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tion never to be overlooked. (m)“ I cannot help thinking, that some misconception and perversion of the Scripture doctrine of salvation may have arisen from an ambiguity in the words saved by Faith without Works, arising from the different meanings which may be annexed to them accordingly as they are spoken or written. If we could have been saved by our own Good Works, Christ would have died in vain. But as we cannot be saved by Works, God has mercifully appointed, that we shall be saved by Faith, without Works. But, to be saved by Faith, without Works, that is, per Fidem, nullo Operum adjumento, has a very different meaning from being saved by Faith without Works, that is, per Fidem infructuosam. In the first sense, without works is the attribute of the verb; in the second, it is the attribute of the

The difference is still more striking in Greek. We are saved δια πιςεως, άνευ εργων, but not δια πιςεως της ανευ εργων. For, we are saved by Faith-without Works; but not by the Faith which is without Works. The former sense, by admitting that we are saved not by Works, (for


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pm) Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Durham, by Shute, Bishop of Durham, in July 1801. p. 6.


our best works are far short of our duty,) but by an atonement of infinitely greater value, does not exclude the necessity of Good Works; but the latter supposes the validity of a Faith unproductive of Good Works, a-sense contrary to the whole tenor of Scripture.

For the comparison with the Articles, which expressly define Baptism and Original Sin, abundance of observation is ministered both in the Necessary Erudition and in the Homilies. In the Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum, that divine promise, on which our Church relies as the sure and only ground of confidence, in regard to the regeneration and election of every infant in Baptism, is (n) particularly illustrated. the belief expressed, at the same time, in the same office, by another of the reformed Churches. (0)O Almighty God, which in commanding us

Such wa

(n) “ Plures item ab aliis, &c.See the whole passage in this volume pp. 114, 115. ending with “ proveniunt."

(0) A Faythful and moost Godlye Treatyse, &c. Whereunto the order that the Church and Congregation of Denmarke doth use at the receivinge of Baptisme, &c. is added. Myles Coverdale. Impr. at Lond. by J. Day and W. Seres. No date. sign. F. 1. b. The treatise, to which this addition is made, is Calvin's upon the Lord's Supper, translated.


to pray hast assured us, that we, believing stedfastly in thy promise, shall have all that we desire, specially concerning the soul, wherein we seek thy glory, and wealth of our neighbours; our humble petition to thee, O most dear Father, is, that forasmuch as this child is not without Original Sin, thou wilt consider thine own mercy, and according to thy promise, send this child thy good Spirit, that in thy sight it be not counted among the children of wrath, but of light and grace, and become a member of the undefiled Church, spoused to Christ, thy dear Son, in faith and love unfeigned.” And thus to those who demand,

to apply his Spirit to the soul in a gracious operation, when the baptismal water is applied to the body, these collations will furnish the substance of a reply, which may be supported by the Book of God. The demand has been made; and the promise, annexed to Baptism, (p)is to be found in several places of Scripture : I shallname but three, Acts xxii, 16. where Ananias advises St. Paul, in order to his thorough con

(p) The Practice of the Orthodox Church of England in baptizing Infants, &c. 1709. p. 57.


version, to arise and be baptized, and wash away his sins,' &c. which implies that Almighty God does derive pardoning and regenerating Grace to us by Baptism : St. John iii. 5. 'Except one be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God;' where our Lord expresses Christian Baptism by the two principal parts, the Spirit and the water, of which this sacrament consists; and likewise implies, that both together are the means which he has ordained to work our conversion, and procure our admission into his kingdom and glory: and Tit. m. 5. 'According to his mercy he saved us by the washing of Regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;' by which phrases the apostle means Christian Baptism, St. Paul putting the two chief parts, washing and renewing, for the whole of it, and says, both together accomplish salvation, if we ourselves by our own wilful sins do not hinder it. Now is not the Scripture's mentioning the Spirit to concur with the water in Baptism tantamount to a PROMISE, that in the due use thereof the Holy Spirit shall concur with it ?- These three texts prove that Baptism is more than a mere initiating sign to the baptized parties, (which is all that some of our opposers will allow it,) even


that it is a seal too of the pardon of their sins, and the only extraordinary means God has appointed for their conversion and salvation."

That the import of the Article of Original Sin, and the assertion in it, upon the authority of an apostle, of concupiscence having the nature of sin, may duly be compared with the Article of Free-Will, in the Necessary Erudition, and the later declarations which mention the subject; I select one more cautionary remark. (9) No fair interpreter can suppose, that either the apostle, or the compilers of the Articles, meant, tha the natural affections and appetites, directed to their proper objects, and moving in their proper sphere, must necessarily raise in us sinful desires, by which alone they become sinful in themselves. Concupiscence begets evil desires ; and evil desires must proceed from an evil principle. We must interpret the Article, as we do the tenth Commandment.—And the former part of the Article, which relates to the original corruption of

(9) Charge relative to the Articles of the Church of Eng. land, delivered to the Clergy of the Archdeaconry of Worcester, in the year 1772, by J. Tottie, Archdeacon of Worcesler, and Canon of Christ Church College, Oxford, p. 18.



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