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"The greater part of the tea is brought Lo-Yu, a learned Chinese, who lived in to Canton by land carriage, or inland the dynasty of Tang, A. D. 618 to 906, navigation, but chiefly by the first: it is gives the following agreeable account of conveyed by porters; the roads of China the qualities and effects of the infusion of in the southern provinces not generally the leaves of the tea-plant. admitting of wheel carriages, and beasts “ It tempers the spirits, and harmonises of burden being very rare. A small quan- the mind; dispels lassitude, and relieves tity of black tea is brought by sea, but fatigue; awakens thought and prevents probably smuggled; for this cheaper drowsiness; lightens or refreshes the body, mode of transportation is discouraged by and clears the perceptive faculties." government, which it deprives of the transit A very considerable amount of skill duties levied on inland carriage. The and ingenuity are displayed, as we shall length of land carriage from the principal hereafter perceive, both at home and districts where the green teas are grown, abroad, in the adulteration of tea, as well to Canton, is probably not less than 700 as in the manufacture of spurious articles miles, nor that of the black tea, over a in imitation of it. mountainous country, less than 200 miles. We shall first treat of black tea and its The tea merchants begin to arrive in Can- adulterations. The chief adulterations to ton about the middle of October, and the which black tea is subject, consist in busy season continues until the beginning the use of leaves, other than those of tea, of March, being briskest in November, in the re-preparation of exhausted teaDecember, and January."
leaves, and in the employment of subIn China, as appears from the fol- stances, either for the purpose of impartlowing extract, tea is the common bever. ing colour and astringency to the infusion, age of the people. The late Sir G. or to glaze and face the surface of the Staunton informs us " that tea, like beer dried leaves, so that they present an imin England, is sold in public houses in proved appearance to the eye. every town, and along public roads, and Dr. Dickson writes, * " The Chinese the banks of rivers and canals; nor is it annually dry many millions of pounds of unusual for the burdened and weary the leaves of different plants to mingle traveller to lay down his load, refresh with the genuine, as those of the ash, himself with a cup of warm tea and then plum, &c., so that all spurious leaves pursue his journey.*
found in parcels of bad tea must not be "The wealthy Chinese simply infuse supposed to be introduced into them by the leaves in an elegant porcelain cup, dealers in this country. While the teawhich has a cover of the same material; trade was entirely in the hands of the the leaves sink to the bottom of the cup, East India Company, few of these aduland generally remain there without incon- terated teas were shipped for this country, venience, though occasionally some may as experienced and competent inspectors Aloat or rise to the surface. To prevent were kept at Canton, to prevent the exporthis inconvenience, sometimes a thin piece tation of such in the Company's ships ; of silver, of filagree or open work, is but since the trade has been opened, all placed immediately over them. Where kinds find a ready outlet; and as the economy is necessary to be studied, the demand often exceeds the supply, a manutea-pot is used. The wealthy Japanese factured article is furnished to the rival continue the ancient mode of grinding crews." the leaves to powder, and after infusion in It has been repeatedly ascertained that the a cup, it is whipped with a split bamboo leaves of various Britislı plants are someor denticulated instrument till it creams, times used in this country in the adulterawhen they drink both the infusion and tion of tea. The leaves of the following powder, as coffee is used in many parts of species have been detected, from time to Asia.”+
time, in samples of tea of British fabrica
tion: beech, elm, horse-chestnut, plane, " Lord Macartney's Embassy to Pekin,” bastard-plane, fancy oak, willow, poplar, vol. ii. p. 96.
+ Ball on the Cultivation and Manufacture of Tea, p. 15.
+ Article Tea in “ Penny Cyclopædia."
hawthorn, and sloe. The leaves in general are not used whole, but when dried are broken into small pieces, and usnally mixed with a paste made of gum and catechu: afterwards they are ground and reduced to powder, which, when coloured with rosepink, is mixed with inferior descriptions of black tea, resembling in this state teadust.
Before the observer is in a position to detect the presence of foreign leaves in tea, he must first acquaint himself with the characters of tea, and other leaves posed to mix with tea. Thus, he must note well the size and form of the leaves, the gonformation of the edges, but especially the arrangement and distribution of the bundles of woody fibre, veins as they are commonly termed. All these particulars are well exhibited in the following engravings, by the aid of which the observer will be able to distinguish the leaves of many of the plants resorted to, not only when entire, but when broken into fragments.
Fig. 2. A, Leaf of beech. B, Leaf of hawthorn.
C, Leaf of the sloe, or wild plum. D. Leaf of the elm.
different plants when ground to a dust-like powder, so that they may be thus detected, when substituted for tea-dust.
We find in the Lancet the following observations by Mr. G. Phillips, of the Inland Revenue Office, on the employment of exhausted tea-leaves.
“In the year 1843, there were many cases of re-dried tea-leaves, which were prosecuted with vigour by this board, and
the result was, so far as we could ascertam B В
at the time, the snppression of the trade. It was supposed in 1843, that there were eight manufactories for the purpose of re-drying the exhausted tea-leaves, in
London alone, and several besides in Fig. 1. Leaves of the Tea-plant.-A, Young Leaf. various parts of the country. The prac
B, Leaf of medium size. C, Ditto of larger tice pursued was as follows: – Person: growth.
were employed to buy up the exhausted By the microscope it is in many cases leaves at hotels, coffee houses, and other even possible to distinguish the leaves of places at 24d. and 3d. per pound. These were taken to the factories, mixed with a ---It does not prevent sleep.--It is useful on solution of gum, and re-dried. After this retiring to rest.-It is recommended to the the dried leaves, if for black tea, were debilitated for its pleasant and invigorating mixed with rose-pink and black-lead, to qualities; to the aged for its strengthening face them, as it is termed by the trade. properties, and to the public generally for
"I is to be remarked, however, that this its economy and excellence. practiveai noi terminate with the year 1843, “ It will strengthen the voice. It is useas several parties detected in re-preparing ful to singers and public speakers. tea-leaves were prosecuted within the last “A threepenny packet will make one few months. The best method of detecting quarter of a pound of Tea last as long as this fraud is by chemical analysis; the a half-pound. exhausted leaves contain more gum and “ Directions for use.Put a quarter of a much less of the astringent principal of teaspoonful into the tea-pot with two teatea. viz. tannin."
spoonfuls of tea, and it will doubly inCatechu, or Terra Japonica, which con- crease the strength and improve the flasists 'principally of tannin, is sometimes vour." had recourse to, when exhausted tea-leaves La Veno Beno consists of a coarse powder are used, or when other leaves than those of a reddish brown colour, intermixed with of tea are employed. It imparts increased small fragments of sumach leaf. To the astringency and colour to the infusion taste the powder is astringent and bitter, and made from such leaves, and supplies the on analysis is ascertained to be coarsely place of the tamin abstracted from them. powdered catechu. Now.catechu, as
as already The leaves of the sloe also contain a con- stated, consists principally of tannin, siderable quantity of tannin, and are there which from its astringent action would be fore astringent; and it is on this account extremely apt when taken in the quantity that they are so frequently employed in in which it exists in La Veno Beno, to prothe adulteration of tea.
duce constipation, with the manifold evils In this place may be noticed two arti- which result from such a condition, cles occasionally met with, and employed The constituents of La Veno Benó are as substitutes for tea. The first of these shown in the annexed figure. is La Veno Beno; the nature and alleged virtues of which are thus set forth in the handbill below. "Great Economy to Tea Drinkers,
LA VENO BENO, THE CHINESE TEA IMPROVER, Is the essential part of the leaf of a tree which grows in the East, and is imported through the East Indies to this country.
“The virtues of the leaf were discovered in the year 1842, and now introduced to the British Public, the discoverer first having proved the great utility and efficacy by Testimonials from numerous personages of distinction and science.
The natives of the East eat or masticate it, keeping it in the mouth till it dissolves, esteeming it for its strengthening pro- Fig. 3. La Veno Beno:-aa Fragments of the
sumach leaves. bb Particles of catechu. perties.
cc Crystals usually present in catechu. “It is four times the strength of the
The second article is, strongest Teas, its flavour equally delicate,
CHINESE its properties more healthful, proved by Physicians and Chemists of high standing.
BOTANICAL POWDER; (See Testimonials.)
This preparation appears to be got up
DR. HERMAN BOERHAAVE. in imitation of La Veno Beno, and is sold for the same purpose as that article, viz.' AMONG those who have rendered the to mix with tea.
medical profession illustrious by their It is stated on the wrapper of the pack- ' talents, erudition, and piety, was Dr. Herages that it is
: man Boerhaave. He was a native of Hol“ USED IN EASTERN CLIMATES FOR land, and born at Veerhout, a small village IMPROVING STRENGTH FLA- near Leyden, on the last day of the year VOUR EVERY DESCRIPTION OF TEA." | 1668. His father was a clergyman, and The directions for use are:
having observed his fondness for study " Take half a teaspoonful of the powder from early childhood, placed him at the to two teaspoonfuls of tea, and it will age of fourteen at the public school in produce a strength equal to four teaspoon- Leyden. Here his application and pro. fuls of tea."
ficiency were so great that, in less than a Like La Veno Beno, it is put up in pack- year from his entrance, he was advanced ages and sold at the same price. It con- to the highest class, which is allowed, after sists of a coarse powder of a reddish- a preparation of six months, an admittance brown colour, and astringent taste, and is to the university. made up of a mixture of catechu and wheat- Yet scarcely had he commenced a course four, the latter ingredient being added to of study at the university, ere the deepest reduce the strength of the catechu. gloom was cast over his prospects by the
Its use is open to the same objections, death of his father, whose numerous fasanitary and others, as La Veno Beno. mily were left in reduced circumstances.
The constituents of the Chinese Botan. Thus early bereaved of fortune and an ical Powder are represented in the accom- affectionate guide, he did not yield to dispanying engraving.
couragement or the apathy of grief.
Still diligently applying himself to the pursuit of education, he became distinguished both in the sciences and in lite
When he took his degree in Philosophy, he presented a thesis in opposition to the systems of Epicurus and Spinoza, which won him much reputation. After completing the usual course at the university, he pursued the study of theology under two distinguished professors, one of whom gave lectures on Hebrew Antiquities, and the other in Ecclesiastical History. He also devoted himself with great delight to the Scriptures in their original languages, with their interpreta. tion by the ancient writers, pursued in chronological order.
But the necessity of gaining a subsistFig. 4. Chinese Botanical Powder...-da Starch relatives, induced him to change his de
ence, and the desire of aiding his poor corpuscles of wheat.
of catecc Crystals of same.
sign of pursuing the clerical profession,
and to decide on becoming a physician. In our next article we shall continue In the interval, being oppressed by the the important subject of TEA AND ITS evils of poverty, he supported himself as ADULTERATIONS.
a teacher of mathematics.
When he became known as a member POLITENESS is the outward garment of the medical profession, confidence and of good-will; but many are the nutshells honour awaited him, and wealth flowed in in which, if you crack them, nothing like upon him as a flood. The University of a kernel is to be found.
: Leyden hastened to bestow on him the pro
fessorships of Botany, Chemistry, and He was a declared foe to all excess, yet Medicine ; and the fame of his science not austere, but cheerful and desirous of and practical skill began to spread over promoting every valuable purpose of con. Europe. The Royal Society of London, versation; communicative, yet modest; and the Academy of Sciences at Paris, in contending for the truth, zealous, elected him as an honorary member of though dispassionate; in friendship, sintheir respective bodies. Several European cere, constant, affectionate ; in every situprinces committed pupils to his care, each | ation and relation of life, virtuous; and of whom, during the course of his instruc- it may be confidently affirmed, that no tions, found in him not only an indefati. man in a private station ever attracted gable teacher, but a faithful friend. more universal esteem. At the age of
His high reputation, and laborious in- forty-two he married the only daughter dustry, were united with prudence; and of the burgomaster of Leyden, and amidst while he expended liberally, he exercised all his domestic and professional avoa proper care over the surplus of his in- cations, found time to compose a num. come, so that his possessions at the time ber of literary works. Surprising accounts of his death, amounted to about a million have been given of his sagacity and peneof dollars. Wealth was to him but a se. tration in the exercise of the healing art ; condary consideration ; yet, having been yet he was very far from a presumptuous taught its value by the penury of early confidence in his skill, or arrogance at his years, he considered it a duty to save a superiority of success. portion of his earnings, as an income for He was diligent in his profession, the time of infirmity or age; and that condescending to all, and wholly free he might have the means of assisting and from that pride and vanity which wealth relieving others. When Peter the Great sometimes excites in weak minds. He of Russia went to Holland in 1715, to used often to remark that—“The life of a perfect himself in inaritime affairs, he patient, if trifled with or neglected, would attended the lectures of Boerhaave, and, one day be required at the hand of the as a pupil, received his lessons. His re- physician." His benevolence led him to putation spread over Asia, and the eastern the care of those who were too poor to nations, and so well was his name known compensate him. These," he would say, in those distant regions, that a letter writ- are the best patients, for God is their ten to him from a mandarin in China, with pay-master.” He was an eminent examp e this inscription, “To the illustrious Boer- of temperance, of fortitude, of humility, haave, physician in Europe," came regu- and devotion. His piety, with a religious larly to him without mistake or delay. sense of his dependence upon God, was Amidst all his honours he retained an the basis of all his virtues, and the movhumble estimation of himself, and united ing principle of his whole conduct. He to an uncommon genius, and extraordinary was too sensible how deeply he partook of talents, that active benevolence which ren- the weakness of human nature, to ascribe ders them valuable to society.
any good thing to himself, or to conceive The activity of his mind sparkled in his he could conquer his passions or vanquish eyes; his appearance was simple and un temptation by his own unassisted power. assuming ; and when deep study and age He attributed every good thought and had changed the colour of his hair, he laudable action to the Author of all goodwas particularly noticed for that venerable ness. So deep was his conviction of the aspect which prepossesses affection, and depravity of his nature, and so profound confirms reverence. He was an eloquent his humility, that when he heard of any orator, and declaimed with dignity and criminal condemned to die, he would grace : he taught very methodically and say—“Who can tell whether this man is with great precision; and his auditors not better than I? or if I am better, it is always regretted that his discourses were not to be ascribed to myself, but to the $0 soon finished. He would sometimes goodness of God.” indulge in an infusion of raillery, but it The charity and benevolence so conwas refined and ingenious, and enlivened spicuous in his whole life, were derived the subject without sarcasm or severity. frog, a supreme regard to religion. It