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Franklin, cut up the papers—pasted a piece here, shifted this there, and transposed another somewhere else, and through dilatoriness and ignorance allowed years to pass by till the publisher Colburn refused to print more than six volumes, whilst the MS. ran to ten; and how the papers were then all bundled into a trunk and deposited in a banker's vaults, where they remained till Temple Franklin was dead. After his death they were removed to “ lodgings” and lost sight of for 17 years. Then coming to light accidentally the finder tried to sell them to the British Museum, to Lord Palmerston, and many others, who never inquired as to their value, while finally the United States Government secured them for $35,000.

The alterations and “improvements” made by the grandson were very amusing. “Guzzlers of beer” became “ drinkers of beer," " footed it to London" was changed to “walked to London,” “ Keimer stared like a pig poisoned” was made to give way to “Keimer stared with astonishment,” and so on ad nauseam. The world is to be congratulated on the recovery of the MSS., which have long since been carefully edited without the grandson's emendations.

In the department of Letters Franklin will always be best known by his popular Autobiography and the “ Poor Richard" Almanack. The former of these has been republished upwards of 50 times.

IRVING, WASHINGTON (1783-1859).—Ninth Edition. By Charles

[298] Dudley Warner. ::: It is a curious fact that “ for several years, while Irving was at the height of his “popularity, his books had very little sale. From 1842 to 1848 they were out of “ print.” To this statement Mr. Warner makes the exception of some stray copies of a cheap Philadelphia edition and a Paris collection in which a volume of his works is included in a “Collection of Ancient and Modern British Authors."

When G. P. Putnam issued the Edition of 1848, circumstances changed, and Irving, between July 1848, and November 1859, received on his copyright over $88,000.

OsSOLI, SARAH MARGARET FULLER (1810–1850).-Sixth Edi

[296] tion. By Thomas Wentworth Higginson. . ::: The life of this lady must always be interesting. Her devotion to study while still a child was so great that she “knew more Latin and Greek than half the profes“sors." In 1840 she became editor of the “ Dial,” the organ of “Transcendentalism “in America,” and her writings have been highly praised by such writers as Emerson, who communicated many of his philosophical reveries to the world through the columns of that publication. Her writings are all fragmentary and are “ charged with “unintelligibility,” but Mr. Higginson defends her on the ground that though she may be confused, rambling, and sometimes high-flown, she offers no paradoxes so startling as some of Emerson's and is incomparably smoother and clearer than Alcott. She married the Marquis d'Ossoli in Rome; took great interest in the Italian struggles; nursed the sick and wounded assiduously in 1849; but, with her husband and child, was drowned in a wreck off Fire Island beach, Long Island, in May, 1850, on a passage from Leghorn to New York.

The volume closes with a Bibliographical Appendix detailing her works and writings and the Publications concerning her,

Poe, Edgar ALLAN (1809-1849).—Third Edition. By George

[298] E. Woodberry. .: The statements of fact in the published accounts of Poe “ are extraordinarily conflicting, doubtful, and contested.” The Author claims to give a vast quantity of “wholly new information or old statements so radically corrected as to become new.”

The story of Poe's private and public marriage to his 14 year old wife is told“ for “the first time according to the facts from original investigation;" but, after all, the merits of an author lie in his works and afford pleasanter matter for thought and reading than a morbid ransacking through the details of a writer's private life, a far too common habit in the biographies of the prosent day.

RIPLEY, GEORGE (1802-1880).–Fourth Edition. By Octavius

[298] Brooks Frothingham. .:: George Ripley was a prominent leader of Transcendentalism, “a name, as “ Emerson said, given nobody knows by whom, or when it was applied.” The first meeting of the Transcendental Club was held at Ripley's House in September, 1836. He was the Founder of “ The Dial,” which was the organ of the school 1840–44; and he was also originator of “ The Brook Farm Association for Education and Agriculture.” Emerson described this Farm as “ a perpetual picnic, a French Revolution “in small, an age of reason in a patty-pan.” After three or four years' existence the Farm was transformed in 1845 into “ a Fourierist phalanx” and the new Journal “ The “ Harbinger” was launched. In 1846 the fire which destroyed the “phalanstery" gave reason for its dissolution. Ripley wrote for a year, while the Harbinger lived, for that Journal, and in 1849 joined the staff of the New York Tribune and shortly became its literary editor, retaining that position until his death.

THOREAU, Henry David (1817–1862).-Sixth Edition. By F.

[29h] B. Sanborn. ::: A well-told lise of a very strange man. Though Thoreau left more than thirty volumes of MSS. behind him, only the “ Week” and “ Walden” appeared in his lifetime. The Week (his first work) was published in 1849 and in 1855: seven hundred of the edition of 1000 copies were returned on Thoreau's hands. He said “ with glee" that he had made “ an addition of seven hundred volumes to his library and all of his

own composition.” He was an “eccentric.” His clothes were made anyhow or no how and he affected corduroy. He never went to church, “never voted, and never "paid a tax to the State.” He was never married and once lived for two years as a hermit in a frame house built by himself on the edge of Walden Pond near Concord.

WEBSTER, NOAH (1758–1843).-Sixth Edition. By Horace E.

[294] Scudder. .:: Noah Webster's memory comes down to us charged with three important movements : He formed himself into a “Revision Committee of one” and in 1833 revised the Authorized Version of the Bible, substituting words and phrases for such as were obsolete or below the dignity and solemnity of the subject, correcting errors in grammar and inserting “euphemisms, words, and phrases which are not very offensive to deli

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cacy' suitable to be used before a promiscuous audience. Next he set out as a pioneer to correct spelling in “A Collection of Essays and Fugitiv Writings,” to which was prefixed a Preface announcing his desire to assist his yung brethren in which much time haz been spent which he did not regret and much censure incurred which his hart told him he did not dezerv. He declared himself attached to America by berth, education, and babit; and regretted that the reeder would obzerv that the orthography of the volum iz not uniform, (and adds most ingenuously,) The reezon is that many of the Essays hav been published before, in the common orthography, and it would hav been a laborious task to copy the whole for the sake of changing the spelling. Thirdly, he published (1828) his great Dictionary. Fortunately no labour seems to have been too great to be incurred on that crowning work of the Lexicographer, and by that he will be remembered, though his revised Version and reformed Spelling may be forgotten.

WILLIS, NATHANIEL PARKER (1806-1867).- By Henry A.

[297] Beers. .: N. P. Willis had the misfortune of furnishing material for a very interesting “ Life.” His disputes with Captain Marryat and challenges to wipe out the insult-his episode in the Forrest Divorce Suit—the severe beating he received from Forrest, and the subsequent litigation with the recovery of $2500 damages (reduced to $1 on a new Trial), and many more such matters, make up a very readable book; but the most interesting part is a review of his voluminous literary productions.

His style will always be matter of debate. Allibone says: “It is to be regretted “ that one capable of writing so well should have disfigured many of his pages by

puerile affectations and unscholarly conceits which are outrages against the statute “ law and common law of the language. An expurgated edition of some of the best “of Mr. Willis's works, or one in which the barbarous jargon complained of should be “ translated into English, might be dedicated • To Posterity' with a very good prospect “ of reaching its destination."

Willis is the “ Hyacinth, a heartless puppy,” in the novel of “ Ruth Hall,” written by his sister Fanny Fern, the pseudonymn of Sarah Willis.

Bartlett, in his Dictionary of Americanisms, believes that Willis has invented many new words, “ some of which, though not yet embodied in our dictionaries, are much “ used in familiar language.” Many of his coinages seem unlikely to live—. 8., Stayat-home-itiveness, re-June-venescence, worth-while-ativeness, and fifty-per-centity, etc.

The volume closes with a very useful Bibliography giving a list of the first Editions of his books.

American Statesmen.-AMERICAN STATESMEN. A Series of Politi[30] cal Biographies. By various Authors. Edited by John T.

Morse, Jr. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 1882, etc. Half russia, top edges gilt. [In course of pub

lication.] Index, 2 col. at end of each vol. ::: The Series is one of three on “American History, Statesmanship, and Literature.” The volumes are printed and bound in a uniform style.

The volumes at present issued (March, 1888) are shortly described below :

ADAMS, JOHN (1735-1826).—By John T. Morse, Jr.

[302] :: Adams kept a Diary and very much of this Life is told from his own records. His son and grandson have displayed the same odd form of heredity" and kept Diaries.

The career of a man who was a Member of the first Continental Congress in 1774; President of the Board of War in 1776; Vice-President of the United States when Washington was inaugurated President in 1789; and became the Second President of the U. S. in 1796, cannot fail to furnish materials for a very interesting volume.

His unpopularity in his later years of political life, and his signing the alien and sedition laws, whereby the expression of opinions on public men and measures was made penal, and his hostility to Thomas Jefferson, are all well and calmly told. The volume closes on the reconciliation between Adams and Jefferson effected by Dr. Rush. Oddly enough, both Jefferson and John Adams died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of American Independence.

Adams, John QUINCY (1767-1848).—By John T. Morse, Jr.

[306] :: He was the son of John Adams, and his father lived to see him elected (1824) as the sixth President, but had died before he failed to secure his reēlection in 1828. The writer enters fully, and in a most interesting manner, into the presentation by John Quincy of antislavery Petitions and the firmness with which he continued to present these Petitions one by one, amidst a perfect tempest of vituperation and abuse, to the number sometimes of 200 in a day, demanding the action of the house on each separate petition, notwithstanding the rule at that period adopted that no Petition relating to Slavery should be read, printed, or debated.

In addition to his Diary of his public life he wrote much prose and verse.
Adams, SAMUEL (1722-1803).—By James K. Hosmer.

[300] .: This is an interesting Life in which the Author has not taken the indiscriminately laudatory view of everything Samuel Adams did which is displayed in Mr. William V. Wells's Life of Samuel Adams (3 vols.). Mr. Hosmer claims to "estimate more fairly “ his character and that of his opponents.”

He was a Member of the Continental Congress in 1774, and was one of the two popular leaders excepted from the General Pardon offered by the British Government in 1775. He signed the Declaration of Independence and was Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts 1789-1794 and Governor in succession to John Hancock 1794-97.

He was a strict Calvinist and opposed the establishment of a Protestant Episcopate in America.

BENTON, THOMAS HART (1782-1858), Life of.—By Theodore

[300] Roosevelt. .: In the Senate of 1826 he distinguished himself as a strong advocate for a gold and silver currency, and was nicknamed “Old Bullion,” while his followers were called “ Hards,” his opponents (advocates of soft money and pro-slavery fanatics) being

called “ Softs.” His son-in-law was Colonel Fremont, the Conqueror of California, and Benton “ was never tired of talking in the Senate and out of the Senate of his son“in-law's courageous exploits,” but he advocated the election of Buchanan to the Presidency in 1856 in preference to Fremont. He published “ The Thirty Years' View of “ American Government 1820-50” and “ An Abridgment of the Debates of Congress 1787–1856" in 16 vols., both of which have been found of great value to historians and others who write on subjects connected with American History.

CALHOUN, JOHN CALDWELL (1782-1850).—By Dr. H. von

[302] Holst. .: From 1830 to the day of his death Calhoun “may be called the very impersona“tion of the Slavery question.” His public career (for little is known of his private life) will always be that of an intensely interesting account of a man “ who failed," says Parton, “ in all the leading objects of his public life except one,” to force the slavery issue on the North. He“ honestly believed slavery to be a good, a positive good," and that “slavery was the most solid foundation of liberty.” His last words were, “ The South, the poor South, God knows what will become of her.” He had approved the Missouri Compromise of 1820, but in 1847 he denounced all compromises and claimed to “go back and stand upon the Constitution.” He was elected Vice-President in 1824 and again in 1828. Among his principal writings are his posthumous “ Dis“quisition on Government" and the “ Discourse on the Constitution and Government “ of the United States,” in which he advocates the election of “two Presidents, one “ for the North and one for the South, each having a veto on all Acts of Congress.”

CLAY, HENRY (1777-1852), Life of.—Third Edition. 2 vols.

[30f] By Carl Schurz, ::: Henry Clay has himself decided the salient points of his career by which he desired most to be remembered, in the List of Events inscribed on a large gold medal struck in commemoration of his public services and amended by himself. The events are : Senate 1806—Speaker 1811–War of 1812 with Great Britain which he strongly advocated—Ghent 1814, when he and his colleagues brought to an issue and signed the treaty for peace with Great Britain-Spanish America 1822–Missouri Compromise 1821, of which he was the father,” by which Missouri was admitted into the Union with slavery, and slavery was prohibited in the territories north of 36° 30' north latitudeAmerican System 1824—Greece 1824–Secretary of State 1825--Panama Instructions 1826–Tariff Compromise 1833—Public Domain 1833 to 1841—Peace with France preserved 1835—and Compromise 1850 which was mainly due to his efforts and postponed for ten years “the conflict between slavery and freedom.” His principle was that each citizen owes a “paramount allegiance to the whole Union—a subordinate one “ to his individual State."

GALLATIN, ABRAHAM ALFONSE ALBERT (1761-1849).—Fifth

[30g ] Edition. By John Austin Stevens. .: Gallatin was born in Geneva, but coming to America in early youth“ rose to fame " in the political service of the United States.” The author gives an interesting account of the Whiskey Insurrection in 1794. Gallatin was a successful Secretary of the

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