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by the greater or less thickness of the will therefore give a short description of colour. When the painting was well dried the principal instruments in use at the and adhered to the plate, he deposited it present day, and, whenever it lies in our in an electrotype apparatus, in order to power, we will state from what ancient inreceive the deposit of copper, which he strument they were derived, and also give stated took place immediately upon the the name of the inventor or originator. parts not covered by the painting, more! We will commence with instruments of slowly upon those which were only covered pulsatile percussion. The first instruby a thin coating, and more tardily still ment of percussion that we shall mention upon those parts where the thickness is will be the pianoforte. The pianoforte greatest. After several successive appli-derives its name from two Italian words, cations, when the thickness was sufficient piano soft, and forte loud, in consequence to support the action of the copper-plate of its capability of producing either soft or press, the deposit was separated from the loud tones at the will of the performer. plate ; and the former, if any remained The pianoforte has been derived from adhering, was removed by washing the several instruments, the first of which is plate with ether. By this means he obtained supposed to be the magadis, an instrument à mould of the painting in relief upon the invented during the middle ages - by silver plate, from which he reproduced his whom, is not known. The instrument copies, or voltaic engravings.
next following in the line of progression 6. In 1842, Mr. Palmer, of Newgate was the virginal, invented in England street, London, patented a process known during the reign of Elizabeth, and named as electro-glyphography, which we shall in honour of the virgin Queen. At this describe hereafter; and since then electro time there was an instrument of the same metallurgy has made rapid strides in the class called the cittrole ; of it, however, we march of improvement.
know little or nothing, except that it was Having thus slightly sketched the his- invented by the monks of middle Europe. tory of Electro-metallurgy, we shall in a The next instrument in the line of profuture number proceed to describe some of gression was the spinnet. “This instruthe apparatus required for manipulating. ment in its shape," to use the words of an
old writer, "was not much unlike a harp HISTORY OF MUSICAL
laid horizontally.” It was cased the same INSTRUMENTS.
as a harpsichord. The notes had double
wires, almost wholly of steel, there being NotWITHSTANDING the great number but few of brass. They are touched by of musical instruments now in use through-jacks, as a harpsichord. These "jacks," as out the world, the reader will find that they were termed, were made on the same they may be divided into three great and principle as the single action of a pianodistinct classes. Firstly, instruments of forte, with this exception, that instead of percussion ; and this class may again be having a hammer, they used stiff pieces of subdivided into 1st, Pulsatile instruments of quill so contrived as to catch the string percussion, as the pianoforte, drum, tam- as it (the quill) ascended, and on its debourine, &c.; and 2nd, Plectrated* instru- scent to let it go with a spring; in the ments of percussion, as the guitar, harp, &c. same manner that a person plays upon a Secondly, instruments of inflation, which we guitar. This, of course, produced a very may again divide into—1st, instruments of wiry and rough sound. This instrument, simple inflation, as the flute, trumpet, which was in use about a century ago, is hautboy, &c. ; 2nd, instruments of compound now completely out of vogue. The instru(if I may be allowed to use the term) infla- ment we shall next consider will be the tion, as the organ. Thirdly, instruments of harpsichord. The harpsichord differed but collision, as the violin, &c. To enumerate little from the spinnei, with the exception and describe all the instruments of music that it had dampers, which are small pieces now in use, would be a work of which our of wood affixed to the action, which fall limits will not permit us to think. We on the wires after a note has been struck,
and damp (as it is called) the sound. The * Struck by the finger, or with a quill. harpsichord was also partly derived from
the polyplectrum of Guido, of which we length, with eight holes in the side of it; have no authentic account.
by the stopping and opening of which, The piano-forte was the first instru- with the fingers, the sounds are regulated. ment of pulsati.. percussion of any note It formerly had the name of flute à bec, save the drum, tambourine, &c. The signifying a beak, because the end of it is piano-forte was made at first exactly formed like a bird's bill. The German flute, like the harpsichord, except that, instead so called because invented in Germany, of using quills they used hammers, made is made like the English flute, with this of wood, covered with soft buckskin or exception; that it has keys with which to woven wool. This, of course, prevented make the semi-tones ; and instead of being all that wiry sound of the harpsichord, blown at the end, is blown through an aperand it has from that time entirely super- ture in the side. The name fute is deseded the latter instrument on account of rived from the Latin fluta, a small eel its being so much softer and pleasanter to taken in the Sicilian seas, because it is the ear.
long and perforated at the side like that The instrument that next claims our fish. The name of the inventor of the notice is the harp. The form of the harp, | flute has been lost; certain it is, however, and the manner of performing on it, is so that it is of very ancient origin, for it was well known that it would be needless to held in great esteem by the ancient Greeks give a description of it. The source from and Romans. which the name of the instrument was | Brass wind instruments are of the same derived has been a matter of contention ; class as flutes, but they differ so much in some suppose that it is derived from the their construction, that were we to attempt Arpi, a people of Italy, whilst others to describe them, we should overstep our think that the Arpi derived it from the Irish. bounds. Under the second class of wind For ourselves, we think that the former is instruments, which we have designated as by far the more probable. The Hebrew compound, the organ stands by itself; for harp is thought to have been remarkable no other instrument is made up of such for its beauty, and also for the extent of an endless variety of parts. It is an its scale. It was supposed, in this par- instrument also of the highest antiquity, ticular, to exceed the modern harp, whose and in the structure of which a vast deal compass is seldom over five octaves. The of ingenuity is displayed. Notwithstandsemitones of the modern harp are made ing the many suppositions that have been by a pedal placed around the base; these made as to the originator of the organ, he are made to communicate with the strings still stands hidden from view. We would by means of a hollow column, and, on refer the reader to “ Nicholson's English being pressed by the foot, they are Encyclopedia" for a full account and shortened by projecting stops, and cause minute description of the organ. a chromatic effect. The Irish and Weisn The third and last class of musical inbards were famous for their performance struments we shall notice will be those of on this instrument ; but at present there collision, as the violin, &c. The violin are only a few itinerant ones who preserve is the most perfect (when well played) and the tradition of many national airs. The the most delightful of all stringed instruharp, comparatively speaking, is at present ments played with a bow. Of the origin but little used. The guitar is of the same of the violin but little is known, though class of instruments as the harp, and is as it is supposed to have originated during well known.
| the time of the Crusaders. The Cremona We now come to the second class of violin is probably the most celebrated of any instruments, namely: those of inflation. make. The bass viol, violincello, &c., Under the head of simple inflation, we belong to the same class of instruments, will first notice the flute. There are two and originated from the same source, kinds of flute, viz., the English and though they are of later date. We could German, which are so totally different, greatly enlarge upon this interesting topic, that we shall have to give a separate de- if the limits of our work permitted ; but scription of them. The English fute con- we think that the few observations made sists of a tube about eighteen inches in include the principal topics.
A little spring had lost its way,
Amid the grass and fern-
A passing stranger scoop'd a well
Where weary men might turn.
He wall'd it in, and hung with care
A ladle on the brink, Through the heath o'er mountains lone,
He thought not of the deed he did, Come the thoughts now gone
But judged that toil might drink. On manhood's memory.
He pass'd again, and lo! the well,
By summer never dried,
Had cool'd ten thousand parched tongues, As the bells when fades the even
And saved a life beside.
A pameless man, amid the crowd,
That throng'd the daily mart, When the rain falls from the sky,
Let fall a word of hope and love,
Unstudied, from the heart.
A whisper on the tumult thrown,
A transitory breath,
It raised a brother from the dust,
It saved a soul from death!
O germ ! O fount! 0 word of love! Soon the winds shall freshly breathe
thought at random cast! O'er the mountains purple heath;
Ye were but little at the first,
But mighty at the last.
“ HOPE ON, HOPE EVER."* THE CHILD-ANGEL.
NIL DESPERANDUM. It is our blessing that our lot was fair
Don't despair; though Fortune frown, The precious birthright of the dew and air,
Fickle Fortune soon may smile: The green and shade of woods, the song of birds, Don't despair,-although cast down, And dreams too bright for words
'Tis only for a little while. All that makes moonlight for the innocent heart, Brighter days may come ere long, And love, that in its bud, is still its crowning Though to-day may clouded be, part.
Don't despair,-'tis very wrong, The sadness of the spring-time in the shade
All may yet be well with thee: Of dusk-the shadows of the night array'd,
Though Doubt may sigh a sad Al. never! By stars in the great forests, as they look,
Child of Care, "Hope on, hope ever." Glistening, as from a brook ;
Cheerless-lone one, don't despair, And stillness, in the gloom, that seems a sound,
Though thy friends all turn away, Breathed up, unconscious, out from Nature's
Though they've spoken to ensnare, great profound;
Though they've listen'd to betray;
Friendship's counterfeit has gone, Fancies, that go beside us when we glide,
Learn to deem the loss a bcon, Still seeking no companion-prompt to guide,
In thy rectitude go on, Even where we wonld not, to the saddest grove,
Thou may'st find true friendship soon Where one still weeps for love,
Though Confidence, betray'd, cry Never! Still nursing ever a most sweet distress,
Child of Grief, " Hope on, hope ever." That, through our very sorrow seems to bless;
Don't despair; whoe'er thou art, These, since the child's departure, still declare
Howe'er sad thy case may be,Her precious birthright in the dew and air
Cherish Hope within thine heart, And I, that do inherit them from her,
In return, she'll cherish thee. Do feel them minister,
Disappointments vex the mind, As with new voices never felt before,
Painful is affliction's rod; To love that, in my heart, still groweth more and
Yet be patient-be resign'd more,
Put thy trust, thy hope in GOD
Nought from Him thy hope should sever, SONG OF LIFE.
Child of Faith, "Hope on, hope ever." A traveller on a dusty road
Christian pilgrim, don't despair;
All thy wants to God are known;
Art thou not thy Father's care?
Can thy God forsake His own?!
Were man not to trouble born,
Faith would not have ample scope, And age was pleased, in heights of noon,
Christians sorrow-Christians mourn, To bask beneath its boughs.
Not as those devoid of hope.
Nought should hope from Christians sever: The dorinouse loved its dangling twigs,
Child of God, "Hope on, hope ever."
* From a sweet little cluster of Poems, called "
| Affection," by EDWIN N. MARKS, published by Simplu A blessing evermore.
SIGNIFICATION OF CHRISTIAN NAMES.-TREASURES.
TREASURES FROM THE OLD POET S.
SIGNIFICATION OF CHRISTIAN NAMES.
Aaron, Hebrew, a mountain.
Lat. venerable, grand.
the waters to rise.
EARL OF SURKEY.
GENTILITY. NOR stand so much on your gentility, Which is an airy, and mere borrow'd thing, Fram dead men's dust and bones; and none of
yours, Except you make, or hold it.
Ben Jonson. MARRIAGE. As good and wise; so she be fit for me,
That is, to will, and not to will the same; My wife is my adopted self, and she
As me, to what I love, to love must frame. And when by marriage both in one concur, Woman converts to man, not man to her.
SIR T. OVERBURY.
OPINION. OPINION is as various as light change, Now speaking courtlike, friendly, straight as
strange, She's any humour's perfect parasite, Displeas'd with her, and pleas'd with her delight. She is the echo of inconstancy, Soothing her no with nay, her aye with yea.
GUILPIN COURAGE. When the air is calm and still, as dead and deaf And under heaven quakes not an aspen leaf; When seas are calm and thousand vessels fleet Upon the sleeping seas with passage sweet; And when the variant wind is still and lone The cunning pilot never can be known: But when the cruel storm doth threat the bark To drown in deeps of pits infernal dark, While ossing tears both rudder, mast, and sail, While mounting, seems the azure skies to scale, While drives perforce upon some deadly shore, There is the pilot known, and not before.
T. HUDSON. FRIENDSHIP. I HAD a friend that lov'd me; I was his soul; he liv'd not but in me; We were so close within each other's breast, The rivets were not found that join'd us first. That does not reach us yet; we were so mix'd, As meeting streams, both to ourselves were lost. We were one mass, we could not give or take, But from the same: for He was I; I He; Return my better half, and give me all myself, For thou art all! If I have any joy when thou art absent, I grudge it to myself; methinks I rob Thee of thy part.
nd under hea calm and thousassage sweet;
If apples, they should be stewed in a very little
water, drained, and seasoned with nutmeg, rose Venison Steaks.- The best venison steaks are water, and lemon. If curants, raspberries, or cut from the saddle; they should be cut three blackberries, they should be mashed with sugar, quarters of an inch thick, and treated like beef and put into the pudding raw. Spread the fruit steaks; serve with currant jelly,
very thick, all over the sheet of paste (whidi To make a Cheese Pudding.To half a pound of must not be rolled out too thin). When it grated cheese, add four eggs, well beaten, two covered all over with the fruit, roll it up and gills of rich milk, and a little salt: mix well close the dough at both ends, and down the last together, and bake in a buttered dish.-M. R,! side. Tie the pudding in a cloth, and boil i Taunton.
Eat it with sugar. It must not be taken out ! Orange Cheesecake.-A quarter of a pound of the pot till just before it is brought to table.-REmutter, a quarter of a pound of sugar, three eggs, commended by H. C. S. a wine-glass of milk or cream, two ounces of To make Mince Pies. - Parboil a bullock sponge-cake, the rind of one orange, grated, half heart, or a fresh tongue. After you have taken a nutmeg, two tablespoonfuls of rose-water. off the skin and fat, weigh two pounds. When it Pour the milk or cream over the sponge-cake, to | is cold, chop it very fine. Take the inside of the moisten it. Then stir together the butter and suet, weigh two pounds, and chop it as fine sugar, whisk your eggs, mash the cake very fine, I possible. Mix the meat and suet together, ad and mix ail together with the liquor and spice. ing the salt. Pare, core, and chop the apples and Line your pie-plates with paste, fill with the mix then stone, and chop the raisins. Having pri ture, and bake in a moderate oven. Recom- pared the currants, add them to the other fruit, mended by MARY WILSON.
and mix the fruit with the meat and suet. Pa Rice Souffle-Boil two ounces of rice in milk, in the sugar and spice, the candied peel, the add the yolks of two eggs, a little sugar, and grated peel, and the juice of the lemons and some candied orange-peel; then boil it again, and l oranges. Wet the whole with the rose-water and make a wall with it around the edge of the dish. liquor, and mix all well together. Cover Have ready some apples pared, and the cores pans of any size, small saucers, or a small pie scooped out; stew these apples in a little lemon dish, with puff or plain paste; put in your mince juice and sugar, filling the apertures with can cover over with paste, paring the edges nemy died sweetmeats. Fill the shape with the apples, and marking the top with a paste-knife. Bake and cover them with the whites of eggs, beaten the pies half an hour in a brisk oven. Slip them to a froth, with white sifted sugar. Harden it in out of the tins, and serve up hot. Keep Tour a cool oven.-H. W.C.
mince-meat in a jar, tightly covered. Set 10 d Shoulåer of Mutton with Rice.-Take a dry, cool place, and occasionally add more brand shoulder of mutton and haif boil it, then put it to it. Instead of the heart or tongue, you may into a stewpan, with two quarts of mutton gravy, ! you choose use part of a round of fresh beel a quarter of a pound of rice, a teaspoonful of “This receipt has been long tried by me, inushroom powder, with a little beaten mace, and found very useful."-MARY HILTON. stew it till the rice is tender; then take up the Sago Fruit Pudding.- A correspondent of mutton and keep it hot; put to the rice half a Cottage Gardener says: "Being forbidden pint of cream, and a piece of butter rolled in | use of pastry, I use rice and sago as substitutes fiour; stir it well round the pan, and let it boil the following manner. Boil a teacupful of s a few minutes; lay the mutton in the dish, and as thick as it can be made to boil without bun pour the rice over it.-S.
ing: put about five tablespoonfuls in the bottom Economical use of Nutmegs. - If a person of a quart basin; then a layer of baked fruit of begins to grate a nutmeg at the stalk end, it will sort (sweetened), and fill the basin to the bra prove hollow throughout; whereas the same with alternate layers of fruit and sago. Put nutmeg, grated at the other end, would have a cool place for some little time, and it proved sound and solid to the last. This circum become solid. It is best when made shortly al stance may be accounted for :--The centre of a breakfast, and allowed to stand till wanted nutmeg consists of a number of fibres issuing warm either in an oven, over boiling water, from the stalk and its continuation through the before the fire with a plate turned over it, centre of the fruit, the other ends of which Sibres, dinner. The sago boils best when soaked in though closely surrounded and pressed by the water for a few hours before using; rice is un fruit, do not adhere to it. When the stalk is grated in exactly the same way. By way of change away, those fibres, having lost their hold, gra. sometimes line a basin with the rice or dually drop out in succession, and the hollow when very thick, and spread a thick layer of continues through the whole nut. By beginning same over a large dinner plate. When colda at the contrary end, the fibres above-mentioned stiff, I turn the basin over it, and with a to are grated off at their core end, with the sur cut the sago round the edge of the basin: rounding fruit, and do not drop out and cause a parings I put in the bottom of the basin, and hole---"Perhaps the above may be useful to your fill with baked fruit, after which I put the housekeeping friends."-J. R. C., Lambeth. in the plate on the top of the basin, to act a
Boston Pudding.–Make a good common paste cover. The smooth side must be upwards. with a pound and a half of flour, and three- with mock cream, made as follows, it is delicio quarters of a pound of butter. When you roll it Pour half a pint of boiling milk on a teaspoon out the last time, cut off the edges, till you get of arrowroot, well mixed with a small quantity the sheet of paste of an even square shape. Have the same; stir the mixture well, and have ready some truit, sweetened to your taste. If white of an egg well beaten, and when about cranberries, gooseberries, dried peaches, or dam cold add it, and placing the whole over the ti sons, they should be stewed, and made very sweet. | stir til: it nearly boils, then strain for use."