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but sleepless eyes, the uninvited, awaiting getting religion now that she can't get a the return of invited guests from some husband ?” But it is the inspired Apostle party or masquerade ; in brief, spending who says, “The unmarried woman careth and being spent in the service of perhaps for the things of the Lord, that she may be a sister, a cousin, or a niece, whose return holy both in mind and in spirit." Thus for untiring, disinterested affection, is the do we see oftenest in the single woman that selfish love that considers its recipient perfect love to God, which manifests itself invaluable, not as a gentle, unpretending in love to all his creatures. associate, but as a reliable convenience! For our part, we venerate the name of

But let us look at the causes, as well as old Maid-its heroism, its benierolence, effects

, of single life in woman. If the its piety! Ye, who are blessed with an histories of all old maids were written, Aunt Fanny, an Aunt Polly, or an Aunt what disclosures of female heroism would Betsy--names too venerable to be spelled be made! In how many cases could with the modern ie, which in your own, celibacy be traced, not to want of per- perchance, is substituted for the oldsonal or mental attractions ; nor of ad-fashioned y- do you ever think that, miration or love; but to that heroic nature though unwedded, she has a heart alive which, though capable of the deepest and with all human sympathies ? Ah, you most enduring passion, has the fortitude cannot but feel this in her countless to live alone, rather than be bound, not ministrations for your comfort. But do

she not "He that ruleth his spirit be greater than for herself in return, but for her deeds, and he that taketh a city,” surely she that weeps silently under the consciousness ruleth her heart is greater than she that that when her lonely, loving life ceases on taketh a name for the sake of a name; or earth, not she, but her offices of kindness to avoid one stigmatised indiscriminately. will be missed and mourned for ?

Love is the instinct of the female Such are some of the obscurer subjects heart: almost every woman who has lived of the vulgar prejudice against • Old to see thirty years, has felt the outgoings Maids ;” and if these noiseless, yet inof affection's well-spring; but hers is not mortalized individuals, "whose names are often the power of choosing, though it is written in the Book of Life," are such of refusing. Who may tell the inward invaluable members of the household and conflicts, the unuttered agonies, the pro- of society, what shall we say of Hannah tracted soul-sickness of conquered pas- More, of Joanna Baillie, of Maria Edgesion ? But when a true woman once worth, of Jane Taylor, and a host of triumphs over an inexpedient or unrecipro- others, whose names are written in the cated attachment, she triumphs over self, universal heart; some of whom “ do rest and becomes, that noblest of feminine from their labours," and all of whose spirits the disinterested friend of man- works shall live after them? For ever kind! Be sure that the scandal-monger, honoured, and through these renowned, be the tart-mouthed old maid, is one whose the sisterhood of Old Maids. inner heart has never felt the wound that opens a passage for human sympathies to EDUCATION BEGINS WITH LIFE.-Beflow out; but is smarting under super- fore we are aware the foundations of the ficial mortification, that, like poison intro- character are laid, and no subsequent dueed only skin-deep, festers and irritates instruction can remove or alter them. continually. Rare are such cases, and yet Linnæus was the son of a poor Swedish few as they are, they infect the general clergyman. His father had a little flowermind, so that old maid, thus considered, garden, in which lae cultivated all the is a noun of multitude, including all who flowers which his means or his taste could choose or who are destined to live single select. Into his flower-garden he introlives. And how many unhappy marriages duced his little son from infancy, and this are the consequence of this opprobrium ! little garden undoubtedly created the

Even the single - hearted piety of taste in this child which afterwards made unmarried females is derided. Who has him the first botanist and naturalist of his not heard such ribaldry as this, “O, she's age, if not of his race. tai,




earnestness ::" as sure aș death that's a ANECDOTE OF THE DUKE OF I got; and d'ye no think it's plenty ?”

*** I do not,” said the Duke, there must BUCCLEUGH.

be some mistake : and as I'am acquainted This nobleman was as much dis. with the Duke, if you'll return with me, I tinguished for his kindness of heart' as think I'll get you more."te! for his riches, uniting real nobility of The boy consented, back they wentcharacter to that of rank and station in the Duke rang the bell and ordered all the the community. The following account servants to be assembled. Now," said is copied from the Glasgow magazine :- the Duke to the boy, '“ point out the I Some time ago, the Duke of Buccleugh, son that gave you the shilling." in one of his walks, purchased a cow from " It was that chap there wi' the white a person in the neighbourhood of Dalkeith, apron,” pointing to the butler. and left orders to send it to his place the -The delinquent confessed, fell“ on his following morning. According to agrees knees," and attempted an apology'; but ment, the cow was sent, and the Duke, the Duke interrupting him, indignantly happening to be in deshabille; and walking ordered him to give the boy the sovereign in the avenue, spied a little fellow ineffec- and quit his service instantly." tually attempting to drive the animal •,“ You have lost," said the Duke, " your forward to its destination. The boy not shilling, your situation, and your character, knowing the Duke, bawled out to him, by your covetousness ; learn, henceforth, " Heh, mun, come here and gie's a han that honesty is the best policy

The boy by this time, recognised and The duke saw the mistake and deter- assistant in the person of the fellow. Pretending, therefore, not to un- ling worth and honesty of the boy, thus

him to to , the boy still craving his assistance; at there, and provided for, at his own last he cries in a tone of apparent distress, usuf "Come here, mun, and help us, and as

to sure's onything, I'll gi'e you the half o' Sleep.-There is no better description what I get."

giver of the approach of sleep than in one This last solicitation had the desired of Leigh Hunt's papers---" It is a delicious effect; the Duke went and lent a helping movement, certainly, that of being hand.

nestled in bed, and feeling that


shall “And now,” said the Duke, as they drop gently to sleep. The good is to come, trudged along, how much do you think not past ; the limbs have been just tired you'll get for this job!"

enough to render 'the remaining in one "Ou, I dinna ken,” said the boy, “but posture delightful;' the labour of the day I'm sure o' somethink, for the folk up by is gone." A gentle failure of the percepat the house are gude to a' bodies." tions creeps over you; the spirit of conAs they approached the house, the sciousness disengages itself

more, and Duke darted from the boy, and entered by with slow and 'hushing degrees, like a another way. He called a servant, put a mother detaching her hand froin that of sovereigu into his hand, saying

her sleeping child the mind seems to “Give that to the boy that has brought have a balmy lid closing over it, like the the cow.”

eye'tis "closed. "The mysterious spirit The Duke returned to the avenue, and has gone to take its airy rounds.” was soon rejoined by the boy.

"Well, how much did you get?!” said " MARRIAGE is Divine in its institution the Duke.

382 791 sacred in its unionholy in the mystery "A shilling," said the boys and there's sacramental'in its signification-honourthe half o’t t ye.'! ).-13.3"1. lutehtaariable in its appellative - religious' in its

" But surely you got more than a shil employinents: it is an adýantage to the ling?" said the Duke.

societies of men,' and it is '* holiness to No," said the boy with the utmost | the Lord.?" Jeremy Inylor.

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MILK AND ITS ADULTERATIONS, of the body. In some cases where fatty

{ vaig a'zi qidt on sy'b bae ; 102 matter Many infants, epbsist, entirely upon the consequence

in its usual state cannot milk of the cow, bthat writious dluid be taken withont inconvenience, skim

fogpisivao ylarger portion of milk may be substituted with advantage. the diet of most , young children, and - Butter-milk approaéhes (skin-milki in its daily food of alınost every adult: it there- quantity of fat it as an article of diet for sore becomes a matter of primary in poor persons, it has the recommendatioh portance to determine whether milk as of cheapnessáll yopend) 2015 mort haigos zi supplied for the consumption of the public, ,Potatoes and butterla milk, asitis well especially the inhabitants of this great known, taken together, form a very loonu city, is in a genuine state or not. "Flores șiderablel portion of the diet of the peas

if the testimony of ordinary observers, santrysóf Ireland'; hthe butter-milk Icons and even of many scientific witnesses, stitutes oan essential partiiofosuchtà diet, is to be credited, there are but few articles it : supplying is the introgenizedd matter, of faod more liable to adulteration (and necessary for thesegrowth ofof their body, this of the grossest description) than milk and of which the potatoes themselves are We will now proceed to ascertain to what deficientadt urith or gaitamos y extent this testimony may be relied upon to In vreontradistinction to these, boream but before referring to the adulteration of consists almost lentirely of the fat, with milk, it will be proper, to treat of the com+ a very small quantity of

casein, sugar, and position of that fluid, aidt vd yod odt the other constituents of milk, and it in

From the fact thatəqpersons may ibe - Butter differs little from scream, butT is entirely sustained uponą diet of ranilk more completely separated from the sugar, for an indefinite periodo it may be con: cheese, and saits ; and the fat Iglobales cluded that that Azuidmust repntain all in place of being free and distinet have the elements necessary 1f964&theagrowth all run together, so as to form a semi-solid and sustenance of the human body ma substancei gasgas 10 9001 5 si 29119 ad tas view the correctness of which is fully Curds and whey are made up of all the established by chemical research. 999.12 elements of milk, but the form in which

Milk consists of water holdingizin solu- they exist is altered; the cheese is thrown tion casein or cheese, a sugar, rofi milk down by rennet, or by the addition of various salts, and, in suspension fatty an acid, as acetic acid, and in its descent matter, in the form of myriads of semi-carries down the greater part of the butter, opaque globules to which the colour and the two forming together the curd, while opacity of milk is due. admil 1259 100 the whey or serum consists, entirely of

Skim-milk, butter milk, cream, butter, water, the sugar, and the salts.ct 19g It'soy, curds and whey, cream cheese and ordi- Cheese is made from skim-milk, entire nary cheese, are mere, modifications of milk, or cream it consists of the casein, milk, differing only from each other either and butter. ih The cheese prepared from in the abstraction of one or more of, its skim-milk containing the smallest

quantity constituents, or else in the variation of of butter that from entire milk, as Chela their proportions. cd 1911 gnidosteh adtonshires cheese, a larger quantity, and that's

The first of these, skim-milk, differs from from cream, as Stilton cheese, the most ordinary milk in containing a less gnantity of all.ord asi toild yod odt of ist svi of fatty matter, a portion of this having The relative proportions of the differentit been renoved with the cream ; it still, constituents sof cows milkyt especially the however, contains nearly all the cheese, fatty matter, are subject to overy great

sugar of milk, some butter, and the variation. The age of thercow;d the time salts of milk; it is therefore scarcely less after calving,

food, temperature, and therlt nutritious than new milk, but in con- time and frequency of milking all oecasequence of the diminished amount of sion considerable

differences in the

quantitydt fat, is less adapted to occasion the develop-14 and qualityitofi milko, voy ylstue tua ment of that substance, and to the main To certain of these modifying causes weil of the respiration and temperature will

now refer. It/The anlatural food" of the


cow is evidently that derived from pastures, drop out, and their breath becomes fetid. namely grass. The milk obtained from cows Though thus diseased, they do not fall fed upon this, being of excellent quality, away in flesh, but on the contrary puff up and sufficiently rich for all purposes. and bloat to an appearance of great fat

The next most natural food is dried ness; their joints become stiff, so that grass, or hay, which is given largely to they cannot with ease lie down, and they cows in winter, the milk being nearly the rarely or never come out alive. Bad as same in quality as from grass.

this is, their milk is afterwards mixed Beet-root and carrots being very nutri- with molasses, water, and whiting, and tious are also usually given to cows in the thus sold to the public of New York for winter time with advantage. But, as is pure milk." well known, the system of feeding the But the greater part of the London cows greater number of the cows which supply have the quality of their milk deteriorated London with milk, is altogether artificial not only by improper feeding, but by the and unnatural, grains and distillers' wash manner in which they are housed and form the chief part of their food; these confined. The Hon. F. Byng, in a stimulate the animals unnaturally, and pamphlet on the sanitary condition of under the stimulus, large quantities of St. James's, Westminster, thus describes milk of inferior quality are secreted, the the actual condition of some of the cowcow becoming quickly worn out and dis- sheds which he visited : eased in consequence.

“Two of these sheds (of which there In reference to the effect of grains on are fourteen in the parish) are situated at cows, Mr. Harly makes the following the angle of Hopkins and New-streets, remarks:

Golden-square, and range one above the “Brewers' and distillers' grains make other, within a yard of the back of the the cattle grain-sick, as it is termed, and houses in New-street. Forty cows are prove injurious to the stomach of the kept in them, two in each seven feet of animal; it has been ascertained that if space. There is no ventilation save by the cows be fed upon these grains, their con- unceiled tile roof, through which the amstitutions become quickly destroyed." * moniacal vapours escape into the houses,

The Veterinary Record for 1850, pub- to the destruction of the health of the lishes the annexed extract from a New inmates. Besides the animals, there is at York paper, which shows the effect of one end a large tank for grains, a storedistillers' wash on cows:

place for turnips and hay, and between There exists on Long Island, near them a receptacle into which the liquid Brocklyn, several manufactories of milk, manure drains, and the solid is heaped. the process of conducting which should At the other end is a capacious vault, be known. One of these dairies covers with a brick partition-one division of 300 feet front, by 300 feet deep, carefully which contains mangel-worzel, turnips, fenced in so as to be as private as pos- and potatoes ; and the other a dirty, yelsible; the business of the people being to low, sour-smelling liquid, called brewers' drink the milk, not to know how it is wash, a portion of which is pumped up made ; in which enclosure 400 cows are and mixed with the food of the cows. kept the whole year round. These cows The neighbours are subject, also, to the are fed on the refuse slop of whiskey dis- annoyance of manure-carts, which fretillers, and it is given to them warm. quently stand some time in front of their Such is the fondness of cows for this vile houses; and when the mouth of the vault compound, that having fed upon it for is opened to admit the ingress of the a week or more, their appetites become so brewers' wash, a burning sour smell is depraved that they will take no other food; described by them as pervading their the result is, their milk-producing organs dwellings. After the buildings have are stimulated to a wonderful degree; remained closed for the night, the atmothey yield enormously, but soon become sphere within becomes heated, foul, and diseased, their gums ulcerate, their teeth unwholesome. In summer time the smell

is most offensive. Decomposition of the * "Harleian Dairy System,” pp. 73, 74. vegetable matter in the vault is also

stated to be frequent, and the stench and it is stated that milk of good quality thence arising insufferable.”

should have a specific gravity of about "At the opposite side of the houses in 1,031. But milk, as we have seen, contains the same street is another shed, with even also a large proportion of fatty matter, less possibility of ventilation than in and which, being much lighter than disthose just described, thirty-two cows stand tilled water, serves, when equally suspended side by side, two in each space of seven through the fuid, to decrease its density. feet, as above.

The larger therefore the quantity of "In this atmosphere, reeking with all cream, the lower will be the specific these pestiferous effluvia, the poor crea- gravity. Some milks, owing to the large tures are kept close shut up, night and quantity of cream contained in them, posday, till their milk failing they are con- sessing a density of only 1,020, or even less. signed to the butcher.”

Now this effect of the presence of Thanks, however, to our railways, a con- cream in great amount, in decreasing the siderable portion of our supplies of milk density of milk, was not sufficiently appreare now obtained from the country, and ciated until the recent reports which have hence it is to be hoped that, ere long, the appeared in the Lancet, in which it was practice of housing and confining cattle shown that the specific gravity tests as in London will entirely cease.

applied to new milk, was entirely fallaWith regard to the quality of milk, as cious, for by it those milks, the richest in affected by the time and frequency of cream, would be deemed inferior ; applied milking, morning milk is said to be however to the milk after the separation of better than that obtained in the afternoon; the cream, it affords valuable indications. the milk of cows, when milked but once a The specific gravity of milk is usually day only, is richer than either. It is also determined by means of an instrument the common belief that the last portion of termed an hydrometer. This is a grathe milk obtained at any milking is duated glass tube, weighted so as to foat richer than the first. We have ascer- upright when immersed in any fluid, sinktained that this belief is well founded, and ing deep in liquids of low specific gravity, that the milk last abstracted, usually con- and but little in those of high density; the tains three times as much cream as the scale serves to show the exact density in first. This fact is not without practical degrees, contrasted with distilled water. importance. It is a common practice for In estimating then the quality of milk, invalids and others to procure their glass this instrument should be used for deterof milk direct from the cow ; we thus mining the density of either skim milk, perceive that in this way they seldom or, what is better still, the serum of milk; obtain the proper proportion of butter,-a for numerous observations have shown circumstance which may be of advantage that the density of these, when pure and in some cases, and a disadvantage in genuine, the first ranging between 1027° others.

and 1031°, and the second between 1025° Now although the casein and sugar of and 1028°. Inilk, as well as the butter, vary in quantity The amount of cream is determined by in different cases, yet, ordinarily, the an instrument, invented by the late Sir quality of milk is estimated by the amount Joseph Banks, termed a lactometer. This of cream which it yields.

consists of a glass tube, usually eleven For the determination of the quality of inches long, and half an inch in diameter ; milk, it is however requisite not only to ten inches of this are graduated in tenths ascertain the amount of cream which it of an inch, that is, in hundredths of the yields, but also to take the specific gravity whole; the tube is to be filled with milk or density of the milk.

and set aside for twelve hours. The In estimating the specific gravity of cream ascends to the surface, and its any liquid, distilled water is taken as the amount is determined by the thickness of standard, being reckoned at 1,000. Now the stratum formed, as shown by the nummilk, holding as it does in solution a ber of degrees or tenths through which it large quantity of sugar, casein, and salts, extends. is of course much heavier than water; Cream forms more quickly in warm

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