Sidor som bilder

listened with confiding trust. His man

PAPIER-MACHÉ. ner, his tone, his representations of him. self and family were such that I could not It was towards the close of the last doubt him ; iny whole heart became his. century that iron tea-trays began to be Some circumstances discreditable to him imitated or superseded by papier-maché, becoming known to my family, they inter- and from these trays has gradually sprung dicted our acquaintance. I was a foolish up an important department of Birmingand self-willed girl, and finding that my ham industry,--a department in which it is family set their faces utterly against our pretty generally admitted, we believe, that union, I fled from my home, deserted the Birmingham excels all other places. dear mother and kind friends to whom I. Although the real papier-maché snaps ought to have clung, -and in a few days I up all kinds of paper indiscriminately, found myself deluded and deserted by him with most impartial fairness, the tea-tray for whom I had violated all the ties which paper (if we may so term it) is not so previously endeared life to me. Mad- easily satisfied; it requires whole sound dened at this terrible fate, I determined sheets to work upon, and these sheets to seek oblivion in the dark ways of the must have a certain definite quality to fit world. Never from the time I left my home them for their destined purpose. have my friends heard of me or I of them. Let us watch, in thought, the making of We have long been dead to each other. à papier-maché tea - tray. In the first I will not tell the horrors of mind, and place we see that the paper employed has sufferings of body through which I have a grayish colour, and looks like thick passed. God knows how bitterly my heart blotting-paper ; and in the next we see has repented its sins. My last supplica- that a mould or form is employed to give tion to you is, that you will find out my shape to the tray. Artists or designers aged 'mother--if the grave has not already are constantly at work producing new claimed her; tell her of my repentance, patterns; but we are here supposing that and miserable end. Tell her that all her a tolerably simple tray is to be manupredictions were fulfilled, and that I die factured. A model of the tray is prehere in poverty and wretchedness, with no pared, giving the exact form and shape ; other friend but yourself to receive my and from this model a mould is cast in last confession. Say that my last prayers iron, brass, or copper ; the surface of the are for her forgiveness. I have already, I mould corresponding, of course, with the believe, received mercy from God. And interior of the tray to be made. Women. let her employ the history of my fate as a and girls, seated at tables, cut up the warning to weak creatures like myself, rough gray paper into pieces of the rewho may hereafter fall under the tempta- quisite size, and these pieces are handed tions of such heartless wretches as Charles to the pasters, who are also women-for Langford.”

it is worthy of remark that this very The name struck upon Alfred's ear with pretty art is one which is capable of being the force of thunder. The unhappy in- exercised in many of its branches by valid had become insensible from exhaus- females. These pasters have beside them tion, and in a few hours afterwards her a plentiful supply of paste, made of flour painful history closed for ever. Alfred and glue dissolved and boiled in water. left the Hospital, determining upon in- The mould is greased, to prevent the

paper stant action.

from adhering. The first sheet:is pasted (Continued at page 241.)

on both sides, and handed to another

woman, who lays it on the mould, pressing Mothers have an opportunity, both by and rubbing and adjusting it until it contheir instruction and example, of fixing forms to the shape. Another and another such lasting impressions upon their chil.. are similarly applied, and the mould, with dren's minds, as, by the blessing of God its threefold garment, is put into a dryupon their endeavours, neither the ini- ing-room, heated to a high temperature, quity of the age nor the enemy of man- where it is brought to a dried state. It is kind, shall ever be able to blot out.— removed from the stove-room, filed to give Bishop Horne.

it a tolerable smoothness of surface, and

then clothed with three more layers of A kind of stencilling is employed in cheap paper, in the same mode as before. Again work, but in better specimens the real is the stove-room employed, again the artist's pencil is brought into requisition. pasters ply their labour; a third time the

The true papier-maché, that which was stove-room, again the pasters; and 'so on, introduced about twenty-five years ago, until thirty or forty thicknesses of paper and from which Mr. Bielefeld produces have been applied, more or less, of course, such a wondrous variety of decorative according to the substance intended to be ornaments, is almost entirely paper ; there produced. For some purposes as many as may be a small precentage of other maa hundred and twenty thicknesses are terial to impart certain minor qualities, pasted together, involving forty stove dry- but it is essentially paper. And if we ings, and of course carrying the operations inquire what kind of paper is thus used, over a considerable number of days. A we find that it is any and every kind,-all znass of pasteboard, six inches in thick- will be welcome to the maché vat. ness, which is occasionally produced for The kind of papier-maché which is now certain purposes, is perhaps one of the under notice is a paste-like mass formed of toughest and strongest materials we can paper-pulp, and pressed in moulds to any imagine.

desired form. Mr. Bielefeld, the leading The mould being covered with a suffi- manufacturer in this branch, has an estabcient layer, a knife is employed to dexter- lishment in the country where water-power ously loosen the paper at the edges; the can be commanded, and where machines, greased state of the inould allows the paper moved by this power, bring the paper to to be removed from it. Then are all im- the required state. The


be it of perfections removed; the plane, the file, what kind it may, or of as many different and the knife are applied to bring all kinds as it may, is moistened, and chop• ship-shape" and proper.

ped, and minced, and routed about until Next come the adornments. The paste. it becomes a perfectly honiogenous pasty board itself is not beautiful, so beauty is mass, or rather a mass having a consistsought in other ways. Shell-lac-varnish ency like that of dough or of putty. A of very fine quality, coloured according to trifling portion of other substances is, as circumstances, is applied coat after coat, we have said, introduced, but not sufficient until a thickness is obtained sufficient for to change the general character of the the purpose. The black polished surface mass as a paper substance. Then comes of ordinary papier-maché trays is produced the moulding or pressing. The material by black japan varnish, applied by women is too thick to be poured into a mould with a brush. But whether the varnish like plaster of Paris, or like molten be black or coloured, it usually undergoes metal; it is pressed into flattish moulds, a rubbing and polishing to such a degree like clay, or composition, or gutta-percha. as to equal in brilliancy anything produced A piece is cut off, about enough for the in the arts. It is said that the finest article to be made, it is pressed well into polishing instrument used to give the last the mould, a counter-mould is placed upon finishing touch, after all the “rotten it, and the force of a powerful press is stones” and “emeries" have done their brought to bear upon it, so as to drive best, is the soft palm of a woman's hand; the material into every minute crevice of and that those females employed in this the mould. art, who are gifted by Nature with the And here we come to the artistic depart. much-coveted charm of a soft and delicate ment of such a manufacture as this. To hand, find it commercially advantageous command anything like a leading position to preserve this softness and delicacy by a in decorative art, there must be an untirdegree of gloved carefulness, not usual in ing attention to new designs, new artistic their rank in life.

ideas, new combinations of form, and Then ensue the painting and the gilding, colour, and material. Hence, in such an the bedizenment with gaudy show, or the establishment as the one now under notice, adornment with graceful device, according the moulds are constantly increasing in as the goods are low or high-priced, or the number and value ; not merely by hun. manufacturer a man of taste or no taste. I dred-weights, bui hy tons.

seated himself in his chair, collected around EVENINGS AT HOITE; him the young listeners, and, in the midst OR, WINTER IN SPITZBERGEN.*

of their most longing expectation inquired,

“How far had we gone yesterday even(Continued from page 183.)


Julia. Up to that horrible" but,” by FOURTHI EVENING.

which you destroyed our rejoicing, dear WITH a certain anxious doubt, the chil- father. dren looked forward the next day to the MOTÆER. And such a “but” will you continuation of the history of the unfortu- often enough experience in your life. nátes. These poor people had become of Hopes often deceive, and not all the good importance to them, on account of the which is anticipated takes place. sorrowfu} lot that had befallen them.

FATHER. You are quite right, good They had expected that their fáte would mother. But to go on with our story. be changed, that, united as true friends, With the best wishes of those left behind, they would brave all the inconveniences the pilot, Ivan, and Gregory, quitted the of the long winter in this rough country, wreck. The cold was severe, the air harsh and thus would overcome all the circum- and piercing. Only by quick walking, by stances and dangers which were to befall

means of warm clothing, and from the fact them. They had hoped that a ship com that they had much to bear, could they ing to their deliverance would carry' back resist the penetrating and sensible chill. the forsaken ones to their native country,

Gus. Why, then, did they burden themand that Ivan, especially, would be received selves with a large pack? by his father with joy.

FATHER. Because they needed many And all these beautiful hopes, had that things, and knew not what they might single word but” of their father de- find there. They had each a gun, a sword, stroyed !

a cartouch-box filled with powder and ball, “How will it be with those unfortunate

a bag with provisions, bread, bacon, a men ?" asked Julia. “I have actually bottle of brandy, tobacco, and, besides, an dreamed of them, how they died on the axe, and every one of them a blanket.' It desolate island, were found, and -"

was still dark when they left the wreck. Gus. Strange! I, too, dreamed some. On their left hand, they saw on the horithing like it. They must have had to

zon a faint glimmer, which announced the fight with bears and wolves.

near approach of the short day, lasting Max. It is no worse, however, than if scarcely a few hours. In the twilight of they were under the torrid zone, and been

this glimmer, the friends went forth in the killed by lions and tigers, or were swala direction they had once taken ; and at last, lowed up by gigantic serpents.

in four hours' travel, reached the island, MARIA. Very true. But what fine fruits

so greatly had the mirror-like surface of they would have found, too, under the tor- the ice, and the single-coloured snow, derid zone! They could have laid out gar- ceiyed them in respect to the distance. dens and fields, have built themselves JULIA. They must have been thankful

, houses, as the colonists did on Robinson when they felt the dry ground under their Crusoe's island. And what did they find | feet. on Spitzbergen ?-nothing but ice' and

MAX. Just as did Robinson Crusoe, when snow.

he rose on land out of his sea-bath. Gus. And they might also be poorly FATHER. Whether they were as well enough provided with the means of living. satisfied as he was, is a question. RobinMAX. We will not trouble ourselves on

son Crusoe saw himself saved from certain this account. I hope it will be better than death; he found, under a mild climate, au we 'feared. One can endure much, and island, from the fruitfulness of which he seamen especially can do so.

might expect a sufficiency of articles of So the children talked it over among food. Our three friends saw before them themselves, until, after supper, their father

a desolate land, a mass of rocks thrown from the German of C. Hildebrandt, by together. There was no tree, no shrub

was green, no bird sung in the tops of the

E. G. Smith.


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place for repose there is no filole ore caverns triend, so welcome as this discovery

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and Wolves.

No brook

FATHER. Not indeed the hut. After fields and meado mulher saw nothing but half of wall 'no longer appeared; the

walk those vast bårtén" heaps of rocks, which the lay before them like gray fuins, the natu: cliffs were more compact, and formed on ral colour of which was "yet more height both sides a smooth wall, which gradually ened by the snow. The whole creation rose up from the valley, that continually appeared as it petrified. A stillness, as of became wider. 14.Suddenly, Ivan espied the grave," reigned in the desolation, in above,

on the rock, a caveru or opening in which not even the dissonant cry 1111 the cliff, similar to the entrance of a on the horrible silence. There was no

treasure, or the house of a hospitable was to be found,

of wood, . But what would with which they could kindle 'a' fire to this discovery bę to them? warm themselves. (16)

FATHER. Do you imagine that it was a Cautiously and timidly, our unfortunate small one ko

Gus. No, Maria. It was already imcovered with rock. Cätition was the more portant that they had come to a shelter, so needful - here, as neither of them were that they were not obliged to lie under the ignorant that the high northern regions of open skydd the earth are inhabited by certain kinds of FATUER, Very true, my son. In this wild beasts, especially Beats!

region, encamping out, on the bare ground Now

the poor nien went forvard beneath a under the open sky, would not answer. rocky ledge, in which some ho some lost sheltering abode. The cavern lay at the

were Now they had found what they sought, at in the clefts within. The first and nearest height of a house above them. With some one was chosen for their path. The sur- difficulty, they climbed up on the rock. face was slippery, and appeared to be ice One, helped the other; and thus they a fact which led the pilot to the conclusion reached the entrance of the cavern, which that they were going on the top of a indeed did not enter very deep into the frozen brook. The short day, hardly last- rock, but was quite clean, and large and ing for an hour, had broken, but the roomy enough for them to take up their valley; only the highest points of the gray sand, and the walls were smooth and rocks were brightened by it. In the valley even. "Thank God!” said the pilot, “who itself, there lay a twilight that made them has thus far helped us,--and He will yet shudder. The travellers saw nothing but help us more. We have, at least, a shelter a barren wild wall of rock, which took from the wind and weather."-"Now must some other form 'ať every step, according our comrades come, and furnish up our as the windings of the valley gave them quarters," added Ivan.--"We will give different views.

them the signal,” answered the pilot. It Ivan and Gregory advised a return : sợ happened that the cavern discovered they believed they would thus a better lay under an abrupt, but pretty high ledge

s fra path. The

pilot' thought is Useless search aids us ," said he. | dangerous as the climbing up was to them, ) It robs us' of our time and strength. yet they all three ventured on it. The near a brook. If we do not finust lie 4 ledge was surmounted while the setting


itwe sun yet shone a little. But what a proshall probably discover some cavern, or a spect! sheltering cleft, and, what is as needful, à JULIA. A beautiful one? way up on the rocky wall itself." This FATHER. In a certain sense, yes. The latter discovery was necessary, in order to friends stood on one of the highest points. place upon it the pitch torch agreed on as Around them lay the rocks, strewed about a signal.

like the ruins of a palace that had fallen, JULIA. And did they find what they only slightly illuminated by the fast dissought ?

appearing sun. Over these masses, they :


saw the great field of ice through Sorrowfully sat the three friends there, which they had wandered, and a fire, eating their supper, in which they were shining at a distance, showed them the obliged to go without a refreshing drink region in which their companions still and a warming fire. A pile of wood remained. By means of a spy - glass now would have been comfortable to them. which they had taken with them, they With it they might have warmed the cave, clearly saw the pile of wood burning on as well as lighted it, and could also have the ice, and also the wreck, projecting secured themselves against the attack of above the icy mirror, illuminated by the wild beasts. Little was said. Every one flame. Now they fastened the torch be- in silence wished only that the morning tween some stones, and the next moment would come ; for they imagined that then set it on fire. Moreover, Gregory sent up their friends would leave the wreck, and three fire-rockets, which mounted into the bring with them everything that was now pure, thin air, higher than usual, and wanting for them. diffused a beautiful light.

But yet a glance into the future showed MARIA. Fire-rockets?

them nothing but what was frightful; and Tatier. Yes, as they send them up in even the conviction that in a few hours fireworks. They go quite high, more they should be joined to their friends, did some minutes shining and bright in the little in affording them composure. air, and then burst. They can be seen in Oh, the unfortunates! They could not a dark night for many miles off, and they know that on this last-this only hope are used in war for signals, and to give JULIA. Now, father-it would not fail notice of an attack, or any such thing.- them? But to proceed. Well,” said the pilot, FATHER. Alas! it did fail them-an " that idea was a good one. We have now experience which you will often enough nothing to do but to wait whether our undergo in your life. The only hope brethren will observe the signal.” And often deludes. Well is it for him who truly, there rose in a moment from that never, never counts on blind chance! direction three rockets. “ Grand !” said Maria. But yet those on the wreck Ivan. “Our friends have understood the had seen and answered the signal! sign. Now let us go back to our quar- FATHER. And still—but only listen ters." Carefully they descended; the con- further. Exhausted by the difficult jour. tinually burning torch shone on their toil- ney over the ice and the rocks, worn out some return, and they came back safely by cold, and enfeebled by their anxiety to their cavern.

for the future, our three friends slept, As long as they were in the valley, they covered up in their blankets, and with their had experienced a piercing, moist, pene- loaded guns on their arms, until at last trating chill; on the cliff they found the the pilot was roused by a dreadful howling

A remarkably milder air blew and noise. He got up; the noise became around them, like that which is perceived more frightful continually, and the how). in a thaw after cold weather. A distant ing more horrible. He at once awaked inuttering noise was heard, and the pilot the others, who sprung up affrighted, and concluded that there was going to be a in imagination already beheld å troop of change of the weather.

wild bears before them. The darkness Max. But the winter was near ? was awful; not a star shone. They stepped

FATHER. Yes, indeed! In these nor- to the entrance of the cavemand what a thern regions, it is often the case that the meeting! The tempest broke howling on summer ends partly with unusual storms, the rocks, and roared horribly through and partly these storms set in at the be- the valley. Snow and rain drove in at ginning of the winter, when the ice and the entrance of the cavern in the face of snow have everywhere made their appear. these distressed men. All Nature was in ance. Then the sky is overcast with black the most dreadful uproar, and it often clouds, and the rocks are upheaved by the seemed to our unfortunates as if they violence of the tempest ; but on the first heard the heavy roll of thunder. clearing up of the air, suddenly comes in Disturbed also as was the pilot, yet he the most dreadful cold.

constrained himself to appear calm. He


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