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cruel lacerations. In all this, we admit the effort, and of great strenuousness, to keep utter heedlessness of pain ;-but we are not them down; and his heart is differently afsure if even yet there be aught so hellishly fected from that of other men, just because revolting as any positive gratification in the the regards of his mental eye are differently pain itself--or whether, even in the lowest pointed from those of other men. The whole walks of blackguardism in society, it do not bent and engagement of his faculties are also hold, that when sufferings even unto similar to those of another operator who is death are fully in sight, the pain of these busied with the treatment of a piece of insufferings is as fully out of mind.

animate matter, and may almost be said to But the term science, so strangely applied subject it to the torture, when he puts it in as it has been in the example now quoted, the intensely heated crucible, or applies to reminds us of another variety in this most it the test, and the various searching operaafflicting detail. Even in the purely academictions of a laboratory. The one watchers walk we read or hear of the most appalling every change of hue in the substance upon cruelties; and the interest of that philosophy which he operates, and waits for the rewherewith they have been associated, has sponse which is given forth by a spark, or been plead in mitigation of them. And just an effervescence, or an explosion; and the as the moral debasement incurred hy an act other, precisely similar to him, watches of thest is somewhat redeemed, if done by every change of aspect in the suffering or one of Science's enamoured worshippers, dying creature that is before him, and marks when, overcome by the mere passion of every symptom of its exhaustion, or sorer connoisseurship, he puts forth his hand on distress, every throb of renewed anguish, some choice specimen of most tempting and every cry, and every look of that pain which irresistible peculiarity—even so has a like it can feel, though not articulate; marks indulgence been extended to certain perpe- and considers these in no other light than trators of stoutest and most resolved cruelty; as the exponents of its variously affected and that just because of the halo wherewith physiology. But still, could merely the the glories of intellect and of proud discovery same interesting phenomena have been have enshrined them. And thus it is, that, evolved without pain, he would like it betbent on the scrutiny of nature's laws, there ter. Only he will not be repelled from the are some of our race who have hardihood study of them by pain. Even he would enough to explore and elicit them at the ex- have had more comfort in the study of a pense of dreadest suffering-who can make complex automaton, that gave out the same some quaking, some quivering animal, the results on the same application. Only, be subject of their hapless experiment—who will not shrink from the necessary incisions, can institute a questionary process by which and openings, and separation of parts, al to draw out the secrets of its consiitution, though, instead of a lifeless automaton, it and, like inquisitors of old, extract every should be a sentient and sorely agonized reply by an instrument of torture--who can animal. So that there is not even with him probe their unfaltering way among the any reversal of the law of sympathy. There vitalities of a system which shrinks, and may be the feebleness, or ihere may be the palpitates, and gives forth, at every move- negation of it. Certain it is, that it has given ment of their steadfast hand, the pulsations way to other laws of superior force in his of deepest agony; and all, perhaps, to ascer- constitution. And, without imputing to him tain and to classify the phenomena of sen- aught so monstrous as the positive love of sation, or to measure the tenacity of animal suffering, we may even admit for him a life, by the power and exquisiteness of ani- hatred of suffering, but that the love of mal endurance. And still, it is not because science had overborne it. of all this wretchedness, but in spite of it, In the views that we have now given, and that they pursue their

barbarous occupation which we deem of advantage for the right Even here it is possible, that there is nought practical treatment of our question, it may so absolutely Satanic as delight in those suf- | be conceived that we palliate the atrociousferings of which themselves are the inflict-ness of cruelty. It is forgotten, that a charge ers. That law of emotion by which the of foulest delinquency may be made up alsight of pain calls forth sympathy, may not together of wants or of negatives; and, just be reversed into an opposite law, by which as the human face, by the mere want of the sight of pain would call forth satisfaction some of its features, although there should or pleasure. The emotion is not reversed not be any inversion of them, might be an it is only overborne, in the play of other object of utter loathsomeness to beholders, emotions, called forth by other objects

. He so the human character, by the mere ahis intent on the science of those phenomena sence of certain habits, or certain sensibiliwhich he investigates, and bethinks not ties, which belong ordinarily and constituhimself of the suffering which they involve tionally to our species, may be an object of to the unhappy animal

. So far from the utter abomination in society. The want of sympathies of his nature being reversed, or natural affection forms one article of the even annihilated, there is in most cases an | Apostle's indictment against our world; and

certain it is, that the total want of it were culty of attention, which might have opened stigma enough for the designation of a the door, through which suffering without monster. The mere want of religion, or finds its way to sympathy within, is otherirreligion, is enough to make man an outcast wise engaged; and the precise charge, on froin his God. Even to the most barbarous which either morality can rightfully conof our kind you apply, not the term of anti- demn, or humanity be offended, is, that he humanity, but of inhumanity-not the term wills to have it so. of antisensibility: and you hold it enough It may be illustrated by that competition for the purpose of branding him for general of speed which is held, with busy appliance execration, that you convicted him of com- of whip and of spur, betwixt animals. A plete and total insensibility. He is regaled, similar competition can be imagined beit is true, by a spectacle of agony—but not tween steam-carriages, when, either to prebecause of the agony. It is something else, serve the distance which has been gained, therewith associated, which regales him. or to recover the distance which has been But still he is rightsully the subject of most lost, the respective guides would keep up emphatic denunciation, not because regaled an incessant appliance to the furnace, and by, but because regardless of the agony. the safety-valve. Now, the sport and the We do not feel ourselves to be vindicating exciteinent are the same, whether this apthe cruel man, when we affirm it to be not pliance of force be to a dead or a living altogether certain, whether he rejoices in mechanism ; and the enormity of the latter the extinction of life; for we count it a deep does not lie in any direct pleasure which is atrocity, that, unlike to the righteous man felt in the exhaustion, or the soreness, or, of our text, he simply does not regard the finally, in the death of the over-driven anilife of a beast. You may perhaps have been mal. If these awake any feeling at all in accustomed to look upon the negatives of the barbarous rider, it is that of pain; and it is character, as making up a sort of neutral or either the want or the weakness of this latter midway innocence. But this is a mistake. feeling, and not the presence of its opposite, Unfeeling is but a negative quality; and yet, which constitutes him

a barbarian. He does we speak of an unfeeling monster. It is not rejoice in animal suffering-but it is thus that even the profound experimental- enough to bring down upon him the charge ist

, whose delight is not in the torture which of barbarity, that he does not regard it. he inflicts, but in the truth which he 'elicits But these introductory remarks, although thereby, may become an object of keenest they lead, I do think, to some most imreprobation : not because he was pleased portant suggestions for the management of with suffering, but simply because he did the evil, yet they serve not to abate its apnot pity it-not because the object of pain, palling magnitude. Man is the direct agent if dwelt upon by him, would be followed of a wide and continual distress to the lower up by any other emotion than that which animals, and the question is, Can any meis experienced by other men, but because, thod be devised for its alleviation ? On this intent on the prosecution of another object, subject that scriptural image is strikingly reit was not so dwelt upon. It is found that alized, “The whole inferior creation groanthe eclat even of brilliant discovery does ing and travailing together in pain,” because not shield him from the execrations of a of him. It signifies not to the substantive public, who can yet convict him of nothing amount of the suffering, whether this be more than simply of negatives of heed- prompted by the hardness of his heart, or lessness, of heartlessness, of looking upon only permitted through the heedlessness of the agonies of a sentient creature without his mind. In either way it holds true, not regard, and therefore without sensibility. only that the arch-devourer man stands The true principle of his condemnation is, pre-eminent over the fiercest children of the that he ought to have regarded. It is not wilderness as an animal of prey, but that for that

, in virtue of a different organic struc- his lordly and luxurious appetite, as well as ture, he feels differently from others, when for his service or merest curiosity and amusethe same simple object is brought to bear ment, Nature must be ransacked throughout upon him. But it is, that he resolutely kept all her elements. Rather than forego the that object at a distance from his attention, veriest gratifications of vanity, he will wring or rather, that he steadily kept his attention them from the anguish of wretched and illaway from the object; and that, in opposi- fated creatures; and whether for the indul

all the weight of remonstrance gence of his barbaric sensuality, or barbaric which lies in the tremours, and the writh- splendour, can stalk paramount over the ings

, and the piteous outcries of agonized sufferings of that prostrate creation which Nature. Had we obtained for these the re- has been placed beneath his feet. That gards of his mind, the relentings of his heart beauteous domain whereof he has been conmight have followed. His is not an anoma- stituted the terrestrial sovereign, gives out lous heart ; and the only way in which he so many blissful and benignant aspects; and can brace it into sternness, is by barricad- whether we look to its peaceful lakes, or its ing the avenue which leads to it. That fa- Aowery landscapes, or its evening skies, or


to all that soft attire which overspreads the subject of our own species, there stands hills and the valleys, lighted up by smiles forth to view the same sentient apparatus, of sweetest sunshine, and where animals and furnished with the same conductors for disport themselves in all the exuberance of the transmission of feeling to every minutgaiety-this surely were a more befitting est pore upon the surface. Theirs is unscene for the rule of clemency, than for the mixed and unmitigated pain--the agonies iron rod of a murderous and remorseless of martyrdom, without the alleviation of tyrant. But the present is a mysterious the hopes and the sentiments, whereof they world wherein we dwell. It still bears are incapable. When they lay them down much upon its materialism of the impress to die, their only fellowship is with sufferof Paradise. But a breath from the air of ing, for in the prison-house of their beset Pandemoniuń has gone over its living ge- and bounded faculties, there can no relief nerations. And so the fear of man, and be afforded by communion with other inthe dread of man, is now upon every beast terests or other things. The attention does of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, not lighten their distress as it does that of upon all that moveth upon the earth, and man, hy carrying off his spirit from that upon all the fishes of the sea; into man's existing pungency and pressure which hands are they delivered: every moving might else be overwhelming. There is but thing that liveth is meat for him; yea, even room in their mysterious economy for one as the green herbs, there have been given inmate ; and that is, the absorbing sense of to him all things.”' Such is the extent of their own single and concentrated anguish. his jurisdiction, and with most full and And so in that bed of torment, whereon wanton license has he revelled among its the wounded animal lingers and expires

, privileges. The whole earth labours and is there is an unexplored depth and intensity in violence because of his cruelties; and, of suffering which the poor dumb animal from the amphitheatre of sentient Nature, itself cannot tell, and against which it can there sounds in fancy's ear the bleat of one offer no remonstrance ; an untold"and unwide and universal suffering, -a dreadful known amount of wretchedness, of which homage to the power of Nature's consti- no articulate voice gives utterance. But tuted lord.

there is an eloquence in its silence; and the These sufferings are really felt. The very shroud which disguises it, only serves beasts of the field are not so many automata to aggravate its horrors. without sensation, and just so constructed We now come to the practical treatment as to give forth all the natural signs and of this question—to the right method of expressions of it. Nature has not practised which, we hold the views that are now this universal deception upon our species offered to be directly and obviously subThese poor animals just look, and tremble, servient. and give forth the very indications of suf First, then, upon this subject, we should fering that we do. Theirs is the distinct cry hold no doubtful casuistry. We should adof pain. Theirs is the unequivocal physiog- vance no pragmatic or controversial docnomy of pain. They put on the same aspect trine. We should carefully abstain from of terror on the demonstrations of a menacing all such ambiguous or questionable posiblow. They exhibit the same distortions of tions, as the unlawfulness of animal food, agony after the infliction of it. The bruise, or the unlawfulness of animal experiments

. or the burn, or the fracture, or the deep We should not even deem'it the right tacincision, or the fierce encounter with one tics for this moral warfare, to take up the of equal or superior strength, just affects position of the unlawfulness of field-sports

, them similarly to ourselves. Their blood or yet the unlawfulness of those competicirculates as ours. They have pulsations tions, whether of strength or of speed

, in various parts of the body like ours. which at one time on the turf, and at anThey sicken, and they grow feeble with other in the ring, are held forth to the view age, and, finally, they die just as we do. of assembled spectators. We are aware that They possess the same feelings; and what some of these positions are not so quesexposes them to like suffering from another tionable, yet we should refrain from the quarter, they possess the same instincts elaboration of them; for we hold, that this with our own species. The lioness robbed is not the way by which we shall most efof her whelps causes the wilderness to ring fectually make head against the existing aloud with the proclamation of her wrongs; cruelties of our land. The moral force by or the bird whose little household has been which our cause is to be advanced, does not stolen, fills and saddens all the grove with lie even in the soundest categories of an melodies of deepest pathos. All this is pal- ethical jurisprudence and far less in the pable even to the general and unlearned dogmata of any paltry sectarianism. We eye; and when the physiologist lays open have almost as little inclination for the conthe recesses of their system by means of troversy which respects animal food, as we that scalpel

, under whose operation they have for the controversy about the eating just shrink and are convulsed as any living of blood.; and this, we repeat

, is not the

way by which the claims of the inferior | not one moment might elapse between a animals are practically to be carried. To state of pleasurable existence and a state obtain the regards of man's heart in behalf of profound unconsciousness. Again, we of the lower animals, we should strive to do not foresee, but with the perfecting of draw the regards of his mind towards the two sciences of anatomy and physiothem. We should avail ourselves of the logy, the abolition of animal experiments; close alliance that obtains between the re- but we do foresee a gradual, and, at length, gards of his attention, and those of his sym- a complete abandonment of the experiments pathy. For this purpose, we should im- of illustration, which are at present a thouportunately, ply him with the objects of sand-fold more numerous than the experisuffering, and thus call up its respondentments of humane discovery. emotion of sympathy, that among the As to field-sports, we for the present, abother objects which have hitherto engross-stain from all prophecy, in regard, either to ed his attention, and the other desires or their growing disuse, or to the conclusive emotions which have hitherto lorded, it extinction of them. We are quite sure, in over the compassion of his nature and over- the mean time, that casuistry upon this powered it, this last may at length be re- subject would be altogether powerless; and stored to its legitimate play, and reinstated nothing could be imagined more keenly, or in all its legitimate pre-eminence over the more energetically contemptuous, than the other affections or appetites which belong impatient, the impetuous disdain where to him. It affords a hopeful view of our with the enamoured votaries of this gay cause, that so much can be done by the and glorious adventure' would listen to any mere obtrusive presentation of the object to demonstration of its unlawfulness. We the notice of society. It is a comfort to shall therefore make no attempt to dogmaknow, that in this benevolent warfare we tise them out of that fond and favourite have to make head, not so much against amusement which they prosecute with all the cruelty of the public, as against the the intensity of a passion. It is not thus heedlessness of the public; that to hold that the fascination will be dissipated. And, forth a right view, is the way to call forth therefore, for the present, we should be ina right sensibility ; and, that tố assail the clined to subject the lovers of the chase, seat of any emotion, our likeliest process is and the lovers of the prize-fight, to the to make constant and conspicuous exhibi- same treatment, even as there exists betion of the object which is fitted to awaken tween them, we are afraid, the affinity of it. Our text, taken from the profoundesta certain common or kindred character. book of experimental wisdom in the world, There is, we have often thought, a kind keeps clear of every questionable or ca- of professional cast, a family likeness, by suistical dogma; and rests the whole cause which the devotees of game, and of all sorts of the inferior animals on one moral ele- of stirring or hazardous enterprise admit ment, which is, in respect of principle, of being recognized; the hue of a certain and on one practical method, which is, in assimilating quality, although of various respect of efficacy, unquestionable: “A gradations, from the noted champions of righteous man regardeth the life of his the hunt, to the noted champions of the beast." Let a man be but righteous in the ring or of the racing-course ; a certain dash general and obvious sense of the word, and of moral qutlawry, if I may use the exlet the regard of his attention be but di- pression, among all those children of high rected to the case of the inferior animals, and heated adventure, that bespeaks them and then the regard of his sympathy will a distinct class in society,-a set of wild be awakened to the full extent at which it and wayward humourists, who have broken is either duteous or desirable. Still it may them loose from the dull regularities of life, be asked to what extent will the duty go? and formed themselves into so many trusty. and our reply is, that we had rather push and sworn brotherhoods, wholly given over the duty forward than be called upon to de- to frolic, and excitement, and excess, in fine the extreme termination of it. Yet all their varieties. They compose a sepawe do not hesitate to say, that we foresee rate and outstanding public among themnot aught so very extreme as the abolition selves, nearly arrayed in the same pictuof animal food; but we do foresee the in- resque habiliments--bearing most distinctly definite abridgement of all that cruelty upon their countenance the same air of which subserves the gratifications a base recklessness and hardihood-admiring the and selfish epicurism. We think that a same feats of dexterity or danger-indulgchristian and humanized society will at ing the same tastes, even to their very length lift their prevalent voice, for the literature-members of the same sporting least possible expense of suffering to all the society-readers of the same sporting mavictims of a necessary slaughter-for a gazine, whose strange medley of anecdotes business of utmost horror being also a gives impressive exhibition of that one and business of utmost despatch-for the blow, pervading characteristic for which we are in short, of an instant extermination, that contending; anecdotes of the chase, and

anecdotes of the high-breathed or bloody proceeded from them. An endowment for contest, and anecdotes of the gaming-table, an annual discourse upon a given theme, is and, lastly, anecdotes of the high-way we believe, a novelty in Scotland; though We do not just affirm a precise identity be- it is to similar institutions that much of the tween all the specimens or species in this best sacred and theological literature of our very peculiar department of moral history. sister country is owing. We should rejoice But, to borrow a phrase from natural his- if, in this our comparatively meagre and tory, we affirm, that there are transition unbeneficed land, both these themes and processes, by which the one melts, and de- these endowments were multiplied. We moralises, and graduates insensibly into the recommend this as a fit species of charity, other. What we have now to do with, is for the munificence of wealthy individuals

. the cruelty of their respective entertain- Whatever their selected argument shall be, ments--a cruelty, however, upon which whether that of cruelty to animals

, or some we could not assert, even of the very worst one evidence of our faith, or the defence and and most worthless among them, that they illustration of a doctrine, or any distinct rejoice in pain, but that they are regardless method of Christian philanthropy for the of pain. It is not by the force of a mere moral regeneration of our species, or aught ethical dictum, in itself

, perhaps, unques- else of those innumerable topics that lie tionable, that they will be restrained from situated within the reach and ample domain their pursuits. But when transformed by of that revelation which God has made to the operation of unquestionable principle, our world-we feel assured that such a into righteous and regardsul men, they will movement must be responded to with benespontaneously abandon them. Meanwhile, ficial effect, both by the gifted pastors of we try to help forward our cause, by forcing our Church, and by the aspiring youths of upon general regard, those sufferings which greatest power or greatest promise among are now so unheeded and unthought of its candidates. Such institutions aswhose And we look forward to its fual triumph, would help to quicken the energies of our as one of those results that will historically establishment; and through means of a ensue, in the train of an awakened and a sustained and reiterated effort, directed to moralized society.

some one great lesson, whether in theology The institution of a yearly sermon against or morals, they might impress, and that cruelty to animals, is of itself a likely more deeply every year, some specific and enough expedient, that might at least be of most salutary amelioration on the princi some auxiliary operation, along with other ples or the practices of general society. and more general causes, towards such an Yet ye are loath to quit our subject withawakening. It is not by one, but by many out one appeal more in behalf of those poor successive appeals, that the cause of justice sufferers, who, unable to advocate their and mercy to the brute creation will at own cause, possess, on that very account, length be practically carried. On this sub- a more imperative claim on the exertions ject I cannot, within the limits of a single of him who now stands as their advocate address, pretend to aught like a full or a before you. finished demonstration. This might require And first, it may have been felt that by not one, but a whole century of sermons; the way in which we have attempted to and many therefore are the topics which resolve cruelty into its elements, we instead necessarily I must bequeath to my succes- of ļaunching rebuke against it, have only sors, in this warfare against the listlessness devised å palliation for its gross and shockand apathy of the public. And, beside the ing enormity. But it is not so. It is true, force and the impression of new topics, if we count the enormity to lie mainly in the there be any truth in our doctrine, there is heedlessness of pain; but then we charge a mighty advantage gained upon this sub- this foully and flagrantly enormous thing

, ject of all others by the repetition of old not on the mere desperadoes and barbarians topics. It is a subject on which the pub- of our land, but on the men and the worden lic do not require so much to be instruct- of general, and even of cultivated and highed, as to be reminded; to have the re- bred society. Instead of stating cruelty to gard of their attention directed again and be what it is not, and then confining the again to the sufferings of poor helpless imputation of it to the outcast few, we hold creatures, that the regard of their sympathy it better, and practically far more impormight at length be effectually obtained for tant, to state what cruelty really is, and then them. This then is a cause to which the fasten the imputation of it on the commoninstitution of an anniversary pleading in its place and the companionable many. Those favour, is most precisely and peculiarly outcasts to whom you would restrict the adapted. And besides, we must confess, in the condemnation, are not at present within general, our partiality for a scheme that has the reach of our voice. But you are ; and originated the Boyle, and the Bampton, and it lies with you to confer a ten-fold greater the Warburtonian lectureships of England, hoon on the inferior creation, than if all with all the valuable authorship which has barbarous sports, and all bloody esperi

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