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"What is fashion, said Charles, companion of my every hour. Shall I " but the capricious expression of ever now forget_my duty, and despise thy changing convention—a contrast of ab- counsel. Father in heaven! grant me surdities when a few years have passed strength to know my duty and to fulfil it away, and reason looks upon folly with now." disdain? What is beauty but the colour “Why child you look pale," said Mr. that fades, the flower that dies, the cup Lyndhurst. that is soon emptied, the light that is “Do I ?” said Ellen ; “my cheek burns easily extinguished ? True beauty is of as though it were flushed with colour." the soul—that inner light, which lives for “I hope your riding does not fatigue ever, even when its earthly vessel shall be you," said the Squire.
Besides, to him who sees with “Oh, no!" said Ellen, "I have enjoyed loving eyes, all is charming; and I con- it much.” Then putting her horse by the fess that to me, both in your physical and side of the phaeton, she spoke to Mrs. mental mould, you are all that I could Davis, while the Squire and Charles simidesire."
larly occupied themselves. “I would not say you flatter," said At length they reached the brow of the Ellen, “and yet your words are flattery, hill leading down to the cave. The hill though you may know it not. I must not was exceedingly steep, and the party listen to you lest I forget myself.”
alighted from the phaeton and walked “Could I but gather one sentence from down. The blue waters were rippling you to tell me that I am not alone im- upon the pebbled shore, and keeping up pressed but that there is a sympathy a low murmur. As soon as they reached awakened between us, I should indeed be the beach, they saw the opening of the happy,” said Charles.
cave, which lay a little to the left; and “Do not urge me to speak or act while Matthew unloaded the phaeton and rashly,” said Ellen, “these are matters took the saddles from the horse's backs, in which I am a mere child, and I tremble, and turned them on a grassy bank to fearing that I may already have over- graze, the remainder of the party entered stepped the bounds of prudence. There is the cave. The place was remarkable as one in whose hands my fate rests. If having been at one time the resort of a time shall bring the subject beneath his desperate gang of smugglers, headed by watchful eye, and he shall give an approv- one Tom Blake, or, as he was commonly ing smile, then I feel
called, Tom Black, or the Black Smug“ That you wouid consent to be mine!” gler,—not that he was a blaek-man, but said Charles exultingly; and with a some- he wore an enormous pair of jet black what altered tone, * Then say it now. whiskers, which covered the greater part Love waits not upon a father's word—it is of his face, and his eyebrows were so large an outbursting torrent from the heart, and thick that they imparted to him a knowing no rule or subjection. In pro- most ferocious expression. He portion to its intensity, so is its wild and greatly dreaded by the Coast Guard, harimpulsive waywardness.”
ing caused the deaths of many of them in “We will cease the conversation," said severe skirmishes. He died at last in an Ellen, alarmed at the increasing bold attempt to run a cargo. His sloop was ness and dangerous influence of Charles's closely pressed by a fast cutter, sent down speech. This was the first sentiment she by the government to suppress the contrahad heard from his lips of which she band trade carried on extensively upon the disapproved. She felt for a moment so coast. Finding the cutter rapidly bearing bewildered at the influence that ensnared down upon him, and already within gunher, and the danger she perceived therein, shot, Tom tried to round a point, and that she turned as pale as death. She get advantage of the wind, by passing pulled her horse around, and catching the between two rocks that were usually mild expression of her father's face, she avoided even by small craft. It was inwardly said, “Father, I have never had spring-tide, and he hoped there was water a thought apart from thee; thou hast enough to float him between them, but been my protector from childhood; the his sloop struck, filled, and immediately
went down, when Tom and all his crew Charles rode on together, sometimes in were drowned. The alteration of the laws the bright light of the moon, at others with regard to many kinds of goods once lost in the dark shade. At length they smuggled extensively, and the better reached the Hall. A few kind words watch kept upon the coast, had wholly were exchanged, and the party separated suppressed this contraband trade, and the —some to sleep, one to weep, and one to Cave was now merely the resort of plea- exult in a conquest. A day had been sure-parties, and of lovers, who listened passed that should influence the future to the traditions of the Cave, while the years of a life until now spent in undisbeautiful and romantic scenery around it turbed repose. inspired their hearts for the reception of
(Continued at page 151.) whatever was romantic without questioning possibilities or probabilities.
CULTIVATION OF BEAUTY. After the Cave had been explored, the cloth was spread-upon a grassy bank, and In proportion as we have endeavoured the various good things set upon it. to prove how small a part of the features Matthew had already lit a fire, over which in themselves play as to the higher purthe blackened kettle steamed as if rejoic- poses of a face-namely, its identity and ing in the festivity. And there the party moral character—we have increased the made right merry, while the bright sun responsibility of every one who carries a shone over them, and the blue waters face as to the impression it ought to create. kept up their gentle murmur. Nothing This responsibility, of course, extends particular transpired during the repast, equally to man as to woman ; but a larger save that Matthew, encumbered by the sphere of it belongs to her. With her is long sleeves of his new coat, slightly associated a separate idea, that as beauty scalded one of his hands, and damaged is proper to her---to the fair sex-the Mrs. Davis's dress,-a mishap which she loves and the graces are felt to reside bore with exceeding good-temper, consider- naturally in a woman's countenance, but ing the care she usually bestowed upon to be quite out of place in a man's. His her wardrobe. The old Squire enjoyed face is bound to be clean, and may be his cup of tea with unusual zest, nor cared allowed to be picturesque—but it is a for his accustomed nap. Charles eat and I woman's business to be beautiful. Beauty drank, and said witty things to the com- of some kind is so much the attribute of pany, and breathed soft sentiments to the sex, that a woman can hardly be said Ellen. Then he fung stones into the sea, to feel herself a woman who has not, at and chased the horses up the bank, and one time of her life at all events, felt heracted so boisterously in his merriment, self to be fair. Beauty confers an educa. that Mrs. Davis said he was a perfect won- tion of its own, and that always a feminine der, for he could be as wild as a march one. Most celebrated beauties have owed hare, or as serious as a parson. Only their highest charms to the refining educaEllen seemed lost to the charms of the tion which their native ones have given scene around her, and absorbed in some them. It was the wisdom as well as the silent meditation. She strove to speak poetry of the age of chivalry that it and to smile when she was addressed, but supposed all women to be beautiful, and evidently she was under an influence treated them as such. A woman is not which marred her interest in the mirth fully furnished for her part in life whose around her. Her apathy was ascribed to heart has not occasionally sweiled with the fatigue ; and she was happy that her friends sense of possessing some natural abilities fonnd an excuse for her, which she could in the great art of pleasing, opening to not honestly have pleaded for herself. At her knowledge secrets of strength, wonderlength the evening drew on, and the party fully intended to balance her muscular, or prepared to return. The moon arose, and -if it may be—her general weakness. shed its silvery light down upon the And herein we see, now truly this attrisparkling waters as they rolled in graceful bute belongs to woman alone. Man does zindulations beneath her rays. Then, one not need such a consciousness, and selby one the stars appeared. Ellen and dom has it without rendering himself extremely ridiculous; while to a woman it sulphurous and chloric acids and their is one of the chief weapons in her armoury, combinations. All the waters containing deprived of which she is comparatively carbonic acid gas, and sulphureted hydropowerless. What can be more cruel than the gen (the material that makes the sulphur continual forcing upon a young girl the springs of the country), uncombined with withering conviction of her own plainness? | the earths, are rendered soft by simple If this be only a foolish sham to counteract boiling, as the gases are expanded by the supposed demoralizing" consciousness heat and thrown off
, and no deposit is left of beauty, the world will soon counteract +but when united with lime, alumina that ; but if the victim have really but (clay) or the metals, boiling deposits a a scanty supply of charms, it will, in portion by releasing the solvent, in the addition to incalculable anguish of mind, form of a hard stony concretion. only diminish those further still. To such The process used by washerwomen, a system alone can we ascribe an unhappy to cleanse the hard water by adding lye, anomalous style of a young woman, occa- ashes, or potash, is a strictly correct chesionally met with, who seems to have taken mical process. Acids, and alķalies, are on herself the vows of voluntary ugliness: antagonistical principles; one destroys who neither eats enough to keep her com- or neutralizes the other, and renders both plexion elear, nor smiles enough to set her inert and harmless. The sulphureted pleasing muscles in action-who prides waters are more difficult to cleanse, or herself on a skinny parsimony of attire purify, than any other class except the which she calls neatness-thinks that alone muriates (acid of common salt, now called respectable which is most unbecoming--is chlorates), as they adhere to their comalways thin, and seldom well, and passes binations with greater tenacity. through the society of the lovely, the The effects produced on hard water in graceful, and the happy, with the vanity washing, where soap is used, is very simthat apes humility on her poor disap- ple when investigated. Soap is a compointed countenance; as if to say, “stand pound of an alkali and animal fat, or back, I am uncomelier than thou.”', vegetable oils and resins, and when added
to water containing any acid, or acidu
lated substance, the acid, by its chemical HARD WATER.
affinities, seizes and neutralizes the alkali None of the waters produced by Nature of the soap, disengaging the fatty subare entirely pure and soft artificially stance in the same shape it was originally, distilled water alone is so, and often then, and in the worst possible shape for cleanswithout care and some chemical knowledge ing the person or clothing. of the process, it is not free from im- There is a vulgar error prevailing purities.
among the people generally, that it is danThe waters from primitive formations, gerous to add lime to wells and cisterns, particularly from mountainous districts, on account of its rendering the water hard. are almost pure, and springs and wells con There is no greater_fallacy, among our sandy plains are nearly-owing to the rocks traditionary belief. Lime is strictly an and soils being wholly composed of sili alkaline substance, and, as such, is a cious and other constituents,-insoluble in, neutralizer of all the acids that water conwater. All streams and springs in secon- tains, and may be freely used when in a dary, or limestone countries, contain more quick or unslacked state-old and airor less materials constituting what are slacked is hurtful, as it has become a subcalled hard water--and often the waters carbonate. One ounce of fresh quick from sudden showers, which have been lime, dissolved in water, will soften two produced by evaporation from extensive barrels of ordinary hard water, and render regions of like formation, are sensibly fit for washing purposes. It is also advanaffected.
tageously used to sweeten cistern water All waters known as hard, result from when it becomes stagnant, and of bad some of the acids or their salts being held | odour, and the cheapest and most ready in solution. The most common are the deodorizer all unpleasant, unhealthy carbonic acid and the carbonates, and effluvia.
TEA AND ITS ADULTERATIONS.
soil, climate, weather, age of the leaves, and mode of preparation.
The plants from which black teas are The tea-plant is a hardy evergreen, and prepared are grown chiefly on the slopes leafy shrub, which attains the height of of hills and ledges of mountains, while from three to six feet, and upwards. It is the green tea shrubs are, cultivated in generally propagated from seed, and the manured soils. Upon this circumstance plant comes to maturity in from two to many of the differences between the two three years, yielding, in the course of the varieties, depend. season, three and in some cases four Other differences are occasioned by the crops of leaves.
processes adopted in the preparation and The first gathering takes place very roasting of the leaves. Thus while black early in the spring, a second in the begin- tea is first roasted in a shallow iron vesning of May, a third about the middle of se), called a. kuo, cand secondly in sieves, June, and the fourth in August. The over a bright charcoal fire, green tea does leaves of the first gathering are the most not undergo the second method of roastvaluable, and from these Pekoe tea, which ing, but only the first--that in the kuo. consists of the young leaf-buds, as well as An important part of the manufacture black teas of the highest quality,'are pre- of tea consists in the rolling the leaves, so pared. Those of the last gathering are as to impart to them their characteristic large and old leaves, and consequently in twisted shape. This is effected by subferior in flavour and value.
jecting the leaves to pressure, and rolling The leaves vary considerably in size and them by the hands in a particular manner. form; the youngest Heaves are narrow, The first effect of the application of heat convoluted, and downy, those next in age to the leaves in the kuo is to render them and size have their edges delicately soft and flaccid ; when in this state they serrated, with the venation scarcely per are removed from the vessel and submitted ceptible ; in those of medium and large to the first rolling,--an operation, which sizes the venation is well marked, a series after the renewed action of the kuo on of characteristic loops being formed each occasion, is three or four times realong each margin of the leaf, and the peated with superior teas before the proserrations are stronger and deeper, and cess is considered to be complete. placed at greater intervals.
The following observations on the scentThe principal varieties of black tea ing of tea are extracted from “ An Account are Bohea, which is the commonest and of the Cultivation and Manufacture of Tea coarsest description, Congou, Souchong, in China," by Mr. Ball : Caper and Padre Souchong, and Pekoe, “ The Chinese seem universally to which are of the highest quality, the last agree in ancient as well as in modern consisting of the very young and unex- times, that no factitious scent can be given panded leaves, and which, when clothed to tea which at all equals its natural trag, with down, constitute flowery Pekoe. ranee ; in short, they say, that only com.
The principal varieties of green tea are mon tea requires scenting.' Those persons Twankay, Hyson-skin, Young Hyson, who have had the opportunity of drinking Hyson, Imperial, and Gunpowder, which some of the finest kinds of Souchong, tea, in green tea corresponds with the flowery will perhaps agree with the Chinese in this Pekoè in black. Imperial Hyson, and opinion. There are, however, many scented Young Hyson, consist of the second and teas which so far from being inferior, are third gatherings, while the light and infe- even costly and much esteemed both in rior leaves separated from Hyson by a China and Europe, of these the Chu Lan, or winnowing machine, constitute Hyson- Cowslip Hyson, may be considered the best, skin, a variety in considerable demand “ The tea about to be scented must be amongst the Americans.
taken hot from the last roasting, (which There is but one species of the tea- immediately precedes the packing) and plant, from which the whole of the above poured into a Hyson chest, so as to form a and many other varieties of tea are ob- layer of two inches in height from the tained, the differences depending upon bottom, a handful or more of the fresh
flowers (already separated from the stalks) | A small white powder, frequently found in is then strewed over the tea. In this man black teas of the Caper flavour, cannot ner the tea and flowers are placed in layers have escaped the observation of the teauntil the chest is quite full
. The mouth dealers in England ; this powder is that of of the canister is then closed, and thus the the Chu Lan flower, whose colour bas tea remains for twenty-four hours. The been changed to white in the process of proper proportion is three catties of flowers Poey. to one hundred catties of tea. The next * There is another scented tea of excel. day the chest is emptied, when the tea and lent flavour, which is made in small quanflowers are mixed together; they then tities, and occasionally sent to foreigners undergo the process of Poey, that is, the as presents. This is a Souchong tea, roasting the leaves in a sieve over a char- scented with the flower of the Gardenia coal fire, about three catties being put florida. into one sieve. The Poey Long is com- “ There are two other scented teas also pletely closed, and the tea and fowers are of fine flavour, both Souchong teas, thus roasted about from one to two hours, scented with the Olea fragraus, and the or rather until the flowers become crisp. other with the Jasminum Sambac." The flowers are then sifted out, and the “ All the black teas," Mr. McCulloch tea packed. If the tea requires any fur writes, “ exported (with the exception of a ther scenting fresh flowers must be used, part of the Bohea grown in Woping,) are and the process repeated as before. The grown in Fokien, a hilly, maritime, poputea thus prepared is then mixed with other lous, and industrious district, bordering on tea in the proportion of one part of scented the north-east of Canton. Owing to the tea to twenty of plain. The whole is then peculiar nature of the Chinese laws, as to slightly heated in a kuo, and when packed inheritance, and probably also in some constitute the description of tea denomi- degree to the despotic genius of the nated in England Cowslip Hyson. Tea may government, landed property is much subbe seented at any time with this kind of tea, divided throughout the empire ; so that but it must be previously heated or roasted tea is generally grown in gardens or planabout two hours.
tations of no great extent.
The leaves are “The mode of scenting black tea differs picked by the cultivator's family, and from that of green, and so far as I under- immediately conveyed to market, where a stand, there are two or three methods of class of persons, who make it their parperforming this process. The Souchong, ticular business, purchase and collect them or Caper teas, the Tet Siong, and other in quantities, and inanufacture them in teas of the cowslip flavour, are also scented part, that is, expose them to be dried under with the Chu Lan, or Chloranthus flower. a shed. A second class of persons com
“ After gathering, the flowers are sepa- monly known in the Canton markets as rated from the stalks as before, when some the tea merchants," repair to the dispeople dry them in the sun ; but the best tricts where the tea is produced, and purmode is to dry them in a Poey Long, over chase 'it in its half-prepared state, from a slow fire, taking care not to change the the first class, and complete the manufacyellow colour of the petals. When dried ture by garbling the different qualities ; they are put aside to cool, and are after in which operation women and children wards reduced to powder. If this powder, are chiefly employed. A final drying is the scent of which is very powerful, be then given, and the tea packed in chests, sprinkled over the leaves previously to the and divided, according to quality, in parlast, or two last roastings and rollings in cels of from 100 to 600 chests each. the process of Poey, the tea wül be highly These parcels are stamped with the name scented ; but this is an expensive mode, of the district grower or manufacturer, on account of the additional quantity of exactly as is practised with the wines of flowers required, and, therefore, is seldom Bordeaux and Burgundy, the indigo of practised. The usual mode is by sprink- Bengal, and many other commodities, and sing a small quantity of this powder over from this circumstance get the name of the tea during the last process of Poey ; chops, the Chinese term for a seal or sigwhich takes place previous to packing. net.