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beacons you at the end. Before deciding, revolution is to stare it in the face. I think consider well the ancient and sacred maxim the only policy for us is to arm as soon as -Stand upon the ancient way.

--see which

we receive authentic intelligence of the is the right, good way, and walk in it.' election of Lincoln. It is for South Carolina,

“But the question now was, Would the in the quickest manner, and by the most South submit to a Black Republican Presi- direct means, to withdraw from the Union. dent and a Black Republican Congress, Then we will not submit, whether the other which will claim the right to construe the Southern States will act with us or with our Constitution of the country and administer enemies. the Government in their own hands, not by “They cannot take sides with our enethe law of the instrument itself, nor by that mies; they must take sides with us. When of the fathers of the country, nor by the an ancient philosopher wished to inaugurate practices of those who administered seventy a great revolution, his motto was to dare! years ago, but by rules drawn from their to dare!" own blind consciences and crazy brains. "Mr. Boyce was followed by Gen. M. E. They call us inferiors, semi-civilized bar- Martin, Cols. Cunningham, Simpson, Richbarians, and claim the right to possess our ardson, and others, who contended that to lands, and give them to the destitute of the submit to the election of Lincoln is to conOld World and the profligates of this. They sent to a lingering death." claim the dogmas of the Declaration of Independence as part of the Constitution, and that it is their right and duty to so adminis

There was great joy in Charleston, ter the Government as to give full effect to and wherever “ Fire-Eaters” most did them. The people now must choose whether congregate, on the morning of Nothey would be governed by enemies, or vember 7th. Men rushed to shake govern themselves.

“For himself, he would unfurl the Pal hands and congratulate each other on metto flag, fling it to the breeze, and, with the glad tidings of Lincoln's election. the spirit of a brave man, determine to live and die as became our glorious ancestors, Now, it was felt, and exultingly proand ring the clarion notes of defiance in the claimed, the last obstacle to “Southears of an insolent foe. He then spoke of the undoubted right to withdraw their dele- ern independence” has been removed, gated powers, and it was their duty, in the and the great experiment need no event contemplated, to withdraw them. It longer be postponed to await the was their only safety.

“Mr. C. favored separate State action; pleasure of the weak, the faithless, , saying the rest would flock to our standard.' the cowardly. It was clear that the

election had resulted precisely as the Hon. Wm. W. Boyce—then, and master-spirits had wished and hoped. for some years previously, a leading Now, the apathy, at least of the other Representative in Congress from Cotton States, must be overcome; South Carolina-was, in like manner, now, South Carolina—that is, her serenaded and called out by the enthu- slaveholding oligarchy--will be able siastic crowd of Secessionists, at Co- to achieve her long-cherished purlumbia, on the following evening. pose of breaking up the Union, and He concluded a speech denunciatory founding a new confederacy on her of the Republicans, as follows:

own ideas, and on the ' peculiar insti“ The question then is, What are we to tution of the South. Men thronged do? In my opinion, the South ought not to the streets, talking, laughing, cheersubmit. If you intend to resist, the way to resist in earnest is to act; the way to enact ing, like mariners long becalmed

2 This, and nearly all the proceedings at Co- leading and wealthy gentleman in Charleston, lumbia at this crisis, are here copied directly states that the news of Lincoln's election was from the columns of The Charleston Courier.

received there with cheers and many manifesta

tions of approbation.” 3 Dispatch to The New York Herald, dated Washington, Nov. 8, 1860:

The Charleston Mercury of the 7th or 8th exA dispatch, received here to-day from a ultingly announced the same fact.

COÖPERATION' URGED BEFORE SECESSION.

333

on a hateful, treacherous sea, whom In support of this proposition, Mr. a sudden breeze had swiftly wafted Lesesne spoke ably and earnestly, but within sight of their longed-for haven, without effect. “Coöperation” had or like a seedy prodigal, just raised been tried in 1850–1, and had sig. to affluence by the death of some far- nally failed to achieve the darling off, unknown relative, and whose purpose of a dissolution of the Union; sense of decency is not strong enough so the rulers of Carolina opinion would to repress his exultation.

have none of it in 1860. Thus stimulated, the Legislature Still another effort was made in did not hesitate nor falter in the the House (November 7th), by Mr. course marked out for it by the mag- Trenholm, of Charleston-long connates of the State oligarchy. Joint spicuous in the councils of the State resolves, providing for the call of a ---who labored hard to make "CoöpConvention at some early day, with eration” look so much like Secession a view to unconditional secession that one could with difficulty be distinfrom the Union, were piled upon guished from the other. His propoeach other with great energy, as if sition was couched in the following nearly every member were anxious terms: to distinguish himself by zeal in the Resolved, That the Committee on the work. Among others, Mr. Robert Military of the Senate and House of RepBarnwell Rhett, on the second day the recess, and to prepare a plan for arm

resentatives, be instructed to meet during of the session, offered such resolves, ing the State, and for organizing a percalling for the choice of a Conven- Committee be instructed to report by bill to

manent Military Bureau; and that the said tion on the 22d of November; the their respective Houses on the first day of delegates to meet at Columbia on the the reässembling of the General Assembly. 17th of December.

Resolved, that the Committee of Ways

and Means of the House of Representatives Mr. Moses and others offered simi- be instructed to sit during the recess, and lar resolves in the Senate; where Mr. prepare a bill for raising supplies necessary

to carry into effect the measure recomLesesne, of Charleston, attempted to mended by the Military Committee, and to stem, or, rather, to moderate, the report by bill on the first day of the reäsroaring tide, by inserting the thin-sembling of the General Assembly.

" Resolved, That the Governor be renest end of the wedge of "Coöpera- quested immediately to apply the one huntion." His resolves are, in terms, as

dred thousand dollars, appropriated by the

last General Assembly, to the purchase of follows:

“ 1st. Resolved, That the ascendency of Resolved, That immediately after the the hostile, sectional, anti-Slavery party, election of the Commissioner to the State styling themselves the Republican party, of Georgia, this General Assembly do take a would be sufficient and proper cause for the recess until the third Monday, being the dissolution of the Union and formation of a nineteenth day, of November, instant, at 7 Southern Confederacy.

“2d. Resolved, That, in case of the elec- Resolved, As the sense of this General tion of the candidates of that party to the Assembly, that the election of a Black Reoffice of President and Vice-President of the publican to the Presidency of the United United States, instead of providing uncon- States, will be the triumph and practical ditionally for a Convention, the better course application of principles incompatible with will be to empower the Governor to take the peace and safety of the Southern States. measures for assembling a Convention so Resolved, That a Commissioner be electsoon as any one of the other Southern States | ed, by joint ballot of the Senate and House shall, in his judgment, give satisfactory as- of Representatives, whose duty it shall be, surance or evidence of her determination to in the event of Mr. Lincoln's election, to withdraw from the Union."

proceed immediately to Milledgeville, the

arms,

o'clock.

us.

seat of government of the State of Georgia, / people that has lived in the tide of time. whose legislature will then be in session, to They are one in soil and climate; one in announce to the government of that State productions, having a monopoly of the Cotthat South Carolina, in view of the impend- ton region ; one in institutions; and, more ing danger, will immediately put herself in than all, one in their wrongs under the Cona state of efficient military defense, and will stitution. Add to all this that they alone, cordially coöperate with the State of Geor- of all the earth, have a peculiar institution gia in measures for the protection of South- -African Slavery--which is absolutely neern interests; and to express the readiness cessary for them; without which they of this State to coöperate with the State of would cease to exist, and against which, Georgia, in the event of Mr. Lincoln's elec- | under the influence of a fanatical sentiment, tion, in withdrawing at once from the con- the world is banded. Upon the subject of federacy; and to recommend the calling of this institution, we are isolated from the a Convention simultaneously in both States, whole world, who are not only indifferent, to carry this measure into effect; and to in- / but inimical to it; and it would seem that vite the coöperation of all the Southern the very weight of this outside pressure States in withdrawing from the present would compel us to unite. Union, and forming a separate Southern Besides, the history of the world is Confederacy."

pregnant with admonition as to the necessi

ty of union. The history of classic Greece, These resolves coming up for con- and especially that awful chapter upon the sideration on the 9th, Mr. McGowan, Peloponnesian war, appeals to us.

The his

tory of poor, dismembered Poland cries to of Abbeville, made a zealous effort to

The history of the Dutch Republic stem the furious current; pleading claims to be heard. Modern Italy and the earnestly and plausibly for Coöpera- States of Central America are now, at this

moment, crying to us to unite. All history tion—that is, for consultation with teaches us that United we stand, divided other Slave States, and for action in we fall. All the Southern States would not obedience to their mutual determi

be too many for our confederacy, whose

flag would float, honored upon every sea, nation. He said:

and under whose folds every citizen would

be sure of protection and security. My Coöperation with our Southern sisters

God! what is the reason we cannot unite? has been the settled policy of South Carolina for at least ten years past. We have

It seems to me that we might with proprie

ty address to the whole South the pregnant long been satisfied with the causes for a dis

words of Milton : solution of this Union. We thought we saw long ago what was coming, and only awaited the action of our Southern sisters. This being the case, it would seem strange, now

" South Carolina has sometimes been acthat the issue is upon us—when our need is cused of a paramount desire to lead or to the sorest—that we should ignore our past disturb the councils of the South. Let us policy, and, in the very crisis of the con- make one last effort for Coöperation, and, flict, cease to ask for Coöperation.

in doing so, repel the false and unfounded "Lincoln's election is taken as an occasion imputation. for action, but with us it is not the only * Mr. Speaker, I think all of us desire to cause for action.

We have delayed for the consolidate the sentiment of the South. All last ten years for nothing but Coöperation. of us prefer Coöperation. It is, therefore, He thought it the best and wisest policy to immensely important that we should také remain in the Union, with our Southern no false step, and omit nothing that might sisters, in order to arrange the time when,

tend to that end. I am utterly opposed, and the manner how, of going out, and now and forever, to taking any step backnothing else.

ward in this matter, and therefore it is that “It is perfectly manifest that the record- I am anxious that we should take no false ed policy of this State for the last ten years step. It is better to consider in advance of has been the policy of Secession in coöpera

action than after action. When we act, we tion with other Southern States.

must stand upon that action against the “But is that not fortified by both history

world in arms. It will strengthen our arms and philosophy ?-by the nature of the and nerve our hearts in doing that, if we thing itself, and the fate of other nations? shall be able to say that this course was not The Southern States of this Union have taken hastily or from impulse, but after mamore motives, more inducements, and more ture deliberation, and a last effort for that necessities, for concert and Union, than any which we all desire so much-Coöperation.

Awake! arise ! or be forever fallen!

SOUTH CAROLINA WILL NOT A WAIT COÖPERATION.

335

Then, if we fail, and a Convention is called we would be subjected to a dominion the under these circumstances, I and all of us | parallel to which was that of the poor Indian will stand by the action of that Convention. under the British East India Company. Whatever may be our individual opinions, When they had pledged themselves to take we will obey the mandate of the State thus the State out of the Union, and placed it on pronounced.

record, then he was willing to send a Com" Whenever she, after exhausting all pro- missioner to Georgia, or any other Southern per and becoming efforts for union, resolves State, to announce our determination, and upon her course, we will have no option, as to submit the question whether they would we will have no desire, to do otherwise than join us or not. We have it from high aurally under her banner. If the State, in her thority, that the representative of one of the sovereign capacity, determines that her se- Imperial Powers of Europe, in view of the cession will produce the coöperation which prospective separation of one or more of the we have so earnestly sought, then it shall Southern States from the present confederacy, have my hearty approbation. And if, in has made propositions in advance for the the alternative, she determines to let us establishment of such relations between it forego the honor of being first, for the sake and the Government about to be established of promoting the common cause, let us de- in this State, as will insure to that power such clare to Georgia, the Empire State of the a supply of Cotton for the future as their inSouth--the Keystone of the Southern Arch,creasing demand for that article will require : which is our nearest neighbor westward, this information is perfectly authentic.” and lying for a great distance alongside of our own territory—that we are willing to Thus, it will be seen that foreign follow in her lead, and together take our intrigue was already hand-and-glove place among the nations of the earth. “If South Carolina, in Convention as

with domestic treason in sapping the sembled, deliberately secedes-separate and foundations of our Union and seeking alone, and, without any hope of coöperation, peculiar advantages from its overdecides to cut loose from her moorings, surrounded as she is by Southern sisters in like throw. circumstances-I will be one bi her crew, Mr. Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, and, in common with every true son of hers

, will endeavor, with all the power that had for many years been the editor God has given me, to

of a leading Agricultural monthly, 'Spread all her canvas to the breeze,

and had thus acquired a very decided Set every threadbare sail, And give her to the God of storms,

influence over the planters of the The lightning an the gale.??

South. A devotee of Slavery, he had Mr. Mullins, of Marion, followed; hastened to Columbia, on the call of and his reply to McGowan's speech the Legislature, to do his utmost for is worthy of record here, since it Secession. He was, of course, -sereclearly betrays the consciousness of naded in his turn by the congregated the disunionists that they were a lean Union-breakers, on the evening of minority of the Southern people, who the 7th, and addressed them from the might be precipitated, bullied, or balcony of the Congaree House. dragged into treason, but whom there The following is a synopsis of his was no rational hope of reasoning or

response : even seducing into it. He said:

“He said the question now before the “South Carolina had tried Coöperation, country he had studied for years. It had but had exhausted that policy. The State been the one great idea of his life. The deof Virginia had discredited the cause which fense of the South, he verily believed, was our Commissioner went there to advocate, only to be secured through the lead of South although she treated him, personally, with Carolina. As old as he was, he had come respect; but she had as much as said there here to join them in that lead. He wished were no indignities which could drive her to Virginia was as ready as South Carolina, take the leadership for Southern rights. If but, unfortunately, she was not; but, cirwe wait for Coöperation, Slavery and State cumstances being different, it was perhaps Rights would be abandoned, State Sovereignty better that Virginia and all other border and the cause of the South lost forever, and States remain quiescent for a time, to serve

as guard against the North. The first drop the existence of the Government of which of blood spilled on the soil of South Carolina, this Court is the organ and minister. In would bring Virginia and every Southern these extraordinary circumstances, the Grand State with them. By remaining in the Jury respectfully decline to proceed with Union for a time, she would not only prevent their presentments. They deem this explacoërcive legislation in Congress, but any at- nation due to the Court and to themselves.” tempt for our subjugation. No argument in favor of resistance was wanted now. As

Judge Magrath received this comsoon as he had performed his duty in Vir- munication with complaisance, and ginia as a citizen, he came as fast as steam thereupon resigned his office; saying: could bring him to South Carolina. He was satisfied if anything was to be done, it was “The business of the term has been disto be done here. He had no doubt it would posed of, and, under ordinary circumstances, be done, and the sooner the better. Every it would be my duty to dismiss you to your day delayed was a day lost to the cause. several avocations, with my thanks for your They should encourage and sustain their presence and aid. But now I have somefriends, and they would frighten their ene- thing more to do, the omission of which mies.

would not be consistent with propriety. In “ There was no fear of Carolina remaining the political history of the United States, an alone. She would soon be followed by event has happened of ominous import to other States. Virginia and half a dozen fifteen slaveholding States. The State of more were just as good and strong, and able which we are citizens has been always unto repel the enemy, as if they had the whole derstood to have deliberately fixed its purof the slaveholding States to act with them. pose whenever that event should happen. Even if Carolina remained alone—not that Feeling an assurance of what will be the he thought it probable, but supposing so- action of the State, I consider it my duty, it was his conviction that she would be able without delay, to prepare to obey its wishes. to defend herself against any power brought That preparation is made by the resignation against her. Multitudes spoke and said the of the office I have held. For the last time, issue was one of courage and honor, or of I have, as a Judge of the United States, adcowardice, desertion, and degradation." ministered the laws of the United States

A number of second and third-rate within the limits of the State of South traitors followed this Ruffin in a “While thus acting in obedience to a sense similar vein, but their remarks were

of duty, I cannot be indifferent to the emo

tions it must produce. That department not deemed worth reporting.

which, I believe, has best maintained its But, that evening, the busy tele- integrity and preserved its purity, has been graph reported from Charleston the suspended. So far as I am concerned, the

Temple of Justice, raised under the Constimore important resignation of the tution of the United States, is now closed. leading Federal officers for South If it shall never be again opened, I thank

God that its doors have been closed before Carolina, in anticipation of her se- its altar has been desecrated with sacrifices ceding. The U. S. District Court to tyranny." had met there in the morning, Dis

C. J. Colcock, Collector at Charlestrict Judge Magrath presiding. The

ton, and James Conner, U.S. District Grand Jury—of course, by precon- Attorney, likewise resigned ; and it cert-formally declined to make any

was announced that B. C. Pressley, presentments, because of

Sub-Treasurer, would follow, “so soon “ The verdict of the Northern section of

as was consistent with due respect the confederacy, solemnly announced to the and regard for our present excellent

, day, having sweps away the last hope for Chief Magistrate [Buchanan], by the permanence, for the stability of the whose appointment he holds the Federal Government of these sovereign States; and the public mind is constrained office.” to lift itself above the consideration of de- In the face of such multiform and tails in the administration of Law and Justice, up to the vast and solemn issues which have high-seasoned incitements to go ahead, been forced upon us.

These issues involve the efforts of those members of the

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