Sidor som bilder
PDF
ePub
[graphic]

than, cold weather, and, ivi inakiag coing dn vano impoverisired sinikk, the globules parative observations on (ltrer number stof will be smaller sintsize and fewer, and the sampleswijt is propers that aeachi sariple field of vision willepresent the appearance should be set aside in the flactometérsliant of Fig. 2:+5 sessy ajdorp sig abstondo lo the same time and for the same perioda no tube ahoz 315od to sitostitui lover 1. The thickness of the stratum of cream base formed in genuine milk is, like the specific me gravity, subject to considerable variations buti in ordinary mixed milk, the average 24 per centage should be about 95 tenthss

TO Wechamer met with samples of gemine ou milk which showed only two degrees, and beau others showing as many as 80 pand hence, bo in order to be able to state whether sa milky is of good or bad quality, it is not suffi-b cjent to estimate solely the peri centage of 116 cream, but when this is determined the density of the skim milk, or, serum, should

999 likewise be ascertainedoro sdt yd bonisido

It is stated that the addition of a small quantity of warm water to milk, increases

2 colare 91111910 the amount of cream so thisa sassertion lis

Fig. 2.-Poor Milk. entirely erroneous, it does nots sincrease the quantity, of cream, but merely facili

When curd of milk is examined under tates and hastens its formation in a most the microscope, the latter is still seen as remarkable manner. 9199 sa jedT DI&

droplets of fat, and the cheese as a granu. But there is a s second means by which lar Kubstance of a yellowish colour. See it may be ascertained whether any milk bel Fig. 3. rich orspotqin butter : namely, by the microscope. als 90t do Isr-900

We have said that the butter is suspended in milky rin the form of innumerable droplets of various sizes ; in rich milk, these are particularly abundant, so that when a drop of such milk is viewed under an object glass of high magnifying power the field is crowded with myriads of These globules, as shown in Fig. 1.22019 90 .199 dizelastano oa

bogel Citqi 80 Drones

baik sol plan

abso sdt

0629 990) .13167 DIN ISO

due dim to Figa82-Curdtof ÍNTilksuot 254 11 II Having thus fully

entered into the camilesC

pit positioti, qualities, and methods for the al examination of in, we

we will now pro 91104 ceed to consider the adulterations

Roure which it is made the subject. -92110 90 ແພ້ »

Bts we|

at the outset, that if the Tos r9sp tes les b9116

ordinary abservers is to he. -10 ondertos

Pataro ereditea, that nilka

of all'articles of 6092 1970. maale en sevgilinis sumption as most adulterated. See

.bspig! p.4Good MLIK. 2Opozioq tad Wel final différent" writers namin

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

See Fig. 4.

variety of ingredients as commonly em- point from which to determine the adulployed in the adulteration of milk, teration of milk with water. mongst which may be mentioned flour, Thus it was shown that the serum of a nilk of almonds, gum arabic, gum tragacanth, milk having a density of 1029, was reduced rhalk, turmeric, carbonate of soda, sugar, on the addition of 10 per cent. of water, emulsion of temp-seed, and sheep's and to 1025-20 per cent. to 1322—30 per horses brains, rubbed up with water into an cent. to 1021-40 per cent. to 1017450 emulsion.

per cent. to 1015. It is unnecessary to describe the methods The specific gravity of skim-milk, to be employed for the detection of these although "less uniform than that of the substances, since we have the authority of serum, is yet much more so than pure the Lancet for stating that they are used milk; on this account, the next most now rarely, and most of themi never used accurate method of determining the adin the adulteration of milk. The only mixture of water with milk, is to take the one of these alleged adulterations sup- density of skim-milk after the per centage ported by evidence, and this not at all of cream has been ascertained by the conclusive, is that with sheep's brains. lactometer.." ; T'he microscope affords a most entisfactory Lastly ; we proceed to give the results means of detecting this adulteration by obtained by the Lancet from the examixarevealing the presence of the fibres of tion of twenty-six samples of milk, which the cerebræ matter is composed. purchased of different dairyinen. M 1000

These are as follow

1st. That twelve were genuine. Allir bru

2nd. That of these, two showed a deficiency of cream.

3rd. That eleven were adulterated.

4th. That this adulteration consisted, in all cases, of water, the per centages of which varied from ten to fifty per cent., or one-half of the article.

5th. That in no case was chalk, size, gum, sheep's brains, or any of the other substances occasionally used for the adulteration of milk, detected.

These results are more favourable than might have been anticipated, from the belief generally entertained respecting the gross adulterations to which milk, as alleged, has been so constantly subject.

The addition of water to milk is, how Fig. 1.–Milk Adulterated with Sheep's Brains. ever, a fraud of the gravest description,

and the parties practising it are morally There is however an adulteration, which, as guilty as though they had employed, for ccording to common belief, is constantly the purpose of adulteration, the brains of ractised : we refer to that with water. sheep, or any other eqnally disgusting It was found that the serum of milk, substance.

It is only necessary to refer to one other the cheese by the addition of acetic article used, not so much for adulteration cid, possessed a density which was almost as to heighten the colour of milk, cream, onstant, the limits being 1025° to 1028° butter, and particularly cheese, viz. was further ascertained that the specificarnatto thig is a vegetable colouring ravity of this serum, varied in proportion matter or dye which, however, in consew the quantity of water added to the milk; quence of its high price, is itself almost

w the addition of water, would of course onstantly adulterated, it commonly conpesten the specific gravity in proportion to taining Venetian red, and sometimes eren, he quantity added, we have thus, a fixed that poisonous substance, red lead.

[graphic]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]
[graphic]

THE WORK TABLE FRIEND. tacked together, and form a sort of

cushion, and the button-hole stitches are COLLAR IN SPANISH ROSE POINT. taken over them, but not through the lace. Materials. - Walter Evans & Co.'s Point-lace The little wheels in the bars of the groundcottons, Moravian thread; and No. 1, Mecklen- work (so characteristic of old Point), burgh thread.

are covered with buttonhole-stitch, dotted The section given of this collar is one with Raleigh bars. The edge is outlined, fourth of the entire length, two patterns and worked in the same manner. forming

one half, and being reversed for the remainder.

ANTI-MACASSAR IN CROCHET. The whole of the pattern is done in the close thick stitches of which we have Boar's-head cotton, No. 8, and 50 rows of tur

Materials.-Six reels of W. Evans & Co.'s already given diagrams and descriptions. quoise beads, No. 2. Boulton & Son's crochetSome parts are done wholly in foundation book, No. 16. stitch, with the exception of the veinings, This Anti-Macassar is similar in style which are formed by doing one or two to that given in No. 73 of the present lines like the SPOTTED LACE. Open series of the Family Friend; the group of diamond and Antwerp lace are done with

W. flowers, and the border, being both howEvans's and Co.'s Mecklenburgh thread; ever different. We have therefore not No. 160. So is the foundation stitch; thought it necessary to give an engraving but the bars on which it is worked are of it. Thread all the beads on one reel of done with Mecklenburgh, No. 120. The cotton ; with another reel make a chain of Spanish rose point stitch is a close button- 244 stitches and do one row of Dc. sal

hole stitch, worked over many threads 2nd Row.-A close square at each end, of Moravian. The little loops are made and all the rest open. thus: having worked the space for one 3rd Row.-1 close square, 1 open, Dc loop, take the thread back to the beginning all but the last six stitches; 2 Ch, Miss 2, and cover the bar thus made with button- | 4 Dc. hole stitch; then do a small piece more 4th to 9th Row.--1 close, 1 open, 1 close, of the thick part, and repeat. As the at each end; all the intermediate open. thickness is gradually shaped to a point at 10th Row.—1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 14 each end, it is necessary to cut some of open, 1 close, 3 open, 1 close, 6 open, 1 the Moravian threads shorter. They are close, 12 open, 1 close, 4 open, 1 close, 8

[graphic]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

open, 2 close, 21 open, 1 close, 1 open, lopen, 2 close, 5 open, 1 close, 1 open, close.

close, 19 open, 1 close, 1 open, 1 close. 11th Row.-1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 15 1911 Row.-Decrease one, 1 close, 12 open, 2 close, 2 open, 1 close, 5 open, 2 open, 2 close, 1 open, I close, 2 open, close, 2 open, 1 close, 2 open, 2 close, 3 close, 1 open, 2 close, 2 open, 2 close, open, 1 close, 4 open, 2 close, 4 open, 1 open, 5 close, 1 open, 2 close, 1 open, close, 2 open, 2 close, 12 open, 1 close, 9 close, 2 open, 1 close, 2 open, 5 close, open, close, 1 open, 1 close.

open, 2 close, 21 open, 1 close, decrease 12th Row.-1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 17 open, 4 close, 1 open, 1 close, 2 open, 2 20th Row.-1 close (over open), 1 open, close, 1 open, 2 close, 3 open, 2 close, ? 1 close, 10 open, 1 close, 2 open, 4 close, open, 1 close, 4 open, 1 close, 6 open, i 1 open, 4 close, 2 open, + 3 close, 1 open, close, 1 open, 2 close, 7 open, 1 close, 1+ twice, 3 close, 2 open, 2 close, 3 open, open, 1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 10 open, 17 close, 2 open, 3 close, 4 open, 1 close, close, 1 open, 1 close.

12 open, 1 close, 1 open, 1 close. 13th Row.-1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 16 21st Row.—1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 12 open, 1 close, 4 open, 2 close, 2 open, 2 open, + 1 close, 2 open, + twice ; 2 close, close, 1 open, + 2 close, 3 open, + twice; 2 open, 9 close, 1 open, 5 close, 1 open, !! 3 close, 1 open, 1 close, 1 open, 3 close, 2 close, 3 open, I close, 1 open, 4 close, 13 open, 3 close, 7 open, 1 close, 2 open, 2 open, 1 close, 1 open, 1 close. close, 11 open, 1 close, 1 open, 1 close. 22nd Row.Decrease one, 1 close, 11 11th Row.—1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 20 open, I close, 7 open, &

6 close, 2 open, open, 1 close, 2 open, 2 close, 1 open, 4 close, 1 open, 5 close, 1 open, 3

3 close, close, 1 open, 2 close, 2 open, 4 close, 1 open, + 1 close, 2 open, + twice ; 2 close, open, 4 close, 2 oper, 1 close, 7 open, 11 open, 1 close. Decrease. close, 1 open, 3 close, 2 open, 1 close, 10 23rd Row 1 close (over open), open, open, 1 close, 1 open, 1 close.

1 close, 22

open, close, 15th Row.— This being the first de 2 open, 4 close, 3 open, close, open, creased row, must be begun thus,- 1 slip close, 6 open, 1 close, 2 open, stitch, 1 Sc, 2 Dc, 2 Ch, miss 2 ; the last open, 1 close, 9 open, 1 close i three stitches forming the open square, close.

21590

Poto

9zsque the process is to be reversed at the end. In 24th Row. -1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 17 future rows, we shall say, decrease one (or open, 2 close, 2 open, + 1 close, 3 open, more), at each end; to decrease two, make + twice ; 2 close, I open, 1 close, 2 open, your slip stitch on the 4th of the previous 3 close, 1 open, 4 close,

open, 2 close, row, to decrease these, it must be on the open, 2 close, 18 open, J. close, 1 open, 7th and so on, the other end correspond- close. ing. Decrease 1 as above, 1 close, 9 open, 25th Row. -1 close, I open, 1 close, 15 + 1 close, 7 open, + twice, 4 close, 7 open, 1. close, 1,

4 close, 2 open, open, + 6 close, 1 open, + twice, 1 close, close, 3 open, 1 close, 1 open, 6 close, 2 cpen, 2 close, 1 open, 3 close, 2 open, 2 open, 4 close, 3 open, 5 close, 18 open, close, 12 open, 1 close. Decrease.

close, 1 elose.

9269755 16th Row.- 1 close (over open), 1 open, 1 close, 9 open, 1 close, 6 open, 2 close, 5 open, + 2 close, I open, t twice ; open, 3 close, 1 open, 1 close, 7 open,

6.
close, 4 open,

I close,

open, + 4 close, close, 1 open, 6 close, 3 open, 2 close, 1 1 open, + twice : 3 close, I open, I close, open, 1 close, + 2 open, 2 close, + twice ; 1 open, 1 close +

open, 2 close 16 open, I close, 1 open

, 1 close. + twice, 13 open, 1 close. Decrease 1. 17th Row. -1 close, 1

27th Row. I cloše (over open), 1 openi, open, 1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 5 open, 1 1 elose, 12 open, 1 close, 2 open, 4 close, close, 2 open, 2 close, 6

open, 2 close,
1212

open,

close, open, 2 close, 8 open, 11 close, 4 open, 4 close, 6 open, 1 close, I open, 5 close, close, 18 open, 1 close, 1 open, 1 close. open, 2 close, 13 open, close, 1 18th Row.—1 fclose, 1 open, 1 close, 10 close.

2 open, 2 close, 1 open, 1 close,

93891990. open,

Row. . Decrease 1, 1 close, 13 close, 6 open, 5 close, 5 'open, 2 close, 3 open, 2 close, 2 open, 2 close, 3 open,

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« FöregåendeFortsätt »