Sidor som bilder

permint, &c., requiring large cultivation stream of water.

In wheat grown on poor to obtain even moderate quantities. ground, the gluten is not present in a

Even the apparently worthless parts of greater quantity than four or five per plants are of great use. Who would ima- cent., while in well-tilled lands it rises gine, at first view, that the old bark which as high as one fifth of the whole weight. peels so readily off the tree could be of We have the power to increase the quanany value ?

Yet without it we should not tity of gluten up to this per centage, by have our leather. It contains a substance proper care of the ground. which, from its action in hardening skin, Gluten is the valuable substance for has been called tannin. Animal skin is which wheat is grown, and it contains a a collection of egg-shaped cells, full of a chemical substance called nitrogen. Now, gelatinous fluid, which readily washes out if we add as a manure some substance by water, and is easily rotted; hence the containing nitrogen in large quantity, as untanned skin is not durable. But when rape-dust, bones, or guano, this element soaked in a watery liquor, in which has enters the wheat, gluten is formed, and been steeped the bark of some trees, the the weight and value of the wheat is much tannin soaks into the cells, unites with the increased. gelatinous liquor, and forms a solid body, The Turkey red, so much admired in which does not dissolve in water, and will shawls and handkerchiefs, is obtained from not readily rot. Such is the process of the madder plant, which contains besides tanning, which converts a perishable skin it two other colours. But the red is the into a durable leather.

most valuable, and exists in the smaller A little insect pierces a hole in the leaf proportion. By cultivation, however, we of the oak, and other trees, and buries its can increase this quantity in a remarkable egg there. The leaf round about the bite degree; for we find in those roots which hardens and enlarges so as to become a contain the least quantity of lime the nut; the sun's heat hatches the egg, and smallest quantity of the red colouring matthe little insect bores its way out, and ter. If we add lime to the ground, so that becomes in due time a perfect gall-fly. the madder-roots may imbibe it, the red The leaf withers, and the gall-nuts are colour immediately commences to increase, gathered. They contain the same sub- and a large quantity of that beautiful dye stance as the oak-bark, and are used for is produced. similar purposes. The chief uses are the It may be learned from the above how manufacture of ink, and the dying of cloth much control we have over the growth of black.

a plant, how we may increase the amount When plants are cultivated, the proper- of any valued production to a very great ties they possessed in the wild state be- extent, and what an interesting, useful, and come altered in a remarkable degree. even a scientific occupation, is the cultiva. Many plants, which are poisonous when tion of plants. wild, become innocuous when cultivated. This has happened with the potato, the tubers of which were very small and poi- ELEVATION BY HUMILITY. - In the sonous a few hundred years ago. It is still evening of the day that Sir Eardly Wilmot a poisonous plant in Equador and New kissed the hand of his Majesty, on being Grenada. By constant cultivation the appointed Chief-justice, one of his sons, a tubers have been developed, and they have youth of seventeen, attended him to his not only increased greatly in size, but be- bed-side. “Now,” said he, “my son, I come filled with starch and other nutri- will tell you a secret worth your knowing tious matters.

and remembering. The elevation I have The same influence is also seen in the met with in life, particularly this last growth of wheat. This plant owes its nu- instance of it, has not been owing to any tritious property to the large quantity of a superior merit or abilities, but to my substance called gluten, which it contains. humility; to my not having set up myseli Gluten resembles dough, and may be ob- above others, and to a uniform endeavour tained by kneading the flour into a paste, to pass through life void of offence towards and washing it by exposure to:a small God and man.'


zontally, as in a common loom; and the

weft is thrown in by a shuttle ; but this There are two characteristic processes weft consists of chenille instead of mere in making a carpet-one adopted in the yarn ; and when the weaving is effected, inore costly varieties, and the other for the loose coloured threads of the chenille those of lesser cost and more extensive are combed up and made to appear at the use. The former are very little other surface, where they are cut and sheared to than specimens of needlework: or rather an exquisite state of velvety softness. they resemble tapestry. There is a frame The pattern is dyed in the chenille itself, in which the foundation of the carpet is nothing appearing at the surface of the stretched, as for ladies' tambour or Berlin carpet except the ends of the chenille work; and into and between the meshes fringe. of this foundation are introduced little A later novelty, and one which seems tufts and threads of worsted, so disposed likely to lessen the price of well-made in colour as to produce any desired pat- carpets, is an application of the powertern. A peculiar kind of knot fastens loom in weaving with the printing process each little tuft; and the arrangement of in ornamenting. The yarn is subjected the front surface, according as it is looped, to no dyeing or printing whatever ; it or cut, or sheared, produces the various remains in the state of white worsted, and kinds of Brussels and Saxony and "pile

is in that state woven by the power-loom. and“ velvet” carpets. The other or cheaper Then, after the weaving, the white carpet kinds are produced rather by the ordinary is printed with rich colours, in such a process of weaving, in which a shuttle, or way as to send the dye through the whole set of shuttles, throws in the coloured weft substance. threads among the warp; peculiar adapta

The House of Lords' library, and some tions of a double weft or a double warp of the other apartments of the new legisbeing employed according to the particular , lative palace, are carpeted with the more kind to be produced. In Tapestry and in costly and luxurious “velvet pile,” in the real Turkey carpets the manufacture which the foot siuks into a downy bed at bears some resemblance to lace-making, each step. This is the true “Wilton” inasmuch as the fabric or foundation of carpet, which differs from “ Brussels" the carpet is made by the same slow and chiefly in having the loops at the surface patient hand-processes as the decorative cut in the manner of velvet, thereby form. surface; or, at most, the warp threads are ing a nap or pile. Most of our carpets previously arranged, and all the rest are made of mingled worsted and linenworked in by hand.

the latter hidden from sight by being In all these carpets each yarn or sepa- placed at or near the back of the fabric. rate thread is dyed of one colour through- Cotton—that substitute for all the dearer out, so that there must be as many kinds of textile fibres at the present dayseparate yarns as colours in the carpet. has not yet been used much in carpets. Now one of the modern novelties in A suggestion has been made, however, carpet-making is to apply to it a principle that such an application might not be at which produces beautiful results in cottons all unreasonable. Cotton carpets-stout, and sisks, viz., printing the yarns before serviceable, and handsome-are made aná Weaving, so that each single thread may used in India; they are generally striped, have a parti-coloured pattern of its own. red and blue, or with three shades of This pattern requires a very nice adjust- blue; but sometimes they have figured ment, so that when the various threads patterns. are interlaced, each may show the right Our cotton manufacturers can now procolour at the right spot. Some of Mr. | duce very stout and durable goods; and Whytock's carpets, produced on this prin- we may yet see the day for cotton carpets. ciple, are very remarkable.

Let them, however, be called cotton, and Another novelty is Messrs. Templeton's not palmed off as being made of more chenille carpets

- soft, beautiful, but costly materials; if known at all, let Postly. These are made in a singular way. them be honestly known by their proper l'he warp threads are stretched out hori- ' names.

Oh, change! oh, wondrous change!

Burst are the prison barsThis moment, there, so low, So agonized, and now

Beyond the stars!
Oh, change!--stupendous change!

There lies the soulless clod!
The sun eternal breaks
The new immortal wakes-

Wakes with her God!


BY MARY HOW ITT. There's not a flower upon the hill, There's not a leaf upon the tree;

The summer bird hath left its bough,

Bright child of sunshine, singing now
In spicy lands beyond the sea.
There's stillness in the harvest-field,
And blackness in the mountain glen ;

And cloud that will not pass away

From the hill-tops for many a day,
And stillness round the homes of men.
The drooping year is on the wane,
No longer floats the thistle-down;

The crimson heath is wan and sere,

The sedge hangs withering by the ruere,
And the broad fern is rent and brown.
The owl sits huddling by himself,
The cold has pierced his body thorough ;

The patient cattle hang their head,
The deer are new the winter shed,

The ruddy squirrel's in his bed,
And each small thing within its burrow.
In rich men's halls the fire is piled,
And furry robes keep out the weather;

In poor men's huts the fire is low,

Through broken panes the keen winds blow, And old and young are cold together. Oh! poverty's disconsolate, Its pains are many, its foes are strong;

The rich man, in his jovial cheer,

Wishes 't was winter through the year;
The poor man, ’mid his wants profound,
With all his little children round,
Prays God that winter be not long!

Low she lies who blest our eyes

Through many a sunny day;
She may not smile, she will not rise-

The life hath pass'd away!
Yet there is a world of light beyond,

Where we neither die nor sleep-
She is there, of whom our souls were fond-

Then wherefore do we weep?
The heart is cold, whose thoughts were told

In each glance of her glad bright eye;
And she lies pale who was so bright,

She scarce seem'd made to die.
Yet we know that her soul is happy now,

Where the saints their calm watch keep; That angels are crowning that fair young brow

Then wherefore do we weep?
Her laughing voice made all rejoice

Who caught the happy sound;
There was gladness in her very step,

As it lightly touch'd the ground.
The echoes of voice and step are gone;

There is silence still and deep:
Yet we know she sings by God's bright throue-

Then wherefore do we weep!
The cheek's pale tinge, the lid's dark fringe,

That lies like a shadow there,
Were beautiful in the eyes of all

And her glossy golden hair!
But though that lid may never wake

From its dark and dreamless sleep,
She is gone where young hearts do not break-

Then wherefore do we weep?
That world of light with joy is bright,

This is a world of woe;
Shall we grieve that her soul hath taken flight,

Because we dwell below!
We will bury her under the mossy sod,

And one long bright tress we'll keep ;
We have only given her back to God
Ah! wherefore do we weep?

Who hath not felt the magic of a voice,
Its spirit haunts him in romantic hours !
Who hath not heard from Melody's own lips
Sounds that become a music to his mind? -
Music is heaven! and in the festive dome.
When throbs the lyre, as if instinct with life,
And some sweet mouth is full of song-how soon
A rapture flows from eye to eye, from heart
To heart-while floating from the past, the forms
We love are recreated, and the smile
That lights the cheek is mirror'd on the heart!
So beautiful the influence of sound,
There is a sweetness in the homely chime
Of village bells: I love to hear them roll
Upon the breeze; like voices from the dead,
They seem to hail us from a viewless world.


BY MRS. SOUTHEY. Tread softly!-bow the head

In reverent silence bow! No passing bell doth toll, Yet an immortal soul

Is passing now. Stranger ! however great,

With lowly reverence bow; There's one in that poor shed One by that paltry bed

Greater than thou. Beneath that beggar's roof,

Lo, Death doth keep his state; Enter !-10 crowds attend Enter!--no guards defend

This palace-gate! That pavement, damp and cold,

No smiling courtiers tread;
One silent woman stands,
Lifting with meagre hands

A dying head!
No mingling voices sound-

An infant wail alone;
A sob suppress'd-again
That short, deep gasp, and then

-The parting groa.

year 900.

THE BISHOPRICS OF ENGLAND AND WALES.ORIGINS AND INVENTIONS. These were instituted in the following order

of time; viz., London an Archbishopric and INVENTION OF BELLS.--The invention of bells Metropolitan of England, founded by Lucius, the is ascribed to Paulinus, Bishop of Nova, in Cam- first Christian king of Britain. A. D. 185; Llanpania. The date of their origin is about the daff, 185: Bangor, 516; St. David's, 519. The year 400, and of their first use in churches the Archbishopric of Wales from 550 till 1100, when

the Bishop submitted to the Archbishop of CATERPILLAR.–The most probable derivation of

Canterbury as his Metropolitan; St. Asaphs, the name is from two old French words, acat,

547; St. Augustine (or Austin) made Canterbury food or provisions, more recently written cates,

the Metropolitan Archbishopric, by order of as in Paradise Lost,

Pope Gregory, A. D. 596; Wells, 604, Rochester,

604 ; Winchester, 650; Lichtield and Coventry, "Alas! how simple to these cates

656; Worcester, 679; Hereford, 680; Durham, Was the crude apple that diverted Eve!"

690; Sodor and Man, 898; Exeter, 1050; Sherand piller, to root or plunder, whence we have borne (changed to Salisbury), 1056; York (Archalso the word pillage.

bishopric) 1067; Dorchester (changed to Lincoln)

1070; Chichester, 1071; Thetford (changed to ORIGIN OF A FEATHER IN THE CAP.--Among the

Norwhich), 1088; Bath and Wells, 1088; Ely. ancient warriors it was customary to honour such

1109. Carlisle, 1133. The following six were of their followers as distinguished themselves

founded upon the suppression of monasteries by in battle, by presenting them with a feather to

Henry VID.-Chester, Peterborough, Gloucester, wear in their caps, which, when not in armour, Oxford, Bristol, and Westminster, 1538. Westwas the covering of their heads, and no one was minster was united to London in 1550.-Vide permitted that privilege who had not at the least

Tanner's Notilia Monastica. killed his man. From this custom arose the saying, when a person has effected a meritorious ODD ORIGINS.-Confucius was a carpenteraction, that it will be a feather in his cap.

Mahomet, called the prophet, was a driver of THE GAMUT.-Guido D'Arezzo, a monk of the

asses---Mehemet Ali was a barber-the Emperor

of Morocco was a pawnbroker-Bernadotte, King thirteenth century, in the solitude of his convent, made the grand discovery of counterpoin't, or the

of Sweden, was a surgeon in the garrison of science of harmony, as distinguished from

Martinique when the English took that island

Madame Bernadotte was a washerwoman of Paris melody; he also invented the present system of notation, and gave those names to the sounds of Napoleon,

a descendant of an obscure family the diatonic scale still in use :-ut, re, mi, fa, sol,

of Corsica, was a major when he married Jose

phine, the daughter of a tobacconist Creole of la, si; these being the first syllables of the first

Martinique--Franklin was a printer-President six lines of a hyinn to St. John the Baptist, written in monkish Latin; and they seem to

Boyer was a mulatto barber - President John have been adopted without any special reason,

Tyler was a captain of militia--Oliver Cromwell from the caprice of the musician.-Foreign Rev.

was originally a brewer-President Polk was

formerly'an innkeeper--the stepfather of Isabella, DICK STROTHER-A LIAR.--Dick Strother was a Queen of Spain, husband of Queen Christina, cobbler, and being in want of a hare for a friend,

and brother-in-law of the King of Naples, was he put into his pocket a ball of wax, and took a

once a bar-keeper of a coffee-room - General walk into the fields, when he soon espied one.

Espartero was a vestry-clerk~King Christophe Dick then very dexterously threw the ball of of Mayti was a slave of St. Kitt's—Bolivar.was a wax at her head, where it stuck, which so druggist-General Paez was a cowkeeper-Vasco alarmed poor puss, that in the violence of her da Gama was a sailor-Columbus was a sailorescape, she ran in contact with the head of Astor, the richest man in the New World, before another, when both stuck fast together, and he became the proprietor of Astor-house, used to Dick! lucky Dick! caught both. Dick obtained sell apples througle the streets of New Yorkgreat celebrity by telling this wonderful feat, Joseph Bonaparte, before his arrival at New York which he always affirmed as a truth; and from

with all the silver, gold, and jewels of the crown that time, every notorious liar in Thorner, bears of Spain that he was able to take with him from the title of Dick Strother.

that country, was the King of Spain, &c. !

Louis Philippe was a teacher of the French ORIGIN OF THE TERM “BLUE-STOCKING."- tongue at Switzerland, Boston, and HavannahBoswell, in his lifs of Dr. Johnson, relates that Catherine, the Empress of Russia, was a camp about the year 1781, it was much the fashion for grisette-Cincinnatus was ploughing his vineseveral ladies to have evening assemblies, where yards when the dictatorship of Rome was offered the fair sex might participate in conversation with to him-A governor of the island of Madeira was literary and ingenious men, animated by a mutual a tailor-and a Minister of Finance in Portugal desire to please. The societies were denominated was a dealer in bottles of Madeira wine. There "Blue-stocking Clubs," from the following cir- are at present in Portugal and Spain several cumstance:-One of the most eminent members Dukes, Marquises, Counts, Viscounts, and was Mr. Stillingfileet, whose dress was remarkably Barons, who formerly were cooks, tailors, barbers, grave, and in particular it was observed that he cobblers, sweepers, and mulattos. These few, wore blue stockings. Such was the excellence of but remarkable, facts of ancient and modern 'is conversation, that his absence was felt as a history are enough for proving that men and great loss, and it used to be said “ We can do women from the lowest class of society have nothing without the blue stockings;" and thus, attained power, eminence, insolence, and even by degrees, the title was established.

thrones, crowns, and altars.




FROM THE OLD POETS. A coachmaker, remarking the fashionable stages or carriages, said, “That a sociable was all the ton during the honeymoon, and a sulky

HEALTH. ater."

The common ingredients of health and long life In a dispute between Sir Watkin Lewis and

are, Wilkes, the former said, “I'll be your butt no

Great temperance, open air, Jonger.” “With all my heart," said Wilkes, “I

Easy labour, little care. Sur Philip Sidney. hate an empty one: ” An Irishman getting on a high-mettled 'horse,

DREAMS. it ran away with him; upon which one of his Divinity hath oftentimes descended companions called out to him to stop it. “Arrah,

Upon our slumbers, and the blessed troupes honey," cried he, how can I do that when I llave, in the calm and quiet of the soule, lave got no spurs !”

Conversed with us.

Shirley. An Irishman, meeting another, asked what

BEAUTY was become of their old acquaintance, Patrick Murphy. " Arrah, now, dear honey,” answered Beauty, sweet love, is like the morning dew, the other,

Whose short refresh upon the tender green, * poor Paddy was condemned to be Jianged, but he saved his life by dying in prison." Cheers for a time, but till the sun doth show;

And straight is gone, as it had never been. A gallant wag was lately sitting beside his

Daniel. beloved, and being unable to think of anything

LOVE. else to say, asked her why she was like a tailor. "I don't know,” said she, with a pouting lip, Passions are liken'a best to floods and streams; “unless it is because I'm sitting beside a

The shallow murmur, but the deep are dumb. So, when affections yield discourse, it seems

The bottom is but shallow whence they come: “ Plaze, sir," said an Irishman to a traveller, They that are rich in words must needs discover “would yez be so oblaiging as to take me great They are but poor in that which makes a lover. coat, here, to Boston wit yez?" “ Yes," said

Sir Walter Raleigh. the man in the wagon ; “but how will you get it again ?" “Och! that's mighty aisy, so it is,"

VIRTUE. said Pat; “ for shure I'll remane inside of it!"

Exceeding fair she was not; and yet fair CURRAN was a rare wit, but even he sometimes In that she never studied to be fairer met his match. He was once examining a cross- Than Nature made her; beauty cost her nothing. grained, ugly.faced witness, from whom he Her virtues were so rare they would have made sought to obtain a direct answer. At length he An Ethiop beautiful; at least so thought exclaimed, " It's no use trying to get the truth By such as stood aloof, and did observe her out of you, for I see the villain in your face !" With credulous eyes.

Storer * Do you, sir?" retorted the man, with a smile, "why then it must be so : faix, I never knew my

LIFE. face was a looking-glass before!”

Like to the falling of a star;

Or as the flights of eagles are ; TO A LADY, WITH A PAIR OF GLOVES,

Or like the fresh spring's gaudy hue,
FAIREST, to thee I send these gloves;

Or silver drops of morning dew;
If you love me, leave out the g.

Or like a wind that chafes the flood,
And make a pair of loves.

Or bubbles which on water stood; In the Pepysian Library at Cambridge. E'en such is man, whose borrow'd light A remarkably short and round gentleman, Is straight call'd in, and paid to-night. four feet high, or rather four feet square, had

The wind blows out, the bubble dies; a son as remarkably tall and slender, whom The spring entomb'd in autumn lies; he had named after a facetious friend of his.

The dew dries up; the star is shot; One day, meeting the latter at Margate, he pre- The flight is past; and man forgot. sented his son to him, saying, “ Allow me, sir,

Bishop King. to introduce my son, whom I have named after

DELAY. yourself.” “ Sir," rejoined the other, looking at the young man, "you pay me a very high

Shun delays, they breed remorse; compliment.

Take thy time while time is lent thee;

Crecping snails have weakest force; JUDGE PARK was once trying a prisoner at the Fly their fault, lest thou repent thee; Wells Sessions for felony, and a Dissenting Good is best when soonest wrought, preacher, who was being examined, repeatedly Lingering labours come to nought. said “They say so." “Pray, sir," asked his Hoist up sail, while gale doth last, lordship (who was suffering from gout), “who Tide and wind stay no man's pleasure; are they?" This was a poser. On receiving no Seek not time, when time is past. reply from the straight-haired gentleman, the Sober speed is wisdom's leisure; Judge added “They are a set of good-for- After-wits are dearly bought; nothing people who attend to other persons' busi- Let thy fore-wit guide thy thought. ness and neglect their own.”

Robert Southwell.

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