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than, cold weather, and, in making coine ! -Invano impoverisired sinilk, the globules parative observations ou árumbers of will be smaller sin size and fewer, and the samplesnit is propers that eachi samiple field of vision will present the appearance should be set aside in the lactometérsljat of Fig. 2:43 ay aidoto geabstostog the same time and for the same perioda no 419 bodo sode 3179stui Aloe
The thickness of the stratum of cream base formed in genuine milk is, like the specific se i gravity, subject to considerable variations but in ordinary mixed milką i the average 1 per centage should be about 95 tenths. 9 1020 We chanel met with samples of gemine ORO milk which showed only two degrees, and beau others showing as many as 80 and hence,s! b906 in order to be able to state whether a milk is of good or bad quality, -itriis notvsuffib cient to estimate solely the percentage of cream, but when this is determined the density of the sking milk, or senum, should
99 likewise be ascertained in 9 yd bonisido
It is stated that the addition of a small
d ue Alim to Figa 82-Curdtof Miiksuot za 1! ats 300 Do v pogub nou ceed to consider the "adilterations.
opwRich it is made the subject. -92110 902
2 5 7 Werstated at the outset, that if the 099 Roda o riossp testimony of ordinary tabservers js 18 he -10 drogi 19 magass
V gimnisk sumption of most adulterated.ga
variety of ingredients as commonly em- point from which to determine the adulployed in the sadulteration of milk, teration of milk with water. amongst which may be mentioned flour, Thus it was shown that the serum of a milk of almonds, gum arabic, gum tragacanth, milk having a density of 1029, was reduced chalk, turmeric, carbonate of soda, sugar, on the addition of 10 per cent. of water, emulsion of temp-seed, and sheep's and to 1025—20 per cent. to 1322_30 per horses' brains, rubbed up with water into an cent. to 1021 - 40 per cent. to 1017450 emulsion.
per cent. to 1015. LITO 2017901032 It is unnecessary to describe the methods The specific ingravity of skim-milk, to be employed for the detection of these although less uniform than that of the substances, since we have the authority of serum, is yet much more so than pure the Lancet for stating that they are used milk; on this account, the next most now rarely, and most of them never used accurate method of determining the adin the adulteration of milk. The only mixture of water with milk, is to take the one of these alleged adulterations sup- density of skim-milk after the per centage ported by evidence, and this not at all of cream has been lascertained by the conclusive, is that with sheep's brains. lactometer. 191 zi ultraw lod, The microscope affords a most satisfactory Lastly, we proceed to give the results means of detecting this adulteration by obtained by the Lancet from the examixarevealing the presence of the fibres of tion of twenty-six samples of milk, which the cerebræ matter is composed. purchased of different dairyinen.lo See Fig. 4. AEBM 7001- gid
These are as follow Sty 10 JASO
Ist. That twelve were genuine 9 18. Albed
2nd. That of these, two showed a deficiency of cream. 07 February
3rd. That eleven were adulterated.
4th. That this adulteration consisted, in all cases, of water, the per centages of which varied from ten to fifty per cent., or one-half of the article.
5th. That in no case was chalk, size, gum, sheep's brains, or any of the other substances occasionally used for the adulteration of milk, detected.
These results are more favourable than might have been anticipated, from the belief generally entertained respecting the gross adulterations to which milk, as alleged, has been so constantly subject.
The addition of water to milk is, how Fig. 4.–Milk Adulterated with Sheep's Brains. ever, a fraud of the gravest description,
and the parties practising it are morally There is however an adulteration, which, as guilty as though they had employed, for according to common belief, is constantly the purpose of adulteration, the brains of practised: we refer to that with water. sheep, or any other equally disgusting
It was found that the serum of milk, substance. that is, the fluid left after the precipitation It is only necessary to refer to one other of the cheese by the addition of acetic article used, not so much for adulteration acid, possessed a density which was almost as to heighten the colour of milk, cream, constant, the limits being 1025° to 1028°; butter, and particularly cheese, viz. it was further ascertained that the specificarnatto: thie, is a vegetable colouring gravity of this serum, varied in proportion matter or dye which, however, in conseto the quantity of water added to the milk; quence of its high price, is itself almost how the addition of water would of course onstantly adulterated, it commonly condessen the specific gravity in proportion to taining Venetian red, and sometimes eren, unde quantity added, we have thus, a fixed that poisonous substance, red lead.
THE WORK-TABLE FRIEND. tacked together, and form a sort of
cushion, and the button-hole stitches are COLLAR IN SPANISH ROSE POINT. taken over them, but not through the lace. Materials. - Walter Evans & Co.'s Point-lace
The little wheels in the bars of the groundCottons, Moravian thread, and No. 1, Mecklen- work (so characteristic of old Point), burgh thread.
are covered with buttonhole-stitch, dotted The section given of this collar is one with Raleigh bars. The edge is outlined, fourth of the entire length, two patterns and worked in the same manner. forming one half, and being reversed for the remainder.
ANTI-MACASSAR IN CROCHET. The whole of the pattern is done in the
Materials.--Six reels of W. Evans & Co.'s close thick stitches of which we have Boar's-head cotton, No. 8, and 50 rows of turalready given diagrams and descriptions. quoise beads, No. 2. Boulton & Son's crochetSome parts are done wholly in foundation book, No. 16. stitch, with the exception of the veinings, This Anti-Macassar is similar in style which are formed by doing one or two to that given in No. 73 of the present lines like the SPOTTED LACE. Open series of the Family Friend ; the group of diamond and Antwerp lace are done with W. flowers, and the border, being both howEvans's and Co.'s Mecklenburgh thread; ever different. We have therefore not No. 160. So is the foundation stitch; thought it necessary to give an engraving but the bars on which it is worked are of it. Thread all the beads on one reel of done with Mecklenburgh, No. 120. The cotton ; with another reel make a chain of Spanish rose point stitch is a close button- 244 stitches and do one row of Dc.UR hole stitch, worked over many threads 2nd Row.-A close square at each end, of Moravian. The little loops are made and all the rest open. thus: having worked the space for one 3rd Row.--1 close square, 1 open, Dc loop, take the thread back to the beginning all but the last six stitches; 2 Ch, Miss 2, and cover the bar thus made with button- | 4 De. hole stitch; then do a small piece more 4th to 9th Row.--1 close, 1 open, 1 close, of the thick part, and repeat. As the l at each end; all the intermediate open. thickness is gradually shaped to a point at 10th Row.-1 close, 1 open, 1 close, 14 each end, it is necessary to cut some of open, 1 close, 3 open, i close, 6 open, 1 the Moravian threads shorter. They are close, 12 open, 1 close, 4 open, 1 close, 8