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1867-1873. 2 vols., large folio. Half russia. Illust. vol.

ii. a. t. .:: Vol. I. consists of the Text and wood engravings which are incorporated therewith. At the end are given (1) Table of Contents, (2) Arrangements for binding in one or in two volumes, and (3) Table of the Contents and of the Illustrations arranged alphabetically, 4 col. 8 pp.

Vol. II. has a handsome Frontispiece by way of Title-page; then the Index of Illustrations (taken from Vol. I.) and the whole-page Illustrations separate from the Text. The twenty-two chromolithographs which illustrate the Ornamental Flowers of the Walks in Paris are very well done and are charming to the eye. Alviella, Count Goblet d'.-CONTEMPORARY EVOLUTION OF RELI

GIOUS THOUGHT. See D'Alviella. American Commonwealths.-AMERICAN COMMONWEALTHS: A [28] Series of Historical Studies. By various Authors. Edited

by Horace E. Scudder. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 1886, etc. 16mo. Half russia, top edges gilt.

[In course of publication.] Index, 2 col. at end of each vol.

This series is one of three on “ American History, Statesmanship, and Litera“ ture.” The volumes are printed and bound in a uniform style. There is a Map to each vol.

The Editor's object is to narrate the history of such States of the Union as have exerted a positive influence in the shaping of the national government, or have a striking political, social, or economical history. The volumes already (March, 1888) issued are shortly described below :CALIFORNIA from the Conquest in 1846 to the Second Vigilance [28a] Committee in San Francisco. A Study of American

Character. By Josiah Royce. ::: A most interesting account of the rise and progress of this State. The Author's mother was a California pioneer of 1849. Gold was discovered in 1848; in 1849 a State Constitution was framed, and in 1850 the State was admitted into the Union. The struggles for order and the establishment of the two Vigilance Committees, their rise and progress and the evolution of order by the suppression of the ruffian element that had been attracted to the country by the gold fever, are the principal topics discussed.

The description of San Francisco and its successive fires in December, 1849, May, 1850, May, 1851, and June of the same year, tells a wonderful story worth remembering. The author deals with the history of the Social Evolution of San Francisco in a very entertaining manner. The ownership of “ blue blood,” according as one's pedigree is discoverable in the State prior to or subsequent to the “ Forty-niners,” is dwelt on in Chapter V. (sec. 2).

CONNECTICUT: A Study of a Commonwealth Democracy. By

[286] Alexander Johnston. ::: In the Appendix are given a copy of “The Constitution of 1639,” a “ Bibliog“raphy" for the study of Connecticut, and List of “The Governors of Connecticut.” In this State the Governors were chosen annually until 1876 and thereafter for two years. Until John Winthrop's second election (1659) immediate reëlection was forbidden. John Winthrop was Governor 1657–58 and then 1659-76. Slavery was abolished in 1818, and in the War of 1861-65, besides bearing her share of the common burdens, Connecticut contributed $10,000,000 for military purposes—a burden of debt“ under which many of the towns are still staggering.”

KANSAS: The Prelude to the War for the Union. Third Thou

[28C] sand. By Leverett Wilson Spring. .:: The Author has “endeavored to exhibit the logic and spirit of the first actual “national conflict between slaveholding and free-labor immigrants.”” Kansas was constituted a Territory in 1854, and became the vanguard in the great struggle which resulted in the overthrow of slavery in the United States. It was admitted into the Union as a State in January, 1861, and took an active part in furnishing troops for the Union Cause.

Naturally a good deal of space is devoted to the story of John Brown from his coming into Kansas in 1855, his raid upon the Pottawatomie in 1856, and his final visit to Kansas “to strike a blow at Slavery,” in the expedition across the Missouri, when he liberated 11 slaves, and though the Governor put a price of $3000 upon his head, “piloted the ui liberated bondmen northward and saw Kansas no more." The volume closes with a Bibliography of publications used in the preparation of the book.

KENTUCKY: A Pioneer Commonwealth. Third Edition. By

[28d] N. S. Shaler. ::: The writer, a native of Kentucky, was a Unionist during the War of 1861-65. The Appendix (pp. 409-427) contains the “Resolutions of 1798” protesting against the action of the Federal Congress in “enacting the alien and sedition laws;” various Tables from the Census Returns; and a “List of Kentucky Histories and Books “ relating to the Subject alphabetically arranged." Kentucky was received into the Union with its present limits in 1792. As a Slave State a “ large proportion of her "people sympathized with the South during the War of 1861–65; but the Union “ party, sustained by the presence of Federal troops, were strong enough to prevent “the secession of the State."

The story of Daniel Boone is told, but Mr. Shaler deposes him from his position "in history as the typical pioneer,” and shows that many others had preceded him. The last the Author tells of him is how “this singular, guileless man, now aged, went “into the then far West. Boone had lost all his • land locations' in Kentucky through “a lack of capacity to care for his affairs; and so, when near 70 years old, he removed “ to Missouri, hoping to make a new life in that wilderness.” The State begged and Congress granted him a gift of 10,000 acres of land. These, too, were soon lost in some lawsuits, “so that the brave old man who had helped to conquer an empire died “ landless at last."

MARYLAND: The History of a Palatinate. Third Edition. By

[28e] William Hand Browne. :: Maryland, named Terra Mariæ in honor of Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles the First, was the thirteenth and last State that joined the Confederation. It was colonized in 1634 and by its Charter (which constituted the first proprietary government established in America) was erected into a palatinate equivalent to a principality, reserving only the feudal supremacy of the Crown. Maryland fought in the War of Independence, but no military operations of any consequence took place on her soil. The boundary line, measured over a degree of the meridian by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon in 1763–1767, is the famous Mason and Dixon's line separating the Northern from the Southern States.

The volume closes with the War of Independence. The subject of the Toleration granted to all except those who should blaspheme the Holy Trinity or make reproachful speeches against the Saints is dealt with largely and careful investigation is shown. The Toleration speedily vanished, the Proprietors were overturned for not proclaiming William and Mary, and disabilities were imposed upon Roman Catholics and Dissenters and the Church of England established.

Washington resigned his commission as Commander-in-chief at Annapolis in Dec. 1783

MICHIGAN: A History of Governments. Second Edition. By

[28f] Thomas McIntyre Cooley. ::: Mr. Cooley aptly remarks in the Preface : “ The changes of Sovereign as well “as of subordinate jurisdiction have been greater in Michigan than in any other part " of the American Union. France, Great Britain, and the United States have succes“sively had dominion over it, and under the United States it was part of the Northwest Territory, and of the Territory of Indiana, before it became the Territory of Mich"igan. As Michigan Territory it passed through all the grades of subordinate juris“ diction

so that altogether it seemed appropriate that it should be sketched as a history of governments.” New YORK : The Planting and the Growth of the Empire [28g] State.

2 vols. By Ellis H. Roberts. ::: Mr. Roberts details the attempts to occupy this land by the French, the Dutch, and the Swedes, the attitude of the Iroquois towards the successive settlers, and the eventful periods of New York as an English colony, then in Revolution, and as a State in the Union down to the present time. Chapter 34 (vol. 2) gives an interesting outline of the Literature of the City and State, and the work closes with a hopeful account of the Primacy of New York and the development that awaits her in all that constitutes the glory of a free Commonwealth.

OREGON: The Struggle for Possession. Fourth Edition. By

[28h] William Barrows. .:: This volume is naturally one of the most interesting of the series, dealing as it does with the attempt and failure of John Jacob Astor in 1811 to establish a fur trad

?

ing establishment at Astoria. Before this Captains Lewis and Clarke (in 1804–5) had explored the Columbia to its mouth and reported on the great resources of the country. The claim that the land passed under the Louisiana Purchase the cry, "fix the “Boundary at 54° 40' or Fight"—the first crossing of the Rocky Mountains by two white women in the Parker & Whitman Mission Expedition in 1836—the settlement of the boundary at 49° north latitude—and the massacre of Dr. and Mrs. Whitman and twelve others by the Indians in 1847, make matter for very interesting chapters.

Oregon became a Territory in 1848 and was admitted into the Union as a State in 1859.

VIRGINIA : A History of the People. Ninth Edition. By

[281] John Esten Cooke. :: As Virginia and New England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were dominant in their respective sections, both must be studied in order to understand the rise and progress of the States. The Virginians, nurtured in the principles of Church and King, were yet among the foremost in the establishment of a Republic, so certainly do monarchical rules veer towards republicanism and Republics tend towards kingly rule.

The historical interest of Virginia is very great. It is the oldest permanent English settlement in America, and was founded in 1607 by Captain John Smith, and but for his vigor it must have failed utterly more than once. In this State were born the Presidents Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Harrison, Tyler, and Taylor, and the celebrated Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, General Robert E. Lee, Chief Justice Marshall, and Henry Clay. West Virginia was constituted a separate State in 1863. American Men of Letters.-AMERICAN MEN OF LETTERS. A [29] Series of Critical Biographies. By various Authors.

Edited by Charles Dudley Warner. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 1884, etc. 16mo. Half russia, top edges gilt. [In course of publication.] Index 2 col. at end

of each vol.
.:: This Series is one of three on "American History, Statesmanship, and Litera-
“ture.” The volumes are printed and bound in a uniform style. Each volume has
a Portrait as Frontispiece. The volume on Washington Irving has no Index.

The volumes at present issued (March, 1888) are shortly described below:-
COOPER, JAMES FENIMORE (1789-1851).—Sixth Edition. By

[290] Thomas R. Lounsbury.
:: Cooper was over thirty years of age before he wrote his first novel “ Precaution.”
This volume gives an excellent account of the methods by which the novelist managed
to fall foul of all his readers, critics, reviewers, friends, and foes. Mr. Lounsbury
claims, for instance, in noticing Cooper's satirical novel “ The Monikins” (1835), to be
the only person of the generation that has come upon the stage of active life since
Cooper's death who has read the work through. Cooper's criticisms of America and

38

Americans and his years of newspaper libel suits, and the plucky, if not altogether wise way in which he fought and fought to victory, make a most genial book. A large part of the matter in this volume “has never been before given to the public in any “ form.” Cooper's death-bed injunction that no “authorized account of his life” should be prepared has closed access to the direct and authoritative sources of information contained in family papers.

EMERSON, RALPH WALDO (1803–1882).—Twelfth Thousand.

[296] By Oliver Wendell Holmes. ::: Dr. Holmes has reviewed Emerson's many-sided character in an ample manner. Dealing with the point of his writings, he terms them mosaics by an Author who borrowed from many quarries. He compares him to Burton and Cotton Mather, the first of whom quoted to amuse himself and his reader, and the latter “ to show his learning, “of which he had a vast conceit.” Dr. Holmes finds that Emerson gives 3393 references to 868 different individuals, chiefly authors.

Of these 411 are mentioned more than once.
155

five times or more.
69

ten times or more.

fifteen times or more. 27

twenty times or more. He then gives the particulars of these last-mentioned 27, which “furnish no less “than 1061 references.” Number of times

Number of times Authorities.

Authorities.

mentioned. Aristotle

25
Newton

43 Bacon

47
Plato

81 Burke

24
Plutarch

70 Chaucer

Saadi

30 Coleridge

Saint Paul

24 Dante

Shakespeare Goethe

62 Shattuck (History of ConHafiz

25

cord). Homer

42
Socrates.

42 Luther 30 Swedenborg

40 Michael Angelo

Swift

49 Milton

Webster.

27 Montaigne

30

Wordsworth Napoleon

84 The list may be a curiosity, but certainly in the use of authorities a writer truly “noscitur a sociis."

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FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN (1706-1790), as a Man of Letters.—By

[29c] John Bach McMaster. :: A very interesting account is given of the “strange adventures” which befell Franklin's MSS., especially his Autobiography; how his “fussy' grandson, Temple

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