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tery there, was glad thenceforth to strong, had been utterly routed and take all that offered, and to solicit dispersed by Beauregard's 15,000 to where it had been so earnestly soli- 20,000 Confederates. cited. The nation awoke from a Yet it is to be added that, whatdream of invincibility and easy tri- ever the exultation of one party, the umph to find itself inextricably in depression of the other was not withvolved in a desperate and dubious out its compensations. The North, at struggle for life. And the thinly first stunned, was ultimately rather disguised or utterly undisguised ex- chastened and sobered than disheartultation wherewith the news of this ened or unnerved by its great disdisaster was received by thousands aster; while the South, intoxicated whose sympathy with the Rebels had by its astounding success, expended hitherto been suppressed, or only in- in fruitless exultation energies that dulged in secret, proved that, in the might better have been devoted to struggle now upon us, the Republic preparation for future and more decould not count on the support even termined struggles. If, as the Conof all those who still claimed to be federates were told, 15,000 of their loyal to the Constitution and Union. raw recruits, badly armed and provi.

ded, had sufficed to rout and scatter On the other hand, the Rebellion double or treble their number of was immensely strengthened and Yankees, superbly equipped for the consolidated by its victory. Tens contest, what need could there be for of thousands throughout the South, self-denial, and sacrifice, and a genwho had hitherto submitted in si eral volunteering to recruit their viclence to proceedings which they con- torious armies? They hastily condemned and deplored, but lacked the cluded that the struggle was virtually power or the courage to resist, yet over—that nothing remained but to whose hearts were still with their prescribe the terms on which peace whole country and the old flag, now should be accorded to the vanquished; abandoned the Union as hopelessly and this delusion continued for months lost, and sought, by zeal in the cause undispelled and effective. . of the Rebellion, to efface the recol- And thus, while the instant effect lection of their past coldness and in- of the tidings was the doubling of the fidelity; while no one who had pre- Rebel numbers in the field and a reviously been a Rebel any longer duction of ours by half, yet a few cherished a shadow of doubt that the weeks sufficed to efface this disparity, independence of the Confederacy was and the expiration of three months secured. The vote of Tennessee for saw our forces swelled once more till Secession, the sudden uprising of a they exceeded those of the enemy. great Rebel army in Missouri, and The Nation, flung headlong to the the strengthening of the cause and earth, and temporarily paralyzed by its defenders everywhere, owe much her fall, rose at length with a truer of their impulse to the dispatches appreciation of the power, the purwhich 'flashed over the rejoicing pose, and the venom of her foes, and South assurances that the grand ar- a firmer resolve that they should be my of the North, 35,000 to 50,000 grappled with and overcome.

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ORGANIZATION OF THE XXXVIITH CONGRESS.

555

XXXIV.

THE EXTRA SESSION.

THE XXXVIIth Congress con- | ate, the four States first named were vened, pursuant to the President's fully represented; while Andrew summons, in Extra Session, at noon on Johnson was present from Tennesthe 4th of July; when, on a call of see, making 44 in all. Western Virthe roll, an ample quorum of either ginia had chosen three members at House was found in attendance, in the regular State election in April, cluding full delegations from Ken- while another had been elected by a tucky, Missouri, Maryland, and light vote, either then or subsequentDelaware. Tennessee had not yet ly, from the district lying along the chosen Representatives; and, when Potomac, above and below Harper's she did choose, at her regular State Ferry. Of Representatives, 157 in all election, five weeks later, only the answered to their names at the first three districts east of the mountains call. Galusha A. Grow [Republielected members to the Union Con-can), of Pennsylvania, was chosen gress; and, of these, one--Thomas Speaker, and Emerson Etheridge A. R. Nelson-being arrested by the [Bell-Everett], of Tennessee, Clerk of Rebels while on his way to Washing- the House. John W. Forney [Dougton, regained his liberty by renoun- las], of Pennsylvania, was soon aftercing the Union and professing ad- ward elected Clerk of the Senate. herence to the Rebellion. Of the President Lincoln's Message was seceded States, only Arkansas chose transmitted to both Houses on the Representatives to Congress in 1860; following day. It was largely deand these renounced their seats by voted to a recital of occurrences alopen and active adhesion to the ready narrated. It did not distinctly Southern Confederacy. In the Sen- avow that the Government had ever

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The Representatives from Kentucky had One of the Democrats had already gone over to been chosen a few weeks before at a special the Rebellion, as two more of them did afterelection, wherein nine districts elected 'conser- ward. vative or pro-Slavery Unionists, while the 1st

Maryland had very recently chosen her Repreëlected, by a considerable majority, Henry C.

resentatives at a special election, wherein each Burnett, a Secessionist, who only served through

district elected a professed Unionist--the 6th the Extra Session, and then fled to participate (south-western) by barely 162 majority. But openly in the Rebellion. The only remaining Henry May, elected as a Democrat over Windistrict seriously contested was the 8th (Fayette, ter Davis in the Baltimore city district, by 8,421 Bourbon, etc.), which elected John J. Crittenden

votes to 6,214, received the unanimous and ar(Union) over William E. Simms (late Democrat

, dent support of the Secessionists, and, as afternow Secessionist), by 8,272 to 5,706. The ag

ward appeared, for very good reasons. gregate vote of the State showed a preponderance of more than two to one for the Union.

4 Delaware had elected George P. Fisher The members from this State had been cho- (Unionist), in 1860, by the combined vote of the sen in August, 1860: five of them as Democrats; Lincoln and Bell parties-giving him 257 majorone (Francis P. Blair,) as a Republican; another ity over Biggs (Breckinridge); while Reed (Doug(James S. Rollins) as a Bell-Everett Unionist. las) drew away 761 votes.

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nen.

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purposed the evacuation of Fort

The news of this failure reached. Sumter, but set forth the material Washington “just one week before facts as follows:

the fall of Sumter;" and thereupon

the President proceeded at once to “On the 5th of March (the present incumbent's first full day in office), a letter of notify Gov. Pickens, of South Caroter, written on the 28th of February, and lina, that he should provision Fort received at the War Department on the 4th Sumter. “ Whereupon, the fort was of March, was, by that Department, placed attacked and bombarded to its fall, in his hands. This letter expressed the professional opinion of the writer, that reën

without even awaiting the arrival of forcements could not be thrown into that the provisioning expedition. " fort within the time for his relief rendered

The President sets forth the course necessary by the limited supply of pro- with regard to the seceded States visions, and with a view of líolding possession of the same, with a force of less than which he had endeavored to pursue, twenty thousand good and well-disciplined until forced to abandon it by vio

This opinion was concurred in by all the officers of his cominand, and their me- lence and bloodshed on their part, as moranda on the subject were made in- follows: closires of Major Anderson's letter. The whole was immediately laid before Lieut.

“The policy chosen looked to the exGen. Scott, who at once concurred with haustion of all peaceful measures before a

resort to any stronger ones. Major Anderson in opinion. On reflection,

It sought only however, he took full time, consulting with

to hold the public places and property not other officers, both of the Army and of the already wrested from the Government, and Navy, and, at the end of four days, came

to collect the revenue; relying for the rest reluctantly but decidedly to the same con

on time, discussion, and the ballot-box. It clusion as before. He also stated, at the promised a continuance of the mails, at same time, that no such sufficient force was

Government expense, to the very people then at the control of the Government, or

who were resisting the Government; and it could be raised and brought to the ground gave repeated pledges against any disturbwithin the time when the provisions in the

ance to any of the people, or any of their fort would be exhausted. In a purely mili- rights. Of all that which a President might

constitutionally and justifiably do in such a tary point of view, this reduced the duty of the Administration in the case to the mere case, everything was forborne, without matter of getting the garrison safely out of

which it was believed possible to keep the

Government on foot." the fort."

But this policy it was neither the Thus baffled with regard to Fort

interest nor the disposition of the Sumter, the Administration had resolved to reënforce and provision

Confederates, as such, to acquiesce

in. The naked fact that it was Fort Pickens, Fla., simply as an indication of its purpose to maintain, in Union, raises the presumption that it

deemed advisable on the part of the the South, the constitutional rights would not answer the ends of the of the Government; and had dis

Secessionists. Says the President: patched the steainship Brooklyn to

They have forced upon the country the Pensacola for that purpose; but had

distinct issue: “immediate dissolution or been defeated in its effort, because blood,'

" And this issue embraces more than the " the officer commanding the Sabine, to fate of these United States. It presents to which vessel the troops had been transferred the whole family of man the question, from the Brooklyn, acting upon some quasi whether a constitutional republic or dearmistice of the late Administration (and mocracy—a government of the people by of the existence of which the present Ad- the same people-can or cannot maintain ministration, up to the time the order was its territorial integrity against its own dodispatched, had only too vague and uncer

It presents the question, tain rumors to fix attention), had refused to whether discontented individuals, too few land the troops."

in numbers to control administration, ac

mestic foes.

BORDER-STATE NEUTRALITY.-STATE RIG ETS.

557

cording to organic law, in any case, can and give them disunion without a struggle always, upon the pretenses made in this

of their own. It recognizes no fidelity to case, or on any other pretenses, or arbi- the Constitution, no obligation to maintain trarily, without any pretense, break up the Union; and, while very many who their government, and thus practically put favored it are, doubtless, loyal citizens, it is, an end to free government upon the earth. nevertheless, very injurious in effect." It forces us to ask: Is there in all republics. this inherent and fatal weakness ?' As to the work directly in hand, * Must a government, of necessity, be too the President thus briefly proclaims : strong for the liberties of its own people, or too weak to maintain its own existence?'

“It is now recommended that you give “So viewing the issue, no choice was left the legal means for making this contest a but to call out the war power of the Gov

short and decisive one; that you place at ernment; and so, to resist force employed

to resist force employed the control of the Government, for the work, for its destruction by force employed for its

at least four hundred thousand men and preservation."

$400,000,000. That number of men is about

one-tenth of those of proper ages within the After a brief exposure of the deceit regions where, apparently, all are willing to and violence which governed the issue engage; and the sum is less than a twentyof the pretended submission, in Vir

third part of the money value owned by the

men who seem ready to devote the whole. ginia and other States, of the question | A debt of $600,000,000 now is a less sum of Secession to a vote of the people, per head than was the debt of our Revolu

tion when we came out of that struggle; after they had been bound hand and

and the money value in the country now foot to the car of the Confederacy, bears even a greater proportion to what it Mr. Lincoln says:

was then than does the population. Surely,

each man has as strong a motive now to pre“ The people of Virginia have thus allowed

serve our liberties as each had then to estabthis giant insurrection to make its nest with

lish them. in her borders; and this Government has no A right result, at this time, will be worth choice left but to deal with it where it finds

more to the world than ten times the inen it. And it has the less regret, as the loyal and ten times the money." citizens have, in due form, claimed its protection. Those loyal citizens this Govern

The cool assumptions and fluent ment is bound to recognize and protect, as sophistries of the Confederates, with being Virginia."

regard to State Rights, are very With regard to the self-styled neu- frankly and thoroughly handled by trality of Kentucky, as of other States the President; but those who are which had, by this time, passed out familiar with the teachings of Webof that chrysalis condition into open ster and Jackson on this subject can rebellion, the President forcibly says: need no further argument. Mr. Lin

“In the Border States, so called-in fact, coln thus deals with the fiction of the Middle States—there are those who favor

State Sovereignty:' a policy which they call 'armed neutrality ;' that is, an arming of these States to prevent

" The States have their status In the the Union forces passing one way, or the Union; and they have no other legal status. Disunion the other, over their soil. This If they break from this, they can only do so would be disunion completed. Figuratively against law and by revolution. The Union, speaking, it would be building an impassable and not themselves separately, procured wall along the line of separation--and yet, their independence and their liberty. By not quite an impassable one; for, under the conquest or purchase, the Union gave each guise of neutrality, it would tie the hands of of them whatever of independence and libthe Union men, and freely pass supplies erty it has. The Union is older than any of from among them to the insurrectionists, the States, and, in fact, it created them as which it could not do as an open enemy. States. Originally, some independent coloAt a stroke, it would take all the trouble off nies made the Union; and, in turn, the Union the hands of Secession, except only what threw off their old dependence for them and proceeds from the external blockade. It made them States, such as they are. Not would do for the Disunionists that which, of one of them ever had a State constitution all things, they most desire-feed them well, / independent of the Union."

As to the proper division, or parti- of the others from that one: it would be tion, of powers between the Federal exactly what the seceders claim to do; un

less, indeed, they make the point, that the and the State governments, he says: one, because it is a minority, may rightfully " Whatever concerns the whole should be

do what the others, because they are a maconfided to the whole-to the General Gov- jority, may not rightfully do." ernment; while whatever concerns only the No mention of Slavery as the State should be left exclusively to the State. This is all there is of original principle about grand, inciting cause of the Rebelit. Whether the National Constitution, in lion occurs in this Message; yet defining boundaries between the two, has there is significance in the fact, staapplied the principle with exact accuracy, is not to be questioned. We are all bound by ted by the President, that, while all that defining, without question.”

the Free States had been, beyond exAs to the abstract justice and ception, firm, hearty, and zealous in rightfulness of Secession, he says:

responding to his calls for troops: 6 What is now combated is the principle "None of the States commonly called that Secession is consistent with the Constitu- Slave States, except Delaware, gave a regition-is lawful and peaceful. It is not con- ment through regular State organization. tended that there is any express law for it; A few regiments have been organized within and nothing should ever be implied as law some others of those States, by individual which leads to unjust or absurd consequen- enterprise, and received into the Governces. The nation purchased, with money, the ment service." countries out of which several of these States

But that this is essentially a conwere formed. Is it just that they shall go off without leave, and withont refunding? test between aristocratic assumption The nation paid very large sums (in the ag

and popular liberty the President gregate, I believe, nearly a hundred millions) to relieve Florida of the aboriginal tribes. Is perceives, and does not hesitate to it just that she shall now be off without con- declare. He says: sent, or without making any return? The nation is now in debt for money applied to

"Our adversaries have adopted some decthe benefit of these so-called seceding States,

larations of independence, in which, unlike

Is it just, either in common with the rest.

the good old one penned by Jefferson, they

omit the words "all men are created equal.' that creditors shall go unpaid, or the remaining States pay the whole ? A part of the

Why? They have adopted a temporary

National Constitution, in the preamble of present National debt was contracted to pay the old debts of Texas. Is it just that she which, unlike our good old one signed by

Washington, they omit, We, the people, shall leave, and pay no part of this herself? “Again : If one State may secede, so may

and substitute “We, the deputies of the soveanother; and when all shall have seceded, reign and independent States.' Why? Why none is left to pay the debts. Is this quite of men and the authority of the people?

this deliberate pressing out of view the rights just to creditors ? Did we notify them of this sage view of ours when we borrowed

" This is essentially a people's contest. On

the side of the Union, it is a struggle for their money? If we now recognize this doctrine, by allowing the seceders to go in peace,

maintaining in the world that form and subit is difficult to see what we can do if others

stance of government whose leading object

is to elevate the condition of men-.to lift choose to go, or to extort terms upon which

artificial weights from all shoulders to clear they will promise to reinain."

the paths of laudable pursuit for all-to The following illustration of the afford all an unfettered start and a fair essential unreasonableness of Seces

chance in the race of life. Yielding to par

tial and temporary departures, from necession is ingenious and striking:

sity, this is the leading object of the Gov“If all the States, save one, should assert ernment for whose existence we contend. the power to drive that one out of the Union, “I am most happy to believe that the it is presumed the whole class of seceder poli- plain people understand and appreciate this. ticians would at once deny the power, and It is worthy of note that while, in this the denounce the act as the greatest outrage upon Government's hour of trial, large numbers State Rights. But suppose that precisely of those in the Army and Navy who have the same act, instead of being called driving been favored with the offices have resigned, the one out,' should be called 'the seceding and proved false to the hand that pampered

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