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ants, than by the sharpness with account of our fidelity to our constitutional which the issues were defined by must put our hands on our mouths, and

obligations, we are told, in effect, that we three of the contending parties. It our mouths in the dust. Gentlemen," said Mr. was, in effect, proclaimed by three of Pugh, " you mistake us—we will not do it." the leading Southern delegates in the The Southern leaders gave repeated Charleston Convention : « The last and earnest warnings to this effect: Presidential election was won by am- 6. Gentlemen from the North! look biguity, double-dealing, deception- well to your doings! If you insist by devising a platform that meant on your “Squatter Sovereignty' platone thing at the North, and another form, in full view of its condemnaat the South. But, we are resolved tion by the Supreme Court in the to have no more of this. We shall Dred Scott case, you break up the now succeed on a clear exhibition of Democratic party-nay, more: you our principles, or not at all.” And break up the Union! The unity of the champions of Popular Sovereign- the Democratic party is the last bond ty, who controlled most of the dele- that holds the Union together: that gations from Free States, were nearly snapped, there is no other that can as frank, and quite as firm. Said a be trusted for a year.” Discarding leading supporter of Senator Doug- that of the “Constitutional Union” las-Mr. George E. Pugh, of Ohiol party as meaning anything in gen-in the Charleston Convention : eral and nothing in particular, the

“Thank God that a bold and honest Lincoln, Douglas, and Breckinridge man (Mr. Yancey) has at last spoken, and parties had deliberately planted themtold the whole truth with regard to the demands of the South. It is now plainly be selves, respectively, on the following fore the Convention and the country that positions : the South does demand an advanced step

1. Lincoln.-Slavery can only exist by from the Democratic party.” [Mr. Pugh here read the resolves of the Alabama De

virtue of municipal law; and there is no law mocratic State Convention of 1856, to prove

for it in the Territories, and no power to enthat the South was then satisfied with what act one. Congress can establish or legalize it now rejects. He proceeded to show that Slavery nowhere, but is bound to prohibit it the Northern Democrats had sacrificed

in or exclude it from any and every Federal themselves in battling for the rights of the Territory, whenever and wherever there shall South, and instanced one and another of the delegates there present, who had been de

be necessity for such exclusion or prohibition, feated and thrown out of public life thereby.

2. Douglas.-Slavery or No Slavery in He concluded :)

any Territory is entirely the affair of the ness thus produced is urged as a reason why white inhabitants of such Territory. If they the North should have no weight in forming choose to have it, it is their right; if they the platform! The Democracy of the North

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choose not to have it, they have a right to are willing to stand by the old landmarks to reaffirm the old faith. They will deeply

exclude or prohibit it. Neither Congress regret to part with their Southern brethren.

nor the people of the Union, or of any part But, if the gentlemen from the South can of it, outside of said Territory, have any only abide with us on the terms they now right to meddle with or trouble themselves propound, they must go. The North-West

about the matter. must and will be heard and felt. The Northern Democrats are not children, to be

3. Breckinridge.The citizen of any State told to stand here to stand there to be

has a right to migrate to any Territory, takmoved at the beck and bidding of the ing with him anything which is property by South. Because we are in a minority on the law of his own State, and hold, enjoy,

16 Recently, U. S. Senator from that State; him in turn in 1859–60; since, a candidate for 'elected over Gov. Chase in 1853-4; succeeded by Lieut. Governor, under Vallandigham, in 1863.

THE DOUGLAS PLATFORM AND CANVASS.

323

and be protected in, the use of such property | Scott decision as binding law, and its in said Territory. And Congress is bound authors as entitled to make further to render such protection wherever neces

and kindred decrees controlling his sary, whether with or without the coöpera- vote and action with regard to the tion of the Territorial Legislature.

extension of Slavery, maintains posiWe have seen how thoroughly this tions so inconsistent and contradiclast doctrine is refuted by Col. Ben- tory as to divest him of all moral ton in his strictures on the Dred power in the premises—all freedom Scott decision. If it were sound, of effective action. any blackleg might, with impunity, defy the laws of any Territory for- The canvass was opened with great bidding the sale of lottery tickets or spirit and vigor by. Mr. Douglas in other implements of gambling. Or person; he speaking in nearly every the Indian trader might say to the Free, and in many if not most of the United States Agent: “Sir, I know Slave States, in the course of the you have a law authorizing and di- Summer and Autumn. A ready and recting you to destroy every drop of able debater, he necessarily attracted liquor you find offered or kept for large crowds to his meetings, and insale on an Indian reservation; but fused something of his own fiery immy liquor is property, according to petuosity and tireless energy into the the laws of my State, and you cannot breasts of his supporters. touch it. I have a Constitutional But the odds were soon seen to be right to take my property into any too great; since the partisans of Territory, and there do with it as Breckinridge, not content with their I please--so, Hands off!” He who manifest preponderance in all the does not know that this is not law, Slave States, insisted on organizing nor compatible with the most vital in and dividing the Democratic functions of government, can hardly strength of the Free States as well. have considered the matter patiently Nay, more: in several of those States or thoughtfully.

Pennsylvania, New Jersey, ConThe Douglas platform was practi- necticut, California, and Oregoncally eviscerated by the ready accept- the leaders of the Democracy in previance at Baltimore of Gov. Wickliffe's ous contests were mainly found ranged resolve making the dicta of the Su- on the side of Breckinridge; while, preme Court absolute and unques- in nearly or quite every Free State, tionable with regard to Slavery in enough adherents of the Southern the Territories. The Dred Scott de- platform were found to organize a cision was aimed directly at Squat- party and nominate a Breckinridge ter Sovereignty: the case, after be- ticket, rendering the choice of the ing once disposed of on an entirely Douglas Electors in most Free States different point, was restored to life hardly possible. expressly to cover this ground. Am- The Democrats, as we have seen, biguous as was the Cincinnati plat- had divided on a question of princiform, the upholder of ‘Popular Sove- ple—one deemed, on either side, of reignty' in the Territories, who, at overwhelming consequence. Pathetic the same time, regards the Dred entreaties and fervid appeals had been lavished at Charleston on futile at- | Nothings,” tended to confuse and betempts to bring them to an agree- wilder those who “always vote the ment, that the party first and the regular ticket,” and were accustomed Union next might be saved from im- to regard a Democratic bolter with minent dissolution. Personal aspi- more repugnance than a life-long rations, doubtless, had their weight; adversary. The portents, from the but the South could have taken any outset, were decidedly unfavorable candidate—perhaps even Douglas to Mr. Douglas's election. himself—if he were standing square- And, from the shape thus given to ly, openly, on the Avery or Breckin- the canvass, his chances could not ridge platform; and so, probably, fail to suffer. The basis of each anticould the Northern delegates have Lincoln coälition could, of course, be consented to support Breckinridge or nothing else than hostility to the ReHowell Cobb on the Payne-Samuels publican idea of excluding Slavery or Douglas platform. “Never was an from the territories. Now, the posiissue more broadly made or clearly tion directly and thoroughly antagodefined as one of conflicting, incom- nistic to this was that of the Breckinpatible assumptions. And nowhere ridge party, which denied the right in the Slave States did the Breckin- to exclude, and proclaimed the right ridge men consent to any compro- of each slaveholder to carry Slavery mise, partnership, coalition, or ar- into any territory. The position of rangement, with the partisans of Mr. Douglas was a mean between Douglas, though aware that their these extremes; and, in an earnest, antagonism would probably give sev- arduous struggle, the prevailing teneral important States to the Bell- dency steadily is away from the Everett ticket. But the Douglasites mean, and toward a positive and of the Free States, on their part, decided position on one side or the evinced a general readiness to waive other. The great mercantile intheir prestige of regularity, and sup- fluence in the seaboard cities had one port Electoral tickets made up from controlling aim in its political efforts the ranks of each anti-Republican to conciliate and satisfy the South, party. Thus, in New York, the

so as to keep her loyal to the Union. “Fusion” anti-Lincoln ticket was But Douglasism, or “Squatter Sovermade up of ten supporters of Bell eignty," did not satisfy the Southand Everett, seven of Breckinridge in fact, since the failure to establish and Lane, and the residue friends Slavery in Kansas, was regarded of Douglas. No doubt, there was an with special loathing by many Southunderstanding among the managers rons, as an indirect and meaner sort that, if all these could elect Mr. of Wilmot Proviso. Wherever a Douglas, their votes should be cast coalition was effected, the canvass solid for him; but the contingency was thenceforth prosecuted on a basis thus contemplated was at best a re- which was a mumbling compromise mote one, while the fact that those between the Bell and the Breckinwho had the prestige of Democratic ridge platforms, but which was usualregularity consented to bargain and ly reticent with regard to “Popular combine with bolters and “Know- | Sovereignty.”

THE BELL- EVERETT PARTY

IN 1860.

325

But the salient feature of the can- ciples by nominating him for the vass was the hearty accord of the Presidency. That party was mainly coalesced parties North of the Poto-composed of admiring disciples of mac, in attributing to the Republican Clay and Webster, who had sternly platform and to Mr. Lincoln appre- resisted Nullification on grounds of hended consequences that were, by principle, and had united in the the South, attributed to Douglas and enthusiastic acclaim

acclaim which had “Squatter Sovereignty." The De- hailed Webster as

as the triumphmocratic National Convention and ant champion of our Nationality, the party had been broken up, not be “great expounder of the Constitucause of any suspicion of Republican- | tion,” in his forensic struggle with ism affecting either faction, but be- Hayne. It had proudly pointed to cause the South would not abide the such men as William Gaston, of doctrine of Mr. Douglas, with regard North Carolina, Sergeant S. Prento Slavery in the Territories. Yet tiss, of Mississippi, Edward Bates, of here were his supporters appealing to Missouri, George W. Summers, of the people from every stump to vote Virginia, John J. Crittenden, of Kenthe coalition ticket, in order to concil- tucky, and James L. Petigru, of South iate the South, and save the country Carolina, as the exponents of its prinfrom the pangs of dissolution! It ciples, the jewels of its crown. It was not easy to realize that the Pughs, had nominated and supported Bell Paynes, Richardsons, Churches, etc.

, and Everett on a platform which who had so determinedly bearded meaningly proclaimed fidelity to the South at Charleston and at Balti- “The Union, the Constitution, and more, defying threats of disruption the Enforcement of the Laws," as its and disunion, were the very men who distinctive ground. To say that it now exhorted the People to vote the meant by this to stand by the Union coälition Electoral tickets, in order until some other party should, in its to dispel the very dangers which they judgment, violate the Constitution, is had persistently invoked, by support- | to set the human understanding at ing the Payne-Samuels platform, and defiance. It either meant to cling to nominating Douglas for President. the Constitution and Union at all

It is more difficult to treat calmly hazards and under all circumstances, the conduct of the “ American, and to insist that the laws should be “ Conservative," “Union," or Bell enforced throughout the country, or Everett party of the South ; or, more it was guilty of seeking votes under accurately, to reconcile its chosen false pretenses. Unlike the Douglas attitude and professions in the canvass Democracy, it was a distinct, wellwith the course taken by thousands established party, which had a definiof its members immediately on the tive existence, and at least a semannouncement of the result, with the blance of organization in every Slave ultimate concurrence of many more, State but South Carolina. It had including even the eminent and polled a majority of the Southern hitherto moderate and loyal Tennes- vote for Harrison in 1840, for Taylor sean whom it had deliberately pre- in 1848, had just polled nearly forty sented as an embodiment of its prin- per cent.. of that vote for Bell, and might boast its full share of the | licans. They had begun by carrying property, and more than its share of New Hampshire by 4,443—a satisfacthe intelligence and respectability, of tory majority; but were next beaten the South. This party had but to be in Rhode Island-an independent courageously faithful to its cardinal ticket, headed by William Sprague for principle and to its abiding convic-Governor, carrying the State over tions to avert the storm of civil war. theirs, by 1,460 majority. In ConnecHad its leaders, its orators, its presses, ticut, Gov. Buckingham had been respoken out promptly, decidedly, un- elected by barely 541 majority, in nearconditionally, for the Union at all ly 80,000 votes—the heaviest poll ever hazards, and for settling our differ- had there at a State Election. It ences in Congress, in the Courts, and was evident that harmony at Charlesat the ballot-box, it would have pre- ton would have rendered the election vented the effusion of rivers of pre- of a Democratic President morally cious blood. It was perfectly aware certain. But, after the disruption that the Republicans and their Presi- there, things were bravely altered. dent elect were powerless, even if Maine, early in September, elected a disposed, to do the South any wrong; Republican Governor by 18,091 mathat the result of the elections already jority; Vermont directly followed, held had secured" an anti-Republi- with a Republican majority of can majority in either branch of the 22,370; but when Pennsylvania and ensuing Congress; that the Supreme Indiana, early in October, declared Court was decidedly and, for a con- unmistakably for Lincoln-the forsiderable period, unchangeably on mer choosing Andrew G. Curtin her the same side. In the worst con- Governor by 32,164 majority over ceivable event of the elections yet Henry D. Foster, who had the hearty to come, no bill could pass respect- support of all three opposing parties; ing the Territories, or anything else, while Indiana chose Gen. Henry S. which the “Conservatives" should Lane by 9,757 over T. A. Hendricks, see fit unitedly to oppose. And yet, his only competitor, with seven out South Carolina had scarcely indica- of eleven Representatives in Conted unmistakably her purpose, when gress, and a Republican Legislature many Bell-Unionists of Georgia, Ala---it was manifest that only a miracle bama, and other Southern States, be- could prevent the success of Lincoln gan to clamor and shout for Secession. and Hamlin the next month. They seemed so absorbingly intent Yet the mercantile fears of conon getting, for once, on the stronger vulsion and civil war, as results of Mr. side, that they forgot the controlling Lincoln's election, were so vivid and fact that the side on which God is earnest that the contest at the North has always at last the majority. was still prosecuted by his combined

adversaries with the energy of desThe early State Elections of 1860 peration. New York, especially, was had not been favorable to the Repub- the arena of a struggle as intense, as

17 New York had chosen 10; Pennsylvania 7; rendering it morally certain that, but for SécesNew Jersey 3; Ohio 8; Indiana 4; Illinois 5;sion, Mr Lincoln would have had to face an Opand Missouri 6 anti-Republicans to the House; | position Congress from the start.

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