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6. Here is a diagram that will explain deeper ones being somewhat Yound, while low the hair is retained in the skin,* and the superficial ones are flattened and scaly [ you examine it attentively you will be (e). The follicle is kept in its place ble to understand then relative positions according to the size and strength of the

the various parts, some of which we hair, by means of the adjoining tissues hall have to consider hereafter. The dia" (86, Fig. 1.) ;) and the small vessels, ram represents a section of the human called capillaries, which afford materials valp, oshowing the manner in which the for inerease. (1 116 74111 et ad nir penetrates it; a, is sthe hair-follicle ; 110. The hair grows from the bottom of the hair within the follicle ; c, the epi- the follicle, being formed by the secreermisgd d, the sebaceous glands opening tions of these cells, and being gradually nto the hair-follicleze, the fatty tissue, with pushed upwards by them, so as to increase he cellular tissue underneath it, in which its length. he base of the hair-follicle is embedded. 11 - 11. As the cells ascend in the bulb of 'Tue 117. As we have seen the hair they Become larger until they de above, the sweat-glands reach the central part - hence the in

are connected with the creased size of the bulb; but when the
hair-follicles; and, in the shaft commences, the cells become longer,
accompanying figure, you denser, and, in fact, fibrous. 219
will observe that there 12. By simply crushing the hair, we are

are no less than six of able to discern its fibrous nature; but this 9 these glands opening into may be more readily demonstrated after

aw the thair - follicle which the hair has been softened by maceration SIT10 shit belongs to the beard. 10.11 in an acid. Si

$18, 2. est 10 8. The shaft of the hair 13. Hair consists of a cortical or fibrous that part which you discern above the horny texture which invests it, and a rface of the skin (Fig. 1., b), and if you medullary or pith-like substance, which is low it into that membrane, you will observed on the inside. W

0% 189 see that it is lodged 14. The cortex ör bark of the hair, is

s tisd in a fold of what is formed by a single layer of cells being imMontbyd termed 159 basement bricated (Fig. 2., e), and forming a thin

nomembrane, or its fol- layer outside the fibrous tissue of the shaft.

licle, which is larger These cells overlap each other, so that or bulbous at the

their edges give a serrated lower part, like the

feel and appearance to the hair which is inside

hair. If you rub your 0 it. The accompany

finger' from root to point ing diagram will en

over a hair, and then rub able you to under

it backwards, you will find I stand the relative Fig. 4.730s that its surface is serrated ;

positions of the adja. and if the hair is very large, you will cent parts to the hair.

find that the roughness is greater,-be

find that the ronchinese te Fig. 3.

7 9 . The hair-follicle cause there is usually a double series of nerely a turning-in of the skin, so as imbrications in the large hairs.

W Invest the hair, and its inside is a con

1 - 15. If we make a longitudinal section nation of the epidermis; for the cells

HILL of the shaft of a hair, we of the same nature (Fig. 2., e), the

find that the centre is made

up of a series of cells, filled For an explanation of the various terms reng to the structure of the skin, see Family

up with pigment, and und, vol i., p. 21, New Series.

contained in the fibrous Fig. 3.-Section of the bulb of a hair; a, mass

part of its substance. In ells in the centre of the hair, filled with pig

to Fig. 5.1. order to observe this apit; 6, basement membrane of the hair follicle; yer of epidermic cells; d, imbricated cells, Ted with pigment at the lower part, and be * See $ 7, vol. i. New Series, p, 22. ning gradually compressed as they approach + Fig. 4.-A portion of hair magnified so as to surface of the skin; e, layer of imbricated show the imbrication of the outside.

I Fig. 5.-Lorgitudinal section of a hair, show

[graphic]
[graphic]

Chinese ......

beards.

pearance, we must use a sharp razor to German anatomist, states that a square make the section, and a magnifying power inch of the skin of the head, contains 598 of about 150 ; but as every person is not black hairs, 648 chesnut hairs, and 728 able to do so, we have given a diagram of flaxen hairs. the appearance of the longitudinal section 22. The colours and shades of the of the hair.

human hair are very numerous, and de16. If we take a hair and cut it across pend, in a measure, upon age, climate

with a sharp razor, so and race. The following Table will give
as to make a very thin some idea of the varieties caused by race
section of it-a mere and climatal influence.
shaving, in fact - We Race or Tribe. Hair.
shall observe three Afghans ........black.
parts: first, a thin var- Arabs ..........black and crisp, with
nish-like layer of flat-|

grizzly beards.
Fig. 6.*

tened cells; then a set Armenians ......dark. of fibres, which are placed further apart as Berberines, or they approach the centre, which is dotted

a

dark, and strongly frirNubians of the

zled. here and there with pigment-cells in some Nile ........) hairs, but is always loose and looks like pith. Californians....., black, long, very strong - 17. Hair is not always of the same

and not woolly. shape; for example, - in the eyebrows

Chinese & Indo

(thick, coarse, lank and and eyelashes the hair is thicker in the

black, with scanty centre than at the extremities; but generally hair is thicker at the root than the Circassians ...... brown or black. free end, which tapers considerably. Some- | Egyptians ..... black and crisp. times hair is circular, at other times oval |

Endamênes(New

(thick, rough, and shin. or kidney-shaped, or semicircular.

ing, without being 18. Hair may be long and straight, or

Guinea)......

(woolly. short and curly; silky, coarse, or woolly ; Esquimaux ......coal - black, straight dry or moist.

strong, and long black 19. Human hair averages about adoth Ethiopian........black and crisp. of an inch in thickness; which is the same Greeks ..........black, brown, and faza as saying that four hundred bairs, laid side Kamtschatkans ..black. by side, would only measure one inch Kurds ..........black. across. The hair of women is coarser Kurilians, or Ainos very black. than that of men, being from about oth Mantschoos ......brown. to both of an inch in thickness.

Mexicans ........thick, black, coarse, and 20. The hair varies in length according

glossy ; beard thin. to situation, sex, and race. In the Kuri Mongolians ......black, stiff, straight lian race, there are individuals who have

and sparing. 1 hair growing down the back and covering Ossetines ...... Brown or light, and nearly the whole body. The average

sometimes red beards length of the beard is ten inches, but Patagonians...... lank and black; beard some men have had beards that swept the

scanty. ground. Women have also been met with, Singhalese ......black. whose hair reached to their feet; but yet It is worthy of remark with respect to the ordinary length is only from twenty to the colour of the hair, that it varies with forty inches.

the colour of the iris, or coloured part of 21. Colour influences its texture: thus the eye, and the general hue of the skia. flaxen hair is said to be the finest, and It has 'been remarked, and with more black the coarsest; and as hair becomes degree of truth than is generally believed, gray, it becomes coarser. Withof, a that the darker the hair the stronger the

body, and vice versa. ing the imbrication of the cortex, and the pigment 23. The difference of colour in human cells in the fibrous part.

* Fig. 6. Transverse section of a hair, showing hair appears to depend, according to Vanthe three different textures.

quelin, on the presence or absence of

[graphic]

peculiar oil. He states that black hair stituents in the hair is neither constant consists of,-1. An animal matter, which nor uniform for the same hair, and thereconstitutes the greater part. 2. A white fore that the difference in colour cannot concrete oil, in small quantity. 3. be ascribed to the quantity of iron, or the Another oil of a grayish - green colour, quantity of salts; which of course is a more abundant than the former. 4. Iron, direct contradiction to the statement of the state of which in the hair is uncertain. Vauquelin, that black hair contains most 5. A minute proportion of oxide of man- iron, and light hair the least. ganese. 6. Phosphate of lime. 7. Car- 27. The per-centage of inorganic conbonate of lime, in very small quantity. stituents, according to Laer, are8. Silex and sulphur, each in considerable quantity.

Black Brown | Red Gray Vauquelin considers that red hair differs

1:02 0.54 1.30 1.00 from black only, in containing a red oil

1.15 1.10 10.5 10.75 instead of a blackish-green oil; and that' ;

0.32 1.85

0:17 0.93 Soluble portion -- 0 2

0.24 white hair differs from both these only in

0.51 0:27 the oil being nearly colourless, and in Peroxide of iron ...) 0.214

0.058 10.1700.282 containing phosphate of magnesia, which

0.395 10.275 is not found in them.

Insoluble Portion

0.312 10:516 0·528

0.200 24. Dr. T. J. T. Von Laer performed a variety of experiments in Mulder's labora- The soluble portion consisted of chloride tory, with a view to determine the consti- of sodium, sulphate of lime, and sulphate tuents of the human hair, and the result of magnesia; the insoluble constituents of his labours are quite in opposition to 'were phosphate of lime and silica

Vauquelin's statements. Laer is inclined 28. With regard to the quantity of suli to attribute the different colour of the phur in the hair, Laer found the following

hair solely to the aggregation of the atoms, quantities in 100 parts:
and not to a chemical substance.
25. Scherer and Laer treated the hair

Brown T Black RedT Gray with spirit. ether, and water, and by these per cent. | per cent. | per cent. | per cent.

4.98
4.85
5.02

4.95 means obtained substances called marga. i 5.44

5.24

4.63 rin, margaric acid, olein, a brown matter soluble in water, chlorides of sodium and This large amount of sulphur is the cause potassium, and lactate of ammonia. These , of its colour being affected by various are all chemical names that it will not be metallic salts. interesting to the general reader to have 29. The peroxide of iron, found in the explained, and as the student in science hair (about 0.4 percent), is supposed is aware of their signification, it is needless by Laer to be chemically combined with to dwell any longer upon them.

the protein (the bisulphuret). By ultimate analysis, Scherer and Laer 30. Hair is remarkably elastic and obtained from the hair

strong. A single hair from the head of a

boy only 8 years of age, supported the c. H. o. S. N. Authority.

weight of 7.812 grains; and one from the Of the beard.... 51.529 6.687! 23848 17.963 Scherer. head of a man 22 years of age, supported

50.12 6.33 21.03 | 4.99 17:52 Laer.. of the head of 50-652 6.769 24.643 17.963 Scherer. | 14.285 grains. Weber states that a hair

a fair persons 50-65 6:36 20-81 5.00 17.14 Laer. Of Mexican .. 40-9356.631 25.498 17 963 Scherer.

10 inches long will stretch to 13 inches. Brown hair .... 50-622 6.613 24.829 | 17.963 Scherer. The ash amounted to 0.72 in the beard,

| The Wife. — Oh, the intoxication of to 0.8 in the hair from the head of a fair that sweet Elysium, that Tadmor in life's person, and to 2:0 in the black hair from

0 in the black hair from desert — the possession of one we have the Mexican.

loved! It is as if poetry, and music, and 26. From the experiments of Laer, we light, and the fresh breath of flowers, were learn that the quantity of inorganic con- all blent into one being, and from that

being, rose our existence! It is content * C signifies carbon ; H, hydrogen; 0, oxygen; :

is made rapture-nothing to wish for, yet 8, sulphur; N, nitrogen.

everything to feel.-Bulwer.

BISHOP ANDREWŞ.

n ' ment on parliamentary authority, tending

to an infraction of the Constitution. LAUNCELOT ANDREWS, the descendant. He was distinguished both by great of'a respectable and religious family, in learning and great industry. He conthe county of Suffolk was born at London, / scientiously considered time, talents, and in 1555. A part of his education was con- possessions, as consecrated to his high and ducted by Mr. Richard Mulcaster, a cele- holy duties. His whole life passed under brated teacher of those times, and he early an abiding sense of this solemn stewarddistinguished himself by unusual profi-| ship. His hospitality was constant, and ciency in the learned languages. He when his station required, elegant. There became a student at the University of was in him no principle of ostentation, Cambridge, where he received a scholar but a regard for justice, which caused hiin ship, and gained great reputation for his to consult fitness and propriety in all eloquence as a lecturer in theology, He' things. He sought out and patronized instituted also a series of animated ex- humble merit, relieving the poor and sick planations and enforcements of the "De-' with unwearied liberality. He rejoiced to calogue," to the undergraduates, which release the prisoner from his cell, and to commanded their admiration, as well as send clothing, food, or medicine to the that of the whole University. I

sufferer, preferring to do it so secretly Afterwards, he was induced to accom- that they might not discover whence the pany Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, Presi benefaction came. Applications from dent of the Council of York, into the strangers in distress he received with a north, where his zeal and eloquence aided perpetual welcome; and it was observed the cause of Protestantism, His talents that he never distributed alms for others, having thus been brought to the knowledge without augmenting them by his own of Walsingham, Secretary to Elizabeth, private bounty, he was rapidly promoted, as Master of Truth in word and deed was an ele. Pembroke-hall, Chaplain in Ordinary to mentary part of his character, and his the Queen, Prebendary and Dean of West- integrity in the various and important minster. Twice, also, during that reign, offices committed to his charge was inne received the offer of a bishopric, which corruptible. Such prudence and diligence he deemed it expedient to refuse.

did he devote to his numerous occupations After the accession of James I., who both in church and state, that it was said greatly admired his pulpit eloquence, and by cotemporaries that he never underrespected his piety, the tide of promotion took any business, or inhabited any flowed on with a wonderful rapidity. He mansion, without leaving it in a better was appointed Lord Almoner, Privy-coun condition than when it came into his sellor of England and Scotland, Dean of hands. the Chapel Royal, Bishop of Chichester, | His affability won the hearts of those Ely, and finally of Winchester.. with whom he associated; and his grati

This influx of honours did not impair tude to those who had shown him tae his singular humility, or create, in any slightesť favours, was equalled only by measure, conformity to the spirit of the his generosity. This sweet sentiment of world.

grateful remembrance was peculiarly ferAbout this period, the king sustained | vid towards those who had aided him, an unserupulous attack from Cardinal Belo when young, in the acquisition of knowlarmine, under the signature of Matthew ledge.' To Mr. Mulcaster, the instructor Tortus, to which Bishop Andrews replied, of his boyhood, he continued through life with great force and research, in a trea | to manifest the most respectful regard. tise entitled, “Tortura Torti." Royal and caused his portrait to be placed over gratitude and favour were heaped upon the door of his study. A teacher of his him, yet no courtly wiles unhinged his earlier childhood having died, ere he was dignity as an ecclesiastic, or his independ- in a situation to give substantial proofs of ence as a patriot; for he stood forth de- his faithful recognition, he sought out his cidedly, and even severely, against the son, and bestowed on him a valuable monarch, when he proposed some intrench- ! rectory. He took peculiar pleasure in

sail,

searching the Universities for young men widows, orphans, prisoners, and “ aged of promise and piety, that he might / poor men, especially seafaring men.” reward and promote them according to A few extracts, from his "Manual of their merits.

| Devotions,” will illustrate the conciseness, He conducted a correspondence with | humility, and eloquence of its petitions, as some of the first scholars of Europe, well as their occasional adaptation to the being himself distinguished by great needs of those who go down to the sea learning. He possessed a knowledge of in ships and do business amid the great fifteen languages, and in the conference at / waters. 15. u ve termine Hampton Court, his name stands first of those to whom the new translation of the accompany, O Lord, the voyage of those who Scriptures was committed. The portion

| 1 And the journey of those who travel. L ) executed by him, was a share of the Be mindful of those in exile, at the mines and at Pentateuch, and the books from Joshua toll the galleys, the first of Chronicles. In the preface to of those in affiction, necessity and distress,

?? Of all who need thy loving-kindness, the “Collation of the Old Interpreters,''

L

i
B e mindful of

Be mindful of those who love us, by Boisius, he is designated as the lotte And of those who hate us, miracle and oracle of our age in lan- And of those who charge us, unworthy as we are, guages, a Mithridates in art, an Aristotle

To remember them in our prayers.

For thou, Lord, art the helper of the helpless, in his own person, embracing all accom

1 The hope of the hopeless, plishments; so that while others have The pilot of the tempest-toss'd, been content with one, he has in himself

The haven of those who sail,

" The physician of the sick, seemed to comprise the whole."

." Oh! make thyself all things to all men. I His literary labours, as well as those in the pulpit, were unwearied and abundant.

Let us pray for those who pity us and minister to

our wants, i Many sermons and treatises evince his

† For the liberation of all who are in bonds, learning and piety. His “ Private Devo For our absent friends and families, tions, and Manual for the Sick,” have For those who traverse the wide ocean,

For all who are bending under infirmity. passed through more numerous editions than any of his other published writings.

Deep calleth unto deep, They were originally composed in Greek, The depth of our wretchedness unto the depth of

thy mercy. he having a peculiar fondness for that lan

Be merciful, and spare ; guage, so that his thoughts naturally flowed

Impute not, arraign not, remember not. forth in it, while its structure, and the Behold, if thou be a Father, and we be children, compound epithets in which it abounds,

as a father pitieth his children, so pity us, o

Lord. seemed, in his opinion, to strengthen the Behold, if thou be Lord, and we be servants, our ideas, and quicken with new life, the medi eyes wait upon thee, until thou have mercy tations that they clothed. This manu upon us. script work, which was not translated | Although we were neither children nor servants,

but only as dogs, we might yet be allowed to until after his death, he often used in his eat of the crumbs that fall from thy table. closet devotions.

I believe that Christ came to save that which During his last illness, it was almost was lost.

Thou who came to save that which was lost, constantly in his hands. “It was found,

Suffer not that to be lost which thou hast saved ! says one of his biographers, “worn thin by his fingers and wet with his tears." . Bishop Andrews lived eminently a life

Some have supposed, that amid the wide of prayer. As it drew towards its close, compass of his intercessions for all all his thoughts were above. When he classes of mankind, there was peculiar could no longer speak audibly, his lips tenderness of expression for the dwellers moved in supplication, even while he upon the great deep. If this is a fact, it eemed to slumber. Becoming too feeble is easily explained by his filial affections, for this effort, the lifting up of his eyes, his father having been a mariner. This and their deep, unearthly glance, told the was doubtless in his mind, in a bequest prayer of the heart. made in his last will, of several thousand He died at the age of 71, on the 27th pounds, the interest of which was to be of December, 1626, at Winchester House, divided, four times in a year, among and was buried in St. Saviour's Church,

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