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THE

PULPIT COMMENTARY,

EDITED BY THE

VERY REV. H. D. M. SPENCE, D.D.,

DEAN OF GLOUCESTER;

AND BY THB

REV. JOSEPH S. EXELL, M.A.

WITII

INTRODUCTIONS

BY THE

VEN. ARCHDEACON F. W. FARRAR, D.D., F.R.S.

RIGHT REV. H. COTTERILL, D.D., F.R.S.E.
VERY REV. PRINCIPAL J. TULLOCH, D.D.
REV. CANON G. RAWLINSON, M.A.

REV. A. PLUMMER, M.A., D.D.

London:
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER & CO., LT":

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,

LONDON AND BECCLES.

46507

(The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved.)

THE

PULPIT COMMENTARY,

EDITED BY THIE

VERY REV. H. D. M. SPENCE, D.D.,

DEAN OF GLOUCESTER:

AND BY THE

REV. JOSEPH S. EXELL, M.A.

PRO VERB S.

Exposition
BY REV. W. J. DEANE, M.A.,

RECTOR OF ASHEN;

AND BY
REV. S. T. TAYLOR-TASWELL, M.A.,

RECTOR OF WITHERLEY.

Homiletics
BY REV. PROFESSOR W. F. ADENEY, M.A.

Homilies by Various Authors.

REV. PROF. E. JOHNSON, M.A.

REV. W. CLARKSON, B.A.

SECOND EDITION.

London:
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER & CO., LT?:

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THE PROVERBS.

INTRODUCTION.

$ 1. NAME OF THE Book. The book which we are about to consider takes its general title from the words with which it opens in the Hebrew original, The Proverbs of Solomon'-Mishle Shelomoh. This name, or, in an abbreviated form, Mishle, has always been carrent in the Jewish Church. Later, in rabbinical writings, it was cited under the appellation of Sepher Chocmah, ‘Book of Wisdom,' which title also included Ecclesiastes. In the Septuagint it is headed Mapoluía. Ladwuwuros in some manuscripts, though in others, and those the earliest, the name of Solomon is omitted. St. Jerome, in the Latin Vulgate, gives a longer title : ‘Liber Proverbiorum quem Hebræi Misle appellant.'

Among the early Christian writers, in addition to the name given in the Septuagint, it was called Sopía, “Wisdom,' or 'H laváperos Sopía, 'Allvirtuous Wisdom,' though this last title was also applied to Ecclesiasticus and the Book of Wisdom. Clemens Romanus, in his 'Epistle to the Corinthians' (i. 57), heads a quotation from ch. i. 23–33 thus: Outws yàp lével ý lavápetos Logía, “ Thus saith All-virtuous Wisdom.” That this was commonly received as the designation of our book is clear also from Eusebius, who writes ('Hist. Eccl.,' iv. 22), “Other passages also, as if from unwritten Jewish tradition, Hegesippus cites; and not only he, but Irenæus, and the whole band of ancient writers, called the ‘Proverbs of Solomon'.Panaretos Sophia.'” It is true that in the writings which are attributed to Irenæus still extant, quotations from the Proverbs are cited simply as Scripture without further definition, but we have no reason to discredit Eusebius's testimony concerning a matter with which he must have been well acquainted. Two other titles are found, viz. 'H Lop» Biblos, “The Wise Book,' so called by Dionysius of Alexandria ; and Ilardaywylan Sopia, · Educational Wisdom,' by Gregory of Nazianzum. Melito of Sardis (according to Eusebius, 'Hist. Eccl.,' iv. 26) states, in giving a catalogue

PROVERBS

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