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Be sure that it is pretty sharp at the edges, occur, to pick them out neatly with the then hold it the same as you would a pen- etching-needle. knife, when scratching out on paper, and When picking out specks, it is advisable scrape off the part required, without dig- to examine the parts with a magnifying ging a bole in the stone.
glass, both before and afterwards, in order To produce half-tints by the mezzotinto that you may be able to see if all the scraper, scratch lines in a slanting direc- defective parts have been removed. Be tion, and then cross these with other lines sure always to use a bridge when picking placed pretty close together. In using a drawing. the scraper, be careful how and where you Specks are apt to be caused by crossing scratch out, because if the surface of the the shading, or indeed any touches, if stone is once scraped, you cannot draw care is not taken. When these specks are over it again properly, and if you do, the observed they must be picked out, and all drawing will print uneven and blotchy. blurs and spots, that make any lines look
In scraping out clouds or any parts ou a ragged, must be carefully picked out. drawing near to the light or delicate tints, Your object in finishing a drawing upon you will have very little difficulty, but the stone, should be to make the outlines when the lights are produced by scraping, distinct and clear, the dark tints eres, and this has to be done in the midst of rich and powerful, the middle tints firm, the dark tints, it requires great care, and and the light tints delicate and uniform. also some judgment, because too great a | If you succeed in this you will have a mass of light is unsightly; therefore in clear drawing that will print well; if not, order to produce a relief to the parts, it is the drawing will print darker in some better to scratch out the part in lines parts than in others crossing one another, such as in rocks, In lithography as in all things, pracfoliage of trees, and foregrounds. | tice only will make perfect. You must
Water, whether still or in motion, re- not expect to be able to draw well in one quires to have some bold and effective lesson, but work, and work well, overcome touches with the mezzotinto-scraper, to the little difficulties that attend this work, produce a good effect. Figures and por pay attention to the hints we gave at p.221, traits require good broad touches with the and in time your zeal will be rewarded.. scraper, especially for the lights on the To draw upon stone with pen and ink. face, drapery, and parts of the figure; and You must have stones with polished the hair requires some moderate scraping surfaces; these are prepared expressly, to heighten its effect.
and may be had at any lithographic Remember that all drawings print establishment. The pen used is made of blacker than they appear upon the stone; watch-spring, and may be fixed to an therefore do not labour to produce a black ordinary pen - holder, or to a piece of drawing which will disgust you when stick by means of a circular piece of printed. The best plan is to draw the quill, which binds it tight. We have light tints a little darker than you require, been in the habit of using a very con the middle tints exactly the proper depth venient and cheap holder, known as of colour, and the other parts rather “Phillips and Myers' Registered Bind. lighter than you intend them to appear, ing Holder.” It admits of the pen being unless the stones are prepared in a par- easily removed and replaced by another. ticular manner on the surface.
To use the steel pen. Do not use the · When any specks or dark touches ap- point of the pen upwards and downwards, pear in a drawing, the best thing is to the same as an ordinary pen, because pick them out with the point of an etch it not only spoils the point of it, but ing-needle (c. p. 222), and if necessary, sometimes causes it to spirt the ink to stiple up the surrounding parts, until over the stone. When the pen will not an even tint is produced.
mark well, reverse the pen and press Specks will occur in drawing small sub- the nib inwards on your finger nail on jects, even if great care is taken ; and there against the edge of the stone. fore, be sure always to draw the tints to trace drawings upon polished stones. sinoothly and carefully, and if any specks | Use French tracing-paper, and draw the outlines in red chalk instead of black- each separately in hot water. Mix, and lead pencil, because the former is more apply it to one side of the leaves of easily transferred to the surface of the paper while warm, by means of a clean polished stones. Proceed in other re- painting-brush: and when dry, a second spects the same as directe at page 222. and a third coat may be given; lastly,
The lithographic ink is to be rubbed down press it, to make it smooth. as directed at page 11l, and used as 2. Give the paper three coats of thin soon as prepared, be sure not to have size, one coat of good white starch, and the ink too thin, because it makes the one coat of a solution of gamboge in lines ragged and pale, and if too thick water: the whole to be applied with a it will not flow freely from the pen. sponge, and each coat to be allowed to
In dravring with the pen, whether it dry before the other is applied. The be maps, plans, sections of machinery, whole of the solutions to be fresh made. architectural elevations, &c., or landscapes, 3. (M. Brégeaut's recipe). Take of remember that the ink used must be starch, 2 drachms; gum arabic in powder, equally thick, and that the effects are 2 scruples; alum, 10 grains; "yellow produced by the degrees of fineness of berries pounded, 10 grains. Some hours the lines and not by the thickness of the previous to making the transfer-paper, put ink. You must draw upon the stone the the gum to dissolve in some water; dissame as with a pen and ink upon a piece solve the alum separately, and make the of paper. Your distances must be pro starch rather thin, then add successively, duced by finer lines drawn wider apart the gum and the alum stirring well. than those in the foreground. Dark parts Boil the berries well in water, strain, are produced by crossing the lines as and add the residue to the mixture. in etching, making the lines thicker, Apply the mixture warm to the paper and drawing them closer to each other. | (which should be unsized), by means
When lines run together and produce of a flat brush: when a sufficient coating a thick mass here and there, use the is given, the paper must be either glazed, etching needle and separate them when or run through the press, the yellow face they are quite dry, but not before.
downwards, on a clean lithographic stone. The pen may be used on grained stones Before writing, the paper must be to touch up architectural details, figures, rubbed with some powdered gum-sandarach, foregrounds, cattle, &c.; but its use re- to prevent the ink spreading, afterwards quires care, because the lines are apt to wipe it off with a hare's foot. If you print blacker than they show on the stone, have any difficulty in using the steel therefore they should be drawn thin and pen, use a crow-quill or common quill. delicate, and not with a stiff pen, as it To pack lithographic stones so that they generally takes up particles of the chalk may be conveyed to a distance. The from the stone and soon clogs up. When accompanying figure will explain this the pen gets clogged, wipe it on a piece more readily than any description. A of soft leather, and charge it afresh.
Transferring drawings and writings. To do this you must draw or write upon prepared paper with the transfer ink given at page ili, which is to be worked to the consistence of cream by means of and B represent two stones secured in soft water. The writing, &c., may be a box C, D, E, F, by slips of wood c, d, e, transferred by simply moistening the f, which are screwed to the sides of the back of the paper, and evenly pressing / box. The stone B, is placed in the box it on the stone, when a reversed copy with its face upwards, then the slips is obtained, which may be used to print of wood (c, d,) screwed in, and then the from, and will produce correct copies next stone (A) face upwards, and lastly resembling the original drawing or writing. the slips (fe), and the lid over all. Thus
To make transfer-paper.-1. Take starch, packed, they may be conveyed to any 6 ounces; gum arabic, 2 ounces; alum, distance without any danger of injury to 1 ounce. Make a strong solution of the stones or drawings.
TREASURES. HSKIP the bigh words, honey dear," said an
917 to teda Irish school-mistress to one of her pupils, “they're only the names of foreign countries, and yer will
H7 FRIENDSHIP..12 never be in 'em."!
A friendship with a generous stranger is com An Irishman received a challenge to fight al
monly more steady than with the nearest relation duel, but declined. 'On being asked the reason,
The greater the man is, the inore need ha Och," said Pat, “would you have me leave
hath of a friend; and the more difficulty there is his mother an orphan?"
of finding and knowing him.
LIBERALITY is the best way to gain affection MEMORY acts on the thought like sudden heat
for we are assured of their friendship to whom upon a dormant fly; it wakes it up from the dead, puts new life into it, and it stretches out
We are obliged.-St. Evremonde. its wings, and buzzes round as if it had never
WORTHY minds deny themselves many ad. slept. . .,
vantages to satisfy a generous beneficence, which A PARODY FOR THE TIMES. ,
they bear friends in distress.—Spectator. 1,1* When green young gents, by hairy folly,
The kindnesses of a friend lie deep; and ri" To whisker culture vain are led :
whether present or absent, as occasion serves, he And are depress'd and melancholy,
is solicitous about our concerns. Because their whiskers will be red.
FRIENDSHIP improves happiness and alates The only art the red to cover,
misery, by the doubling of our joy and dividing To hide the hue from every eye,'
of our grief.-Cicero. At stort bas To gloss the sprouts with blackness over,
A gentle acceptance of courtesies is as 06 and fool a stranger, is-to dye,
cessary to maintain friendship as bountiful THE Russians, in order to distinguish the cun- |
Sils (679an hasi ning and wiles of the trafficking people of the It is no flattery, to give a friend a due chaOrient, in their different degrees, have a proverbracters for commendation is as much the duty which runs as follows: "Two Jews to one of a friend as reprehensionPlutarche ! Russian; two Russians to one Persian; two
We should choose a friend endued with virtue, Persians to one Armenian; two Armenians to one Greek, and the bargain is fair."
as a thing in itself lovely and desirable; Whical
consists in a sweet and obliging temper of mind “WHAT makes you up so late, sir?" said a and a lively readiness in doing good offices father to his son, who made his appearance at Plutarch.
FSIRITT master bi si the breakfast table about ten o'clock. "Late! “It was ever my opinion,” says Horace, that why, father, I was up with the lark.” “Well.
a cheerful good-riatured friend is so great a bless then, sir, for the future don't remain up so long ing, that it admits of no comparison but itself. with the lark, but come down a little earlier to
True friends are the whole world to one breakfast."
another, and he that is a friend to himself is The poet laureate of California has thus im
also a friend to mankind. There is no relish mortalized its arms :
the possession of anything without a partner
todonzold & 9 t Die One beam crossant,
MORE hearts pine away in secret anguish for One rope pendent,
unkindness from those who should be them VATSAnd a knave on the end on't.
comforters, than for any other calamity in die Dr. Young.
tid ve 2592 It being reported that Lady Caroline Lamb
A forwardness to oblige is a great grace upon a had, in a moment of passion, knocked down one
kindness, and doubles the intrinsic worth. of her pages with a stool, the poet Moore, to
these cases, that which is done with pleasure whom this story was told by Lord Strangford,
always received so. Wo observed "Oh? nothing is more natural for a literary lady than to double down a page." "I
THERE is no pre-eminence among true friepas would rather,” replied his lordship, * advise
for whether they are equally accomplished Lady Caroline to turn over a new leaf.”..
pot, they are equally affected to one another Plutarch.
& "Come here. Pat, you truant, and tell me why
An estranged friend is apt to overflow wat you come to school so late this morning," said
tenderness and remorse, when a person that wa in Irish schoolmaster to a ragged and shoeless
once esteemed by him undergoes any misfortune urchin, whose young idea" he had undertaken
Spectator. Ils 319109 1813 to teach how to shoot." Please your honour," replied the ready-witted scholar,
If you have not the indulgence to pardon you
the frost made the way so slippery, that for every step
friends, nor they the same to pardon you, you forward I took two steps backward." "Don't you
friendship will last no longer than it can sery see, Pat," was the rejoinder of the pedagogue,
both your interests. 912189
1 that at that rate ye would never have reached Al great advantage or friendship is the op school at all?" Just what I thought to my. portunity of receiving good advice. 10 self, ser honour," replied the boy, "and so I dangerous relying always upon our own opinio turned to go home, and after a time I found my- | Miserable is his case who, when he needs, har xelf at school."
1 nony to admonish him. I S
brightness boyhood and fears ;
root has cross'd the
TO A SEA-SHELL.
There, when that hour of mellow light was come, .BY ANELIA B. WELAY.
And mountain shadows cool'd the ripen'd grain,
I watch'd the weary yeoman plodding home, Shell of the bright sea-waves !
In the lone path that winds across the plain, What is that we hear in thy sad moan ?
To rest lvis limbs, and watch his child at play, Is this unceasing music all thine own,
And tell him o'er the labours of the day. I i Lute of the ocean-caves!
And when the woods put on their autumin glow, Or, does some spirit dwell !
And the bright sun came in among the trees, In the deep windings of thy chamber dim,
And leaves were gathering in the glen below, Breathing for ever, in this mournful hymn,
Swept softly from the mountain by the breeze, Of ocean's anthem swell?
I wander'd till the starlight on the stream Wert thou a murmurer long
At length awoke me from my fairy dream. In crystal palaces beneath the seas,
Ah! happy days, too happy to return; Ere, on the bright air, thou hadst heard the breeze Fled on the wings of youth's departed years, Pour its full tide of song?
A bitter lesson has been mine to learn,' Another thing with thee
The truth of life, its labours, pains, and fears; Are ther, not gorgeous cities in the deep,
Yet does the memory of my boyhood stay, Buried with flashing gems that darkly sleep, A twilight of the brightness pass'd away. Hid by the mighty sea?
My thoughts steal back to that sweet village still:
? ! And say, 'Olone seashauta
Its flowers and peaceful shacles before ine rise ; Are there not costly things and sweet perfumes. The play-place and the prospect from the hill, Scatter'd in waste oer that sea-gulf of tombs? Its summer verdure, and autumnal dyes; Hush thy low moan and tell..!
The present brings its storms; but, while they last,
I shelter me in the delightful past.
THE STRANGER ON THEISILL.
BY T. B. READ. 'Tis vains-thou answerest not ht! !
Between broad fields of wheat and corn Thou hast no voice to whisper of the dead
Is the lowly home where I was born ;
) Tis ours alone, with sighs, like odours shed,
The peach-tree leans against the wall, plein To hold them unforgot!
And the woodbine wanders over all;
There is the shaded doorway still, ..
But a stranger's foot has cross'd the sill.
There is the barn-and, as of yore,
I can smell the hay from the open doon,"
And see the busy swallow's throng, And yet, there is no sound 19
And hear the peewee's mournful song: Upon the waters, whisper'd by the waves,
But the stranger comes- painful proof!. , But seemeth like a wail from many graves,
His sheaves are piled to the heated roof. Thrilling the air around.. bit
There is the orchard-the very trees The earth, O moaning shell !
Where my childhood knew long hours of ease, The earth hath melodies more sweet than these,
And watch'd the shadowy moments run, The music-gush of rills, the hum of bees,
Till my life imbibed more shade than sun: Heard in each blossom's bell.
The swing from tho bough still sweeps the air, Are not these tones of earth,
But the stranger's children are swinging there, The rustling foliage with its shivering leaves,
There bubbles the shady spring below, Sweeter than sounds that e'en in moonlight eves
With its bulrush brook where the hazels grow; Upon the seas have birth?
'Twas there I found the calamus root, Alas! thou still wilt moan
And watch'athe minnows poise
And watch'd the minnows poise and shoot, 1 Thou'rt like the heart that wastes itself in sighs, And heard the robin lave his wing, en When amid bewildering melodies,
But the stranger's bucket is at the spring If parted from its own. 1 919
O ye who daily cross the sill,
het 101% 10 509 TETS7 -1 Step lightly, for I love it still;
D '!! 16,
101 And when you crowd the old barn eaves, МІ, NATIVE VILLAGE, үс за 1 Then think what countless harvest sheaves BY JOHN H. BRYANT.
Have pass'd within that scented door There lies & village in a peaceful vale,"
To gladden eyes that are no more. Yith sloping hills and waving woods around, Deal kindly with those orchard trees
. enced from the blasts. There never ruder gale And when your children crowd their knees,
Bows the tall grass that covers all the ground; 1 Their sweetest fruit they shall impart,
3*To youthful sport still leave the swing, no?
And in sweet reverence hold the spring. 'Twas there my young existence was begun, Us The barn, the trees, the brook, the birds,
My earliest sports were on its, Pomory, green, The meadows with their loving herds,
The woodbine on the cottage wall Te I climbed its hills to view the pleasant, scene,
My heart still lingers with them all. 19 And stood and gazed till the sun's setting ravi. Ye strangers on my native sill,
a bit onone on the height-the sweetest of the day. Step lightly, for I love it still loos
And a bright verdure bom or gentler showers. 1
carefully taking out the parts that are knotty and DOMESTIC RECEIPTS.
defective. Cut them into quarters, or into round
slices. Put them into a preserving kettle, and To Restore Pork.In warm weather, the brine
cover them with the parings and a very little on pork frequently becomes sour and the pork water. Lay a large plate over them to keep in tainted. Boil the brine, skim it well, and pour
the steam, and boil them till they are tender, it back on the meat boiling hot. This will re
Take out the quinces and strain the liquor store it even where it is much injured. R. B.
through a bag. To every pint of liquor, allow a
pound of loaf-sugar. Boil the juice and sugar Medicated Gingerbread.-3 drams of jalap,
together, about ten minutes, skimming it well. Ib. of flour, 5 oz. of treacle. 1 oz. of moist sugar,
Then put in the quinces, and boil them gently oz. of ginger, 2 oz. of butter, and the rind of
twenty minutes. When the sugar seems to have one lemon; divide into 30 nuts.-"A very useful
completely penetrated them, take them out, put receipt."
them in a glass jar, and pour the juice over them Chicken and Ham Patties.-Skin and mince
warm. Tie them up, when cold, with brandy very fine the white fleshy parts of a cold chicken,
paper. In preserving fruit that is boiled first and about half the same quantity of lean ham, or
without the sugar, it is generally better (after the well-flavoured tongue. Get some good gravy,
first boiling) to let it stand till next day before seasoned with lemon-peel, a little grated nutmeg,
you put the sugar to it.-"You may safely rewhite pepper, salt, and a little cayenne, with a
commend the above receipt.” I. M. H., Chellump of butter rolled in flour; and stir the mince
tenham. in it till quite hot, then fill up your patties. Veal and ham patties may be made precisely the same
Marrow Pudding -Grate the inside of a stale way.-R. C.
French roll. Make a quart of milk quite hot,
and pour over it, letting it remain till it is suffiApple Syrup.-Take a dozen fine semi-acid ripe
ciently swelled and soaked. Shred half a pound apples, pare and cut them into thin slices, and
of marrow, or good suet, and beat up four eggs. put them into a stone bottle with a gill of water
Pick and plump up two ounces of currants, and and one and a half pounds of powdered sugar.
stone two ounces of the best raisins. Mix them Cork the bottle and boil it gently in a kettle of
all up together; stir in a few blanched almonds, hot water is better) two hours, and then suffer
and a little candied citron, and orange and lemon it to cool. When nearly cold, flavour with orange
peel. Sweeten the pudding to your taste, and flower water, or lemon, or any other essence
season it with grated nutmeg and powdered which may be desired, and pour it into wide
cinnamon. Cover a stoneware, flat dish, round necked bottles for use.
the edge, with a shred of puff-paste, and mark it Ginger Wine.--Take 14 gallons of water, six
neatly. If baked in a flat dish, twenty-five pounds of sugar, four ounces of bruised ginger, minutes will be sufficient; if in a deep dish, it and the whites of two eggs, well beaten; mix
will require half an hour. A little finely pounded them. set on a fire, boil it 15 minutes, skim
lump sugar is sometimes strewed over the top, it well, and when cold, pour it into an earthen
and blanched almonds, sliced, stuck round for vessel, squeeze in the juice of four lemons, and ornament. This is a very light and delicate the rinds pared exceedingly thin, put to it a tea baked pudding. It is sometimes boiled in a cupful of ale-yeast, let it work for a day and a
shape. "This makes a delicious dish." J. WILnight, then tun it into a cask, bung it up, and in SON, Dublin. a fortnight you may bottle it off.
Spanish Cakes. Sift half a pound of flour into 8 To pickle Cauliflowers. Take the closest and whitest cauliflowers you can get, and pull them
broad pan, and sift a quarter of a pound, sepa
rately, into a deep plate, and set it aside. Put in bunches, and spread them on a earthern dish,
the milk into a dish, cut up the butter, and set and lay salt all over them, let them stand for three days to bring out all the water, then put them
it on the stove or near the fire to warm, but do
not let it get too hot. When the butter is very in earthen jars, and pour boiling salt and water
soft, stir it all through the milk, and set it away upon them, and let them stand all night, then drain
to cool. Beat the eggs very light, and mix the them on a hair sieve, and put them into glass
milk and butter with them, all at once; then jars, and fill up your jars with distilled vinegar,
pour all into the pan of flour. Put in the spice and tie them close down with leather.-J. J.
and the rose-water, or, if you prefer it, eight SIMPSON.
drops of essence of lemon. Add the yeast, of Apple Jam. The apples, which should be ripe which an increased quantity will be necessary, if and of the best eating sort, being pared and quar- it is not very strong and fresh. Stir the whole tered, as for making apple jelly, are put into a pan | very hard. Add the sugar gradually. If the with water enough to cover them, and boiled sugar is not stirred in slowly, a little at a time, until they can be reduced to a mash. Then for the buns will be heavy. Then, by degrees each pound of the pared apples, a pound of sifted | sprinkle in the remaining quarter of a pound of sugar is added, being sprinkled over the boiling flour. Stir all well together, butter a pan, and mixture. Agitate it well until reduced to a jam ; put in the mixture. Cover it with a cloth, and then put it into pots. The above is the most ! set it near the fire to rise. It will probably not simple way of making it; but to have it of the be light in less than five hours. When it is risen best possible clearness, make a thick syrup with very high, and is covered with bubbles, bake itin three pounds of sugar to each pint of water, and a moderate oven, about a quarter of an hour or clarify it with an egg. Then add one pint of this more in proportion to its thickness. When it is syrup for every three pounds of apples, and boil quite cool, cut it in squares, and grate loaf sugar the jam to a proper thickness.
over them. This quantity will make twelve or Preserved Quinces.-Pare and core your quinces, fifteen buns. Recommended by R. JACKSON.