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they can be educated, by being placed with
ROTUNDITY OF THE EARTH. another, which is a good singer.
They catch the notes of other kindred For many ages mankind supposed th songsters with considerable facility; hence, earth to be a vast plain, bounded on all among the best singers, there is a material sides by the sea and sky. They supposd difference in the song, which depends mainly the sun, moon, and stars to be at no great on the bird with which they have been edu- distance from the earth, and that these cated. In some countries the nightingale is moved daily from east to west. employed as a master musician to a whole Though this was the belief of the great tock of canaries; and it is this which mass of mankind, there were a few attengives soine foreign birds a different tone of tive observers of the motions of the heavoice from those bred in this country. venly bodies, who thought the earth to be
In teaching the canary bird to sing, it is round, like a ball; but they dared not usual to take him from his comrades, and tell their views, except in secret, lest they place him in a cage alone. This is covered should be persecuted, and even endanger with a cloth, when a short, simple air is their lives. whistled to himn, or played on a flute, or a It is only about three hundred years small organ. In this manner, by repeating since the true theory of the figure sand the tune five or six times each, day, espe- motion of the earth began to be generally cially mornings and evenings, he will learn received. A few years previous to thai to sing it. But it will frequently require period, a person would have been in five or six months before he will retain the danger of imprisonment for life, or even whole tune.
of being put to death, had he taught the Canary birds sometimes hatch their young opinion now held concerning the shape of every month in the year ; but more com- the earth. monly they breed only in the spring, sum- We learn from history that the learned mer, and fall months. After the young Spegelius, of Opsal, in Sweden, was birds are hatched, the old ones are fed burned at the stake because he taught with soft food, such as cabbage, lettuce, that the earth was round. Only a little chick-weed; also with eggs boiled hard, more than two centuries ago, the cele. and minced very fine with some dried roll, brated Galileo was confined in prison, or bread containing no salt, which has because he proclaimed that the earth been soaked in water, and the water pressed turned on its axis, and moved around the out. Rape-seed, or the seed of the turnip, sun. is much used for their food.
Nicholas Copernicus, who was born at Up to the twelfth day the young birds Thorn, in Prussia, in 1473, was the author remain almost naked, and require to be of the theory of the Solar system, which covered by the female; but after the thir- is now received by all enlightened nations. ieenth, they will feed themselves. When But he was threatened banishment, and they are a month old they may be removed even death, if he would not deny his from the breeding cage.
belief, so prejudiced by ignorance were It is a curious fact, that, when two the minds of that period. Yet truth prefemales are with one male in the same vailed, and in honour of its author, the cage, and one female dies, the other, if she theory is called the Copernican system. has not already sat, will hatch the eggs How the ancients first became convincert laid by her co-inate, and rear the young that the earth was round, we have no as her own.
means of knowing ; but we will here give
a few facts and observations which prove AFFECTION.-Mutual affection requires it to be a globe. to be preserved by mutual endeavours to 1. Persons have sailed around the amuse, and to meet the wishes of each world, and come back to the place from other; but where there is a total neglect which they started, as a fly would do by and indifference either to amuse or oblige, crawling around an apple. But, since can it be wondered if affection, following there are so many continents and islands the tendency of its nature, becomes indif- to obstruct a direct passage, it may not ferent, and sinks into mere civility? appear plain to some how sailing around the world will prove anything about its the world, which man has visited, hence it shape.
follows that the earth is regularly curved That this may be better understood, we on all sides. will suppose a vessel to start from Rio 3. When the moon is eclipsed, it is Janeiro, in South America, and sail darkened by passing through the earth's directly east. In a few weeks it would shadow. This shadow, as seen on the sur. come to the western coast of Africa. Now face of the moon, is always of a circular navigators carry with them a compass and form, such as a round ball would make. other instruments by which they can 4. If we stood on the equator, the always tell the course they are sailing, north star would be in the horizon, where and how far they move in any direction. the earth and sky seem to meet. On
On arriving at the coast of Africa, the going twenty degrees to the north, this captain changes the course of his vessel star would appear to have arisen twenty and sails south until he has passed the degrees above the horizon. If we proCape of Good Hope; then he goes east ceeded forty-five degrees north, this star again till he gets beyond Africa, when he would appear forty-five degrees above the turns towards the north and sails as far horizon, and so on. The reverse would as he had gone south, wbich will bring be the case on going south again. Then him in a direct line east of his starting the stars in the north would sink and new place.
ones rise in the south. He will now continue his course east- These changes prove that the earth is ward till coming to Australia ; and, after round from north to south, as they could sailing around that, in a like manner, to not occur were it otherwise. The firsta point directly east of Rio Janeiro, will mentioned observation proves that the again proceed in an easterly direction, earth is round from east to, West; the and at length arrive at the western coast second shows its general convexity; and of South America. Then, by sailing all combined afford convincing proofs that south, around Cape Horn, and going north the earth is round like a ball. again he will arrive at the place from which he started
PHILIP DE MORNAY. It is by thus making allowances for the land which is sailed around, that the navi. PHILIP DE MORNAY, Lord of Plessis gator knows he has continued in one general Marly, a French nobleman, illustrious direction. Once it was considered an both for rank and valour, was born Novemextraordinary act to have sailed around ber 5th, 1549. the world, but now many persons return Descended from an ancient family, every year from such a voyage. The which had produced other distinguished time thus required is from one to two characters, he was educated with the years.
greatest care. Masters in various lan2. When a ship goes out to sea, we first guages and sciences were provided for lose sight of the hull, or body of the ship; him, and his proficiency was what might then of the sails and lower rigging, and have been expected from superior talents lastly of the masts. When a ship ap- and rigid application. proaches the land, the top of the mast is With his earliest training, his mother seen first, then the lower parts of the instilled into him the purest principles of vessel gradually appear. If the earth integrity and benevolence. She inspired were an extended plain, the largest parts him also with her own deep love of the of the ship, when leaving the shore, would Protestant faith, from which he never be seen last, and on approaching land swerved in times of peril, or for the lures these would be seen first.
of ambition and gain. If a person stands on the deck of a Civil commotion, and his own high vessel when leaving the shore, the land birth, drew him early into the army, but and less elevated objects are first lost sight as soon as the change could be made with of, and the steeples and highest parts of propriety, he quitted military for intellecall objects are seen last. Now these ap- tual pursuits. His literary labours were pearances are the same in every part of varied by travels in foreign lands, where
he added a knowledge of human nature to "• We know, that if the earthly house of the wealth of silent study.
this our tabernacle be dissolved, we have a After visiting Geneva and Switzerland, building of God, a house not made with he remained some time in Germany, hands, eternal in the heavens.'" applying himself to the study of civil “ Are you assured,” asked one, who law. He examined with attention the bent over his couch, "are you assured of most interesting parts of Italy, and passed sharing in that eternal weight of glory?" on to England, where he was received by “ Perfectly assured,” was his answer. Queen Elizabeth with great courtesy and “ Yea, perfectly assured, through the cordiality. The King of Navarre per- demonstration of the Holy Spirit; more suaded him to remain at his court, and powerful, more clear, more certain, than accept the office of Counsellor of State. any demonstration of Euclid." Here he greatly distinguished himself by Then he secretly prayed. Some broken his talents and negotiations, but circum- sentences like these, reached the listeners stances which brought into prominence by his dying pillow. his attachment to the Protestant religion, “I fly-I fly to heaven-let angels bear induced him, at the age of twenty-seven, me to my Saviour's bosom.” to resign these distinctions, and resume His last articulations were, the unostentatious pleasures of literature. “I know that my Redeemer liveth.
His writings were numerous and highly With these eyes shall I behold him,". appreciated. Among his works are those repeating several times emphatically, upon the “ Truth of the Christian Religion,” “ ipsis oculis." “The Church,” and “The Eucharist.” The The character of Philip de Mornay belatter became so much celebrated, as to comes more illustrious when we contemoccasion a controversial conference at plate the age and country in which he Fontainbleau, between him and Cardinal du lived, and his own position in society. Perron, by which his reputation was so ex- The temptations of rank and opulence tended, that he was known by the title of never seduced him from the toils of literathe “ Protestant Pope.".
ture, nor did the immoralities by which In consequence of his fidelity to his he was surrounded stain the simplicity of religious tenets, he was deprived by Louis his virtue. XIII. of the office of Governor of Saumur, In times peculiarly venal, he adhered to and passed the remainder of life at his a form of religion which was adverse both chateau of La Foret, near Poictou ; where to his pecuniary interests, and his political he died in 1623, at the age of seventy- promotion. For its sake he not only re. four.
signed honour and gain, but was in danRetirement, study, and devotion, shed a ger of persecution and death; for with his congenial and tranquilising influence over mother, he narrowly escaped being inhis last decline. When reminded by those volved in the terrible massacre of the around, of his service to the Church through Huguenots, on St. Bartholomew's day, at his writings and example, he exclaimed Paris, during the reign of Charles ix. with an affecting humility,-
His firmness of principle, and unswerving “Alas! Say not it was 1, but the grace integrity were respected even by his oppoof God. I ask for naught but mercy- nents, who saw them so beautifully com
bined with a pure and benevolent example. He repeated often that his hope was founded on the boundless mercy of God, FRIENDSHIP.-How sweet it is to have a through Jesus Christ, who had been made second self, from whom we have nothing unto him wisdom, righteousness, sanctifica- secret, and into whose heart we may pour tion, and redemption. To a friend who our own with perfect effusion! Could we expressed gratitude at being permitted to taste prosperity so sensibly, if we had listen to his testimony of peace and trust, no one to share in our joy with us? And
what a relief is it in adversity, and the "I feel, yes, I feel what I speak.” accidents of life, to have a friend still
As the morning of his last day dawned, more affected with them than ourselves ! he said with solemn emphasis,
four years the 6 hours amounted to another THE DIVISION OF TIME.
day, and this day was added to the 23rd Many ages inust have elapsed after the of February, or the sixth calends of March, crcation of the world before any method which was to be reckoned twice; hence of computing Time, or of dating events, this year was styled Bissextile, or Leap was brought into established use. At a Year. very early period time was measured by The Julian year, however, was still imthe revolutions of the moon, the seasons, perfect, for the earth performs 'its annual and the successive returns of labour and circuit round the sun in 365 days, 5 rest; but as late as the age of Homer a hours, 48 minutes, 451 seconds; hence formal calendar seems to have been un- the solar year was shorter than the Julian, known as a guide to history or a register or civil year, by 11 minutes, 14 seconds, of events.
which in 130 years amounted to a day. The division of days into weeks is the In the course of time this inconvenience most ancient mode of marking time, and becoming too considerable to be unnoticed, probably took place at the Creation. The Pope Gregory XIII. substituted a next division was that of months, which calendar, called the Gregorian Calendar, appears to have been in use even before or New Style. It was published in March, the Flood. The months were marked by A. D. 1582. Ten days had now been gained the revolutions of the moon, consequently by the old mode of reckoning, and these were lunar months.
were struck out of the month of October The highest natural division of time is following, by reckoning the fifth day of
At first a year consisted of that month the fifteenth. only twelve lunar months. It is supposed And in order to prevent the recurrence that this method of reckoning was in use
of a similar variation in time to come, he as early as the Deluge, and that it con- ordained that one day should be added to tinued for many ages after. But this was every fourth year as before, and that from a very imperfect mode of computing time, the year 1600 every fourth centennial for a lunar year was nearly eleven days year should be reckoned as leap year, and shorter than a solar year; hence the the other three centennial years as commonths could not long correspond with
Thus the years 1700, 1800, the seasons. And even in the short space 1900, 2100, 2200, etc., are to be reckoned of seventeen years the winter months would as common ones, and 1600, 2000, 2400, have changed places with those of sum- etc., as leap years. Even this correction
is not absolutely exact, yet the error is so The calendar which is now generally small as to hardly vary one day in a thouadopted in the Christian world was insti. sand years. tuted by Romulus. His year began on The mode of computing time as estathe 1st of March, and contained only tenblished by Gregory is called New Style, months, or about 304 days, hence was and that by Julius Cæsar, Old Style. The very imperfect. Numa gave the year 355 New Style was adopted by Spain, Portugal. days, added two more months, and trans- and part of Italy on the same day as at ferred the beginning of the year to the 1st Rome, and in France on the tenth of of January. But this was still making December following, which was reckoned the year too short.
the twentieth day. When Julius Cæsar obtained the sove- But in Great Britain this change was reignty of Rome, he found the months had not adopted until September, 1752, when changed from the seasons, and in order to 170 years had elapsed since the Gregorian bring them forward to their places he alteration, consequently a little more than formed one long year of fifteen months, another day had been gained. It was or 445 days. This has been called the therefore enacted by Parliament that elever year of confusion. It ended January 1st, days, instead of ten, should be stricken out forty-five years before Christ. From this of the month of September, 1752. On period the Julian year of 365 days and 6 the second day of that month the Old hours commenced. The common year Style ceased, and the third day was contained only 365 days, but once every reckoned the fourteenth. By the same Act
Great Britain changed the beginning of
THE PRODUCTIONS OF PLANTS. ihe year from the 25th of march to the 1st of January.
The vegetation which everywhere adorns The time for commencing the year has the surface of the globe, from the moss usually been determined, among different that covers the weather beaten stone to nations, by the date of some memorable the cedar that crowns the mountain, is event, such as the Deluge, the Incarnation overflowing with matter for reflection and of Christ, etc. The Egyptians began the admiration. To the vegetable kingdom year with the autumnal equinox. The we are indebted for the possession of almost Jewish ecclesiastic year began in the all our comforts, and many of our luxuries. spring, but in civil affairs they retained from the produce of some of the humblest ihe epoch of the Egyptians. The ancient of plants arises an extensive trade, employSwedish year began about the time of ing many thousand families. the winter solstice. The Turks and Arabs Take the article saffron as an example. commence their year about the middle of Many tons of this useful substance are sent July.
into the market every year; yet it is not When Romulus began the year in March, generally known how small a portion of he named the last four months according the plant it is. The plant itself is a crocus, to their position. The names September, and carries in its flower three little coOctober, November, December, designated loured filaments, as they are called in their order— seventh, eighth, ninth, and botanical language. Every single plant tenth. But Numa changed the beginning can only furnish three filaments, which are of the year to the first of January without gently plucked by girls, who gather them altering the names of the months ; hence in baskets from innumerable flowers. These they do not now correspond to their order plants are sown, tended, weeded frequently, in the calendar.
manured, and watered, and all to give but Owing to these changes in the modes three fine threads each. After these are of reckoning time, if we wish to ascertain gathered, the plant is of no further use. It to what date in Old Style a certain day in is not wonderful, then, that good saffron. New Style would correspond, or what should be costly. date in New Style any day of Old Style Another plant, the safflower, or spurious would represent, we must observe the saffron, contains a red colour in the flowerfollowing rules:
leaves, or petals, in very small proportion, If the event happened before the 1st of not more than five parts in every thousand. March, 1700, add ten days to the Old Style, It is also difficult to obtain, being mixed and you have it corrected for the new; if up with a yellow colour, which has to be it happened between the last day of Feb- first separated. But when obtained, it is a ruary, 1700, and the 1st of March, 1800, most brilliant scarlet red, and it is the add eleven days; if between the same basis of the rouge paint. dates in 1800 and 1900, add twelve days; The uses of these two plants show how and if between 1900 and 2100 add thirteen deeply ingrained into humanity certain days. If you wish to ascertain the Old habits become. Several hundred years Style from the New, subtract from the ago, our Celtic forefathers stained their New instead of adding to the Old. skins a yellow tint, with saffron steeped
in water. From the analogous plant, the ALABASTER FROM EGYPT.-The Egyp- safflower, our modern beauty derives the tian government has been induced to open, tint to tinge her skin, and give the hue of late years, the rich quarries of Oriental denied by Nature. alabaster, which have been celebrated from It is so with most other vegetables. The such remote antiquity. This alabaster is hemp and flax plants each furnish only a a peculiar kind of limestone, the tint and few fibres for cordage and linen. The translucency of which are very beautiful, quantity of sugar in the cane and the and the formation of which is stalagmitic. maple is small compared to the size of the M. Dallamoda, of Rome, has recently plants. The essential oils found in plants produced a most exquisite tazza in Egyp- | exist in very small proportions, as camtian alabaster.
phor, oil of lemons, cloves, carraway, pep