explain or discover,' many things respecting them. Indeed exactly to define 'the manner of the concurrence of divine grace with 'the human will; and to say what grace alone per'forms, and what free will, with and under grace, 'performs, is a matter of no small difficulty. Indeed, this very thing is, not perhaps improperly, 'placed by learned and pious men, among "the deep things of God, and "his ways which aré past finding out." But, however we may not 'know the manner of the thing, the thing itself is 'firmly to be believed."-Liberum arbitrium, (translated free will,) is here used in a sense different from that, in which the reformers generally took it: for they oppose it to servum arbitrium, or a will enslaved by sinful passions, and inclined to evil; not to the want of free agency. St. Augustine, however, in a passage quoted by his Lordship, uses the term, in the same sense as Bp. Bull.
P. xxxvi. last line. 6 That man possesses free'will; and that God by his Spirit influences this free
will, without destroying it, is indisputably true; but how this is effected, is an inexplicable mys
tery.' This is very clearly stated; if free-will be understood to mean free agency. God, by in
'discover. But this is no more a reason for my disbelief of this 'co-operation, than my inability to comprehend the union of the ' divine and human natures in Christ is a reason for my disbe
lieving that Christ was both God and man.
Translation of Latin quotation from Bp. Bull, in Refutation.
fluencing the will, neither destroys it, nor in the least interferes with the exercise of it.
P. xxxvii. 1. 9. God does not so work, as to ex❝clude our own care and industry, that is, he does ❝ not work irresistibly." He works efficaciously, not to exclude, but to excite, and assist, our diligence, and to render it successful.-The whole argument in the subsequent part of the quotation from Bp. Sherlock, turns on the difference between "God
working in us both to will, and to do," and his supposed working in us whether we will or no :' and as none of that body, whose cause I have presumed to advocate, are so absurd, as to maintain the latter, I have no further concern with it. One thing indeed it proves; viz. that it has long been the lot of Calvinists to be either misunderstood, or misrepresented, by their opponents.
P. xxxviii. 1. 14. It appears, &c.'' The critique on this important verse,3 may probably be wellgrounded: but the apostle intended more than to < declare, that salvation by grace, through faith, is
* Quotation, Bp. Sherlock.
* It appears to me, that the word 7870 refers neither to xagırı
nor to was exclusively, but to the whole sentence, Ty yag Ο χαριτι εστεσεσωσμένοι δια της πιστεως, and that the apostle intended to declare, that salvation by grace through faith is not derived from man, but is the free-gift of God through faith in Christ,
as he says in another place," the gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord." By the expression, "ye are "saved," "St. Paul did not mean to tell the Ephesian converts,
that their salvation had actually taken place, or that it was certain; but that they were enabled to obtain salvation,' 3 Eph. ii. 8.
'not derived from man, &c. His words, undeniably,
faith, and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of "God: not of works lest any man should boast, "For we are his workmanship created in Christ
I Eph. ii. 1-5.
all professed christians, whether hypocrites or sincerè believers, were called saints in the apostle's language; or whether he speaks of the whole company, as being, in the judgment of charity, what they appeared and professed to be, is a question, which will require a fuller investigation in the sequel. Every true Christian; however, at Ephesus, and in every other place, and every true Christian, through all succeeding ages, and in all places, have been and are, brought into a state of acceptance and reconciliation to God, according to the plain language of the New Testament. 66 Being justified by faith, we "have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus "Christ; by whom we have access into this grace, "wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory "of God."-" Much more then, being justified by "his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through " him. For if, when we were enemies, we were "reconciled to God, by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his "life." In what sense these latter verses are to be interpreted; and whether all true christians will be finally saved, forms a distinct question, the discussion of which is reserved to another part of the work.
P. xxxix. 1. 9. According to his mercy he saved
us, by the washing of regeneration."
⚫ will contend that every baptized person is actually 'saved, or certain of salvation.'-Whether
washing of regeneration' be synonymous with
Rom. v 1, 2. 10, 11.