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but sleepless eyes, the uninvited, awaiting getting religion now that she can't get a the return of invited guests from some husband ?” But it is the inspired Apostle party or masquerade ; in brief, spending who says, “The unmarried woman careth and being spent in the service of perhaps for the things of the Lord, that she may be a sister, a cousin, or a niece, whose return holy both in mind and in spirit.” Thus for untiring, disinterested affection, is the do we see oftenest in the single woman that selfish love that considers its recipient perfect love to God, which manifests itself invaluable, not as a gentle, unpretending in love to all his creatures. Tot associate, but as a reliable convenience! For our part, we venerate the name of
But let us look at the causes, as well as Old Maid-its heroism, its benevolence, effects, of single life in woman. If the its piety! Ye, who are blessed with an histories of all old maids were written, Aunt Fanny, an Aunt Polly, or an Aunt what disclosures of female heroism would Betsy--names too venerable to be spelled be made! In how many cases could with the modern ie, which in your own, celibacy be traced, not to want of per- perchance, is substituted for the oldsonal or mental attractions; nor of ad-fashioned y do you ever think that, miration or love; but to that heroic nature though unwedded, she has a heart alive which, though capable of the deepest and with all human sympathies ? Ah, you most enduring passion, has the fortitude cannot but feel this in her countless to live alone, rather than be bound, not ministrations for your comfort. But do united, to an uncongenial being. And if you ever realise that she feels, not loved "He that ruleth his spirit be greater than for herself in return, but for her deeds, and he that taketh a city," surely she that weeps silently under the consciousness ruleth her heart is greater than she that that when her lonely, loving life ceases on taketh a name for the sake of a name; or earth, not she, but her offices of kindness to avoid one stigmatised indiscriminately. will be missed and mourned for?
Love is the instinct of the female Such are some of the obscurer subjects heart: almost every woman who has lived of the vulgar prejudice against « Old to see thirty years, has felt the outgoings Maids;" and if these noiseless, yet in. of affection's well-spring; but hers is not mortalized individuals, “whose names are often the power of choosing, though it is written in the Book of Life,” are such of refusing. Who may tell the inward invaluable members of the household and conflicts, the unuttered agonies, the pro of society, what shall we say of Hannah tracted soul-sickness of conquered pas- More, of Joanna Baillie, of Maria Edgesion ? But when a true woman once worth, of Jane Taylor, and a host of triumphs over an inexpedient or unrecipro- others, whose names are written in the cated attachment, she triumphs over self, universal heart; some of whom " do rest and becomes, that noblest of feminine from their labours," and all of whose spirits the disinterested friend of man- works shall live after them? For ever kind! Be sure that the scandal-monger, honoured, and through these renowned, be the tart-mouthed old maid, is one whose the sisterhood of Old Maids. be inner heart has never felt the wound that opens a passage for human sympathies to EDUCATION BEGINS WITH LIFE.-Beflow out; but is smarting under super- fore we are aware the foundations of the ficial mortification, that, like poison intro- character are laid, and no subsequent dueed only skin-deep, festers and irritates instruction can remove or alter them. continually. Rare are such cases, and yet Linnæus was the son of a poor Swedish few as they are, they infect the general clergyman. His father had a little flowermind, so that old maid, thus considered, garden, in which he cultivated all the is a noun of multitude, including all who flowers which his means or his taste could choose or who are destined to live single select. Into his flower-garden he introlives. And how many unhappy marriages duced his little son from infancy, and this are the consequence of this opprobrium ! little garden undoubtedly created the
Even the single - hearted piety of taste in this child which afterwards made unmarried females is derided. Who has him the first botanist and naturalist of his not heard such ribaldry as this, “O, she's age, if not of his race. taif,
MILK AND ITS ADULTERATIONS. of the body. In some cases where fatty
1815 vaig a'i qidt on sy'h bre;103 matter is found to disagree, and where in
MANY infants, subsist entirely upon the consequence milk in its usual state cannot milk of the scowi bthat w ritious duid be taken without inconvenience, skimalso ushally formsta v large portions of milk may be substituted with advantage. the diet of most , young children, and - Butter-milk approachesiskirn-milki in its in some shape, or other enters into the composition, but contains a still smaller daily food of almost every adult: it there- quantity of fat ;l as an article of diet for fore becomes a matter of primary imn. poor persons, it has the recommendatiohi portanee to determine whether yinilk as of cheapnessel YAPoly) odt mo'it hiqog ei supplied for the consumption of the public, Potatoes and butterl: milk, agitise well especially the inhabitants of this great known; taken together, formial very icon city, is in a genuine state or inoto "FLOY6 siderablel portion of the diet of the peas
If the testimony of ordinary observers, santry of Irelandi; bthe butter-milk cons and even of many scientific witnesses, stitutes van essential part of osuch ay diet, is to be credited, there are but few articles it supplying the introgenized matter, of food more liable to adulteration (and necessary for thesigrowth sofot their body, this of the grossest description) than milk and of which the potatoes themselves are We will now proceed to ascertain to what deficientadt orth of uniqm9116 VISI extent this, testimony may be relied upon to In y contradistinctiontz to these, høream but before referring to the adulteration of consists almost lentirely of the fatji with milk, it will be proper to treat of the com a very small quantity of casein, sugar, and position of that fluid, aidd yd yod 91T the other constituents of milke arad 911 W
From the fact that opensons may be - Butter differs little from seream, but is entirely sustained upon a diet of anilk more completely separated from the sugar, for an indefinite periodo it may be con: cheese, and saits ;sr and the fat globules cluded that that fluid, must contain all in place of being free and distinct shave the elements necessary for the growth all run together, so as to form a semi-solid and sustenance of the human body arra substance.(9789gs10 Stots i 291919 9 1281 view the correctness of which is fully Curds and whey are made up of all the established by chemical research.9911a elements of milk, but the form in whieh
Milk consists of water holding in solu- they exist is altered; the cheese is thrown tion casein or cheese, sugarrof milk, down by rennet, or by the addition of various salts, and, in suspension fatty an acid, as acetic acid, and in its descent matter, in the form of myriads of semi-carries down the greater part of the butter, opaque globules to which, the colour and the two forming together the curd, while opacity of milk is due. dai 9 125 ton the whey or serum consists entirely of
Skim-milk, butter milk, cream, butter, water, the sugar, and the salts.ct 19, INOV curds and whey, cream cheese and ordi-q Cheese is made from skim-milk, entire nary cheese, are mere, modifications of milk, or cream; it consists of the casein, mik, differing only from each other either and butter. The cheese prepared from in the abstraction of one or more of its skim-milk containing the smallest quantity constituents, or else in the variation of of butter; that from entireo milk, as Cheld their proportions. d 1911 onidos19h "9dton shire cheese, a largers quantity, and thats
The first of these, skim-milk, differs from d from cream, as Stilton cheese, the most ordinary milk in containing a less gnantity of all.ord asi tods yod 9dt of usdi svi * 101 fatty matter, a portion of this having The relative proportions of the differenti been removed with the cream ; it still, constituents sof cows milkst especially the however, contains nearly all the cheese, fatty matter, are subject to overygreat the sugar of milk, some butter, and the variation. 19 The agbibf thercown the time salts of milk; it is therefore scarcely less after calving, food, temperature, and theft nutritious than new milk, but in con-time and frequency of milking, all'occasequence of the diminished, amount of sion considerable differences in the quantitat 184, 18 less adapted to occasion the developed and qualityltoft milkog nov vlstu tua * ment of that substance, and to the main To certain of these modifying causes. weil uance of the respiration and temperature will mow refer. The natural food of the
cow is evidently that derived from pastures, drop out, and their breath becomes fetid. namely grass. The milk obtained from cows Though thus diseased, they do not fall fed upon this, being of excellent quality, away in flesh, but on the contrary puff up and sufficiently rich for all purposes. and bloat to an appearance of great fat
The next most natural food is dried ness; their joints become stiff, so that grass, or hay, which is given largely to they cannot with ease lie down, and they cows in winter, the milk being nearly the rarely or never come out alive. Bad as same in quality as from grass.
this is, their milk is afterwards mixed Beet-root and carrots being very nutri- with molasses, water, and whiting, and tious are also usually given to cows in the thus sold to the public of New York for winter time with advantage. But, as is pure milk." well known, the system of feeding the But the greater part of the London cows greater number of the cows which supply have the quality of their milk deteriorated London with milk, is altogether artificial | not only by improper feeding, but by the and unnatural, grains and distillers' wash manner in which they are housed and form the chief part of their food; these confined. The Hon. F. Byng, in a stimulate the animals unnaturally, and pamphlet on the sanitary condition of under the stimulus, large quantities of St. James's, Westminster, thus describes milk of inferior quality are secreted, the the actual condition of some of the cowcow becoming quickly worn out and dis- sheds which he visited : eased in consequence.
“Two of these sheds (of which there In reference to the effect of grains on are fourteen in the parish) are situated at cows, Mr. Harly makes the following the angle of Hopkins and New-streets, remarks:
Golden-square, and range one above the “Brewers' and distillers' grains make other, within a yard of the back of the the cattle grain-sick, as it is termed, and houses in New-street. Forty cows are prove injurious to the stomach of the kept in them, two in each seven feet of animal; it has been ascertained that if space. There is no ventilation save by the cows be fed upon these grains, their con- unceiled tile roof, through which the amstitutions become quickly destroyed." * moniacal vapours escape into the houses,
The Veterinary Record for 1850, pub- to the destruction of the health of the lishes the annexed extract from a New inmates. Besides the animals, there is at York paper, which shows the effect of one end a large tank for grains, a storedistillers' wash on cows:
place for turnips and hay, and between “There exists on Long Island, near them a receptacle into which the liquid Brocklyn, several manufactories of milk, manure drains, and the solid is heaped. the process of conducting which should At the other end is a capacious vault, be known. One of these dairies covers with a brick partition-one division of 300 feet front, by 300 feet deep, carefully | which contains mangel-worzel, turnips, fenced in so as to be as private as pos and potatoes ; and the other a dirty, yelsible; the business of the people being to low, sour-smelling liquid, called brewers' drink the milk, not to know how it is wash, a portion of which is pumped up made; in which enclosure 400 cows are and mixed with the food of the cows. kept the whole year round. These cows The neighbours are subject, also, to the are fed on the refuse slop of whiskey dis-annoyance of manure-carts, which fretillers, and it is given to them warm. quently stand some time in front of their Such is the fondness of cows for this vile houses; and when the mouth of the vault compound, that having fed upon it for is opened to admit the ingress of the a week or more, their appetites become so brewers' wash, a burning sour smell is depraved that they will take no other food; described by them as pervading their the result is, their milk-producing organs dwellings. After the buildings have are stimulated to a wonderful degree; remained closed for the night, the atmothey yield enormously, but soon become sphere within becomes heated, foul, and diseased, their gums ulcerate, their teeth unwholesome. In summer time the smell
is most offensive. Decomposition of the * “Harleian Dairy System,” pp. 73, 74. | vegetable matter in the vault is also
stated to be frequent, and the stench and it is stated that milk of good quality thence arising insufferable.”
should have a specific gravity of about "At the opposite side of the houses in 1,031. But milk, as we have seen, contains the same street is another shed, with even | also a large proportion of fatty matter, less possibility of ventilation than in and which, being much lighter than disthose just described, thirty-two cows stand tilled water, serves, when equally suspended side by side, two in each space of seven through the fluid, to decrease its density.. feet, as above.
The larger therefore the quantity of "In this atmosphere, reeking with all cream, the lower will be the specific these pestiferous effluvia, the poor crea gravity. Some milks, owing to the large tures are kept close shut up, night and quantity of cream contained in them, pos day, till their milk failing they are con sessing a density of only 1,020, or even less. signed to the butcher.”
Now this effect of the presence of Thanks, however, to our railways, a con- | cream in great amount, in decreasing the siderable portion of our supplies of milk density of milk, was not sufficiently appreare now obtained from the country, and ciated until the recent reports which have hence it is to be hoped that, ere long, the appeared in the Lancet, in which it was practice of housing and confining cattle shown that the specific gravity tests as in London will entirely cease.
applied to new milk, was entirely fallaWith regard to the quality of milk, as cious, for by it those milks, the richest in affected by the time and frequency of cream, would be deemed inferior ; applied milking, morning milk is said to be however to the milk after the separation of better than that obtained in the afternoon; the cream, it affords valuable indications. the milk of cows, when milked but once a The specific gravity of milk is usually day only, is richer than either. It is also determined by means of an instrument the common belief that the last portion of termed an hydrometer. This is a grathe milk obtained at any milking is | duated glass tube, weighted so as to foat richer than the first. We have ascer- | upright when immersed in any fluid, sinktained that this belief is well founded, and ing deep in liquids of low specific gravity, that the milk last abstracted, usually con and but little in those of high density; the tains three times as much cream as the scale serves to show the exact density in first. This fact is not without practical degrees, contrasted with distilled water. importance. It is a common practice for In estimating then the quality of milk, invalids and others to procure their glass this instrument should be used for deterof milk direct from the cow; we thus mining the density of either skim milk, perceive that in this way they seldom or, what is better still, the serum of milk; obtain the proper proportion of butter,-a for numerous observations have shown circumstance which may be of advantage that the density of these, when pure and in some cases, and a disadvantage in genuine, the first ranging between 1027° others.
and 1031°, and the second between 1025° Now although the casein and sugar of and 1028°. milk, as well as the butter, vary in quantity The amount of cream is determined by in different cases, yet, ordinarily, the an instrument, invented by the late Sir quality of milk is estimated by the amount Joseph Banks, termed a lactometer. This of cream which it yields.
consists of a glass tube, usually eleven For the determination of the quality of inches long, and half an inch in diameter ; milk, it is however requisite not only to ten inches of this are graduated in tenths ascertain the amount of cream which it of an inch, that is, in hundredths of the yields, but also to take the specific gravity whole; the tube is to be filled with milk or density of the milk.
and set aside for twelve hours. The In estimating the specific gravity of cream ascends to the surface, and its any liquid, distilled water is taken as the amount is determined by the thickness of standard, being reckoned at 1,000. Now the stratum formed, as shown by the nummilk, holding as it does in solution a ber of degrees or tenths through which it large quantity of sugar, casein, and salts, extends. is of course much heavier than water ; ! Cream forms more quickly in warm