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person might read and teach in their houses the book set out in the year 1540.' vol. i. p. 322. Now the words of the act are these: in the first instance, 'contrary to that doctrine, which, since the year of our Lord 1540, is, or any time hereafter during the king's majesty's life, &c.-shall be set forth by his highness; and in the second instance, (not the book set out in the year 1540, but) all such doctrine, as, since the said year of our Lord 1540, is or shall be set forth by the king's majesty,' &c. expressions certainly conveying a meaning very different from that of Burnet. The truth was, that the commissioners, appointed to draw up the work in question, did certainly meet in 1540; but that the work itself was not published until after the prorogation of the parliament on the 12th of May, [1543.] During the last week in April we find it in the hands of the convocation; and on the following 29th of May it was printed."

From the Necessary Erudition, (which indeed the simplicity and elegance of the language, as well as the doctrine, discover in many parts the hand and heart of Cranmer, especially in those which I have selected,) we pass to the next article of the compilation; the Homilies on Salva


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tion, Faith, and Good Works. These I have to assign expressly to the pen of this archbishop, upon authority which will hardly be questioned, notwithstanding the contrary suppositions of some historians; and which will be gladly received, where any opinion approaching to the fact has been entertained. I am not aware, that the authority has ever been noticed; but he who affords it, will be found worthy of respectful notice, both as an acute and powerful writer.

Fuller is perhaps the first historian, who (p) relates, that " some beheld the Homilies as not sufficiently legitimated by the 35th Article to be, for their doctrine, the undoubted issue of the Church of England; alledging them composed by private men of unknown names, who may probably be presumed, at the best, but the chaplains of the archbishops, under whom they were made. Hence is it, that some have termed them homely Homilies, others a popular discourse, &c." They, who could make such observations, were strangers to the dignity, and comprehensiveness, and perspicuity, of illustration, which at least in these Homilies of Cranmer (not to

(p) Church Hist. B. IX. p. 75.


mention several other) are obvious, and are worthy of him. But to proceed historically. Heylin seems to consider the encouragement, rather than the composition, of the archbishop, as the characteristick of his grace's share in the Homilies. (q) "Though the making of these Homilies be commonly ascribed (and in particular by Mr. Fox) to archbishop Cranmer, yet it is to be understood no otherwise of him, than that it was chiefly done by encouragement and direction; not sparing his own hand to advance the work, as his great occasions did permit." What Strype has said, is embodied in the following conjectures of a very learned theologian of modern times. "(r) Who the authors were of the book of Homilies, has never been ascertained. Of the second, published in the reign of queen Elizabeth, I am not aware, that the writer of any single Homily has been indubitably specified. With regard to the first part, we may, I think, agrce with Strype, who says, 'the Homily of Salvation particularly seems to be of his [Cranmer's] own doing.'

(p) Quinquarticular Controv. P. II. c. 8.

(r) Eccl. Biography, by the Rev. Dr. Wordsworth, 1810. Vol. iii. p. 505,

Life of Archbp. Cranmer, p. 149. And the same may perhaps reasonably be conjectured of the second Homily," of the Misery of all Mankind; of the fourth, of the true and lively Faith; and of the fifth, of Good Works." This therefore brings me to the proof, that Cranmer wrote the three Homilies in question.

John Woolton, the nephew of the celebrated Alexander Nowell, was the author of several theological works in the reign of Elizabeth. He was a canon residentiary of the Church of Exeter, and afterwards bishop of that see. Wood describes him as (6 (s) a person of great piety and reason, and an earnest assertor of conformity against the opposers thereof, for which he was blamed by many, but commended by more, after his death.', In 1576, not long before he was (t) advanced to the prelacy, he published The Christian Manuell or the Life and Maners of True Christians, 12mo. Herein he says, with manly eloquence,

(u) What wee teache and thinke of Good Workes, those Homelies written in our Englishe


(s) Ath. Ox. vol. i. p. 230. edit. 1691.

(t) July 2, 1579. Le Neve, Fasti Eccl. Angl. p. 83. (u) Christian Manuell, sign. c. iii,

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tounge of SALVATION, FAITH, and WORKES, by that lyght and martyr of Christes churche, CRANMER, archebyshoppe of Canterburie, doo playne testifye and declare; which are buylt upon so sure a foundation, that no sycophant can deface them, nor sophyster confute them, whyle the worlde shall endure: unto whom I remytte the reader desyrous of an absolute dyscourse in this matter." Living so very near the time when Cranmer flourished, of such distinguished character in the Church, and to this day not contradicted in his plain assertion, bishop Woolton therefore appears to me an evidence, in this case, of indisputable authority.

It is to the first of these Homilies that the framers of our Articles of Religion, both in the time of Edward the Sixth and of Elizabeth, refer; though under the name of the Homily of Justification: our reformers, it has been (w) observed, understanding the terms justification and salvation as equivalent.

The First Book of Homilies (x) was published in 1547. The earliest copy, however,

(a) See the preseut volume, p. 47.

(x) By Grafton, in 4to. See Ames, Hist. of Printing. p. 196.

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