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upon the left hand pendulum, and the in either case the brass at the end of the same results will be obtained.

gun must be connected with the tinfoil You will now understand how bodies extending to the stand. Solder a brass that are like one another repel each other; knob to the end of a piece of brass wire and how unlike or dissimilar bodies attract about nine inches long, and, having bent each other.

it to a convenient shape, place it in the To make an electrical sportsman.- cover of the Leyden jar, so that the knob Make a small Leyden jar, as directed at shall be brought a very short distance page 139 of vol. 1, of the New Series, and from the point of the gun. Solder another have a stand turned for it to fit into as in knob upon a piece of brass wire eighteen the accompanying figure. Take a stout inches long, bend the wire as in the figure,

pass the small end through the cover of the jar, and then bend it up so as to make a small hook, to which you must attach a piece of brass chain long enough tc touch the bottom of the jar. Cut some pieces of elder-pith into the shape of the bodies of pigeons, and then stick two small feathers into each for the wings; pass a fine silk thread through the body of each pigeon, and fasten the other ends to the under-part of the brass knob, by means of a fine piece of brass wire.

When this apparatus is used, a chain is connected at one end to the wire upon which the birds are placed, and at the

other with the prime conductor of the piece of brass wire, and bend about three- electrical-machine, which is then turned, quarters of an inch of one end of it to a and the birds instantly rise, but fall, as is right angle ; insert the straight piece into shot, as soon as the jar is discharged. the stand of the Leyden jar, as shown in the figure ; and take care that the end of the wire touches the tinfoil of the jar. Fasten the jar into the stand with a little EVERYTHING FROM THE Soil.- All the liquid glue, but be sure that the jar does artists, manufacturers, and commercialists not fit too tight, because the wood is apt to of the world are employed on the produce contract and break the jar. To prevent of the soil, and on that only. The watchthis, fix the jar with some thin slips of maker and the anchorsmith, the clothier cork, before you cement it into the stand. and the lacemaker, the goldsmith and the Carve a figure out of a piece of wood | lapidary, are all, and each of them, equally representing a man firing, as in the figure, engaged in one object; namely, that of or procure one like it. Paste a narrow rendering the productions of the earth strip of tinfoil, long enough to reach subservient to the use and convenience of from the point of the gun along its whole man. The stock of every warehouse and length, inside the right arm over the right shop, the furniture of every mansion and shoulder and down the back and right leg cottage, all implements and utensils, may to the centre of the wooden stand upon easily be traced to the same origin. Even which he is placed. Fasten the tinfoil on the books of the scholar, and the ink and in the direction mentioned, and having quill through whose means he communiplaced a wooden stand upon the bent enà cates his thoughts to others, are derived of the brass wire connected with the from the same source as the material on Leyden jar, glue the sportsman to the which the naval and civil architect exerstand, and connect the tinfoil fastened to cises his ingenuity and skill. The loftiest him with the end of the brass wire. spire and the smallest needle are both the Affix a small brass knob upon the end of effects of labour and skill exercised on tae gun, or a brass tack with a large head ; the soil.

and amphibia, placed wholly at the upper end of HABITS OF BIRDS EXPLAINED. | the windpipe; but, as it were, separated into

two parts, one placed at each extremity. Parrots, Why are birds usually classed according to the ravens, starlings, bullfinches, &c., have been forms of their bills and feet?

taught to imitate the human voice, and to speak Because those parts are connected with their some words: singing birds also, in captivity, mode of life, food, &c., and influence their total readily adopt the song of others, learn tunes, habit very materially.-Blumenbach,

and can even be made to sing in company, so Why have birds little power of suction ?

that it has been possible actually to give a little Because of the narrowness and rigidity of their concert by several bullfinches. In general, howtongue; as may be seen when they drink, having ever, the song of birds in the wild state appears to hold up their heads and depend upon the to be formed by practice and imitation.--Bluweight of the water for transmitting it into the menbach. craw.-Rennie.

Why do the notes of different species of birds vary? Why are birds said to be "poised" in the air ? Because the centre of gravity of their bodies is

Because, probably, of the structure of the always below the insertion of their wings, to

organs of each species enabling them more easily prevent them falling on their backs, but near

to produce the notes of their own species, than that point on which the body is, during flight, as

those of any other, and from the notes of their it were, suspended. The positions assumed by

own species being more agreeable to their ears. the head and feet are frequently calculated to

These conditions, joined to the facility of hearing accomplish these ends, and give to the wings frequenting the same places, determine the

the song of their own species, in consequence of every assistance in continuing the progressive motion. The tail also is of great use, in regu

character of the acquired language of the fealating the rise and fall of birds, and even their

thered tribes.-Fleming. lateral movements.-Fleming.

Why are birds equally dispersed in spring over Why do birds Ay?

the face of the country? Because they have the largest bones of all

Because, during that amorous season, such a animals, in proportion to their weight; and their jealousy prevails between the male birds, that bones are more bollow than those of animals that they can hardly bear to be seen together in the do not fly. Air-vessels also enable them to blow

same hedge or field. Most of the singing and out the hollow parts of their bodies, when they

elation of spirits, of that time, seem to be the wish to make their descent slower, rise more

effect of rivalry and emulation--G. White. swiftly, or float in the air. The muscles that Why is August the most mute month, the Spring, move the wings of birds downwards, in many Summer, and Autumn through? instances, are a sixth part of the weight of the Because many birds which become silent about whole body; whereas, those of a man are not in Midsummer, reassume their notes in Septembe:; proportion one hundredth part so large.

as the thrush, blackbird, woodlark, willow-wren, Why are birds covered with feathers ?

&c.-G. White. Because, by this addition to the nonconducting appendices of the skin, birds are enabled to

Why do birds congregate in hard weather? preserve the heat, generated in their bodies, from

Because, as some kind of self-interest and self

defence is, no doubt their motive, may it not being readily transmitted to the surrounding air, and carried off by its motions and diminished

arise from the helplessness of their state in such temperature.-Fleming.

rigorous seasons; as men crowd together, when Why are the strongest feathers of birds

in under great calamities, they know not why.

the pirions and tail?

Perhaps approximation may dispel some degree Because the pinion-feathers may form, when

of cold; and a crowd may make each individual the wing is expanded, as it were, broad fans, by appear, safer from the ravages of birds of prey which the bird is enabled to raise itself in the air

and other damages.-G. White. and fly: whilst its tail-feathers direct its course. Why do we so oflen fail in rearing young birds ? -Blumenbach.

Because of our ignorance of their requisite food. Why do birds moult?

Every one who has made the attempt, well knows Because they may be prepared for winter; this

the various expedients he has resorted to, of change being analogous to the casting of hair in boiled meats, bruised seeds, hard eggs, boiled quadrupeds. During summer, the feathers of rice, and twenty other substances that Nature birds are exposed to many accidents. Not a few never presents, in order to find a diet that will spontaneously fall; some of them are torn off nourish them; but Mr. Montagu's failure, in during their amorous quarrels; others are broken being able to raise the young of the curl-bunting, or damaged; whilst, in many species, they are

until he discovered that they required grasshoppulled from their bodies to line their nests. pers, is a sufficient instance of the manifest Hence, their summer dress becomes thin and necessity there is for a peculiar food in one suitable. Previous to winter, however, and im- period of the life of birds.-Knapp. mediately after incubation and rearing of the Why have most nocturnal birds large eyes and young is finished, the old feathers are pushed off ears? in succession by the new ones, and thus the Because large eyes are necessary to collect greater part of the plumage of the bird is every ray of light, and large concave ears to comrenewed.-Fleming.

mand the smallest degree of sound or noise. Why do birds sing?

Why do stale eggs float upon water ? Because of the receptacles of air already men- Because, by keeping, air is substituted for a tioned but particularly by the disposition of the portion of the water of the egg, which escapes.Karynx, which in birds is not, as in mammisera Prout.

1

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THE IVY.

THE WORK-TABLE FRIEND. down, and work over it 4 Sc, 16 Sdc, which

will bring you back to the beginning

the leaf. Take a slip-stitch, and faster . Materials.—3 shades of green wool (2 skeins of off. each); I skein of black ditto; 1 reel of cannetille, All the leaves are done in the same way and 1 of thicker wire.

only with a smaller number of stitehes, FOR THE LARGEST LEAF. With the the lightest shades of the wool being darkest wool make a chain of 16 ; take a used for the smallest leaves. Each leaf long piece of cannetille (about 12 inches), is done separately, the ends of the rime bend the wire underneath the last chain, being twisted together, and covered closely leaving a piece for the stem, and crochet with the same wool as the leaf itself down the chain ; over the wire 1 Sc, 1 Sdc, made of, for which purpose about half 9 Dc, 4 Sdc ; bend the wire back, so as to yard should be left at the end of even work up the same side, 1 Sc, 1 sdc; turn leaf. the leaf in your hand, and bend the wire When the last and smallest leaf is made, down; make 8 Ch; turn, and on the a piece of the thicker wire should be held chain do 7 Sc, which will bring you to in with the ends, and covered with them. the wire 12 Sdc; again bend

the leaves upon. These are attacked in the wire, and crochet over it 4 Sc, 4 Sdc, 8 usual way, by having the ends of wire D¢, 1 $dc, 1 Sc. Bend the wire down, held to the main stem, and the wool wound and crochet 2 Sc, 5 Sdc. Make 9 chain, round them all together. In corering the on which do 8 Sc. Then work down the stem with wool, the tint should be graremainder of the leaf 7 Dc, 2 sdc, 2 Sc;dually changed from the lightest to the turn back, and work up the leaf 6 Sc, 5 darkest. Indeed, generally speaking, the Sdc, 5 Dc, 1 Sdc; again bend the wire shades selected for the foliage of the same

the to all

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spray, must be the closest that can be Knit and purl alternately 6 rows, inprocured.

creasing 10 at one end of the needle, and FOR THE FRUIT.-Take eight bits of | 7 at the other, while doing them. cannetille, each 2 inches long. Bend Observe, the even rows are purled, and each into the form of a hair-pin, and the odd knitted throughout-1, 3, 5, 7, 9, wind a little ball of black wool round the 11, &c. are knitted. centre. (It must be much less than a 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, &c. are purled. pea). Pinch the sides of the wire close

wool. black ternatout fast a sticle the green,

7th Row. No. 16 needles. Join on the together, and cover with Mount some of these in a little bunch, and

of and leave the others detached ; join them a stitch of black, increasing two stitches to the stem in the same way as the leaves. at the end of the row. Fasten off green. the lightest green wool. They will then red on every black stitch, and a black on represent the unripe berries.

every green, of last row. Do not break off The Ivy, as well as all the other flowers | the black. Increase two at the end. we have given, has been copied from 9th Row.Red. Knit. Increase 2 at Nature.

the end of every row until further orders. Abbreviations: Sc, single crochet; Sdc, 10th Row.-Red. Purled. Sans ond short double crochet; Dc, double crochet. 11th Row.- + 4 red, 2 black, + For crochet terms and instructions, see to the end. No. 67, Old Series, of the Family Friend. 12th Row.Join on

the y

yellow Also the Narcissus in the New Series. white, 2 red on the centre two of fouir red, The materials for a sprig of Ivy are one black over the first and last red, one sent by post for 1s.

yellow over one black, and one white over odtw979709

the other. 9 ir komt 1 ngoms

Seen on the right side, this pattern TURKISH SLIPPER, IN KNITTING. 59

looks thus :-2 red, 1 black, 1 yellow, 1 Materials.-Two shades of olive-green wool, white, 1 black.

U19 1 W each 6 skeins, black, 18 skeins; white, 4 skeins; yellow, 8 skeins; scarlet, 16 skeins; purple, 1 skein :

13th Row.—The same colours.+ 1 red -pink, 20 skeins : W. Boulton and Son's tapered over the last black, 1 black over white, 1 meshes, 1 inch and 1 inch wide.hggasrto y black over red, 1 red, '+. knitting-needles, Nos. 17 and 16; and netting white over yellow, 1 yellow over black, 1°

With the lightest green wool, cast on 14th Row.- Break off the yellow and 148 stitches, with No. 17 needles.

192 290E

white. Purl black over those two colours

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of last row, and red over the red and black. / stitches on the needle and take a third Do not break off blaek.

needle to knit backwards and forwards 15th Row.-All red. Knitted.

these 65 for the front of the shoe. 16th Row.--All red. Purled.

40th Row.-Join on the red. One red 17th Row. -1 red and l black alter- on yellow, and 1 yellow on black throughnately.

out the row. 18th Row.— Fasten off the red, and on 41st Row.-Knit all red. the yellow, 1 black on every red, and 1 42nd Row.-Purl all red. yellow on every black of last row.

43rd Row.-- + 2 black, 3 red, + repeat. Fasten off the black.

44th Row.- + 1 red on the centre of 3 19th and 20th Rows.-All yellow. red, one black on each of the others, 1

21st Row.–Fasten on the dark green, 4 yellow on the nearest black, 1 white on yellow, 2 green, + repeat.

the other + repeat. 22nd Row.- + 2 yellow over 2 green, 45th Row. + 1 red on the black 2 green, 2 more yellow, + repeat. Fasten before the one white, 1 black on white, on purple, without breaking off the green. white on yellow, 1 yellow on black, 1

23rd Row.- + 3 yellow which come black on red, + repeat. over the 2 green of the 21st row, and one 46th Row.-- + Black on the white and yellow beyond, 3 purple, coming over one yellow, red on all the others. + repeat. yellow, and 2 green of 22nd row, + repeat. 47th and 48th Rows.-All red.

24th Row.- + 3 purple over 3 yellow, 49th Row. -+ 1 red, 1 yellow, + 3 yellow over 3 purple, + repeat. Fasten repeat. off the purple.

50th Row. t 1 Black on yellow, 1 25th Row.- + yellow on the 3 yellow, yellow on red + repeat. and the next purple, green on the other 51st and 52nd Rows.--All black. 2 purple.

Cast off these 65 stitches, with the 65 26th Row.—This row being purled, do left on a needle at the 38th row, knitting two green before the two green of last a stitch from each needle together. You row, and all the others yellow.

will thus join up the front of the foot. 27th and 28th Rows.-All yellow. Break Now take up stitches at the instep edge of

the stripe down the front of the foot, and 29th Row.-Join on the red. 1 yellow with three needles form them into a round, and 1 red alternately. Fasten off the yellow, taking a fourth to knit with. and join on the black.

1st Round of the instep.—1 Black, 1 30th Row.-Black over red, red over | yellow alternately. yellow.

2nd Round.- i Red on every yellow, 1 31st and 32nd Rows.--All black.

yellow on every black. 33rd Row.-- Join on the dark green, + 3rd Round.-All red. Continue all red. 3 red, 1 black, 2 green, 3 blaek, + repeat. 4th Round.- + knit 2 together, pass

34th Row.- + black over the 3 black the wool over the needle twice to make a and the 2 green, green cver the one black, stitch, + repeat all round. 2 white on 2 red, 1 red on red, + repeat. 5th Round.- Knit all round, treating Fasten off green.

the two threads round the needle as one 35th Row. + Black over last red, 1 red stitch. on white, 1 white on white, 1 red on green, 6th Round.-Purled. Cast off. 5 black on black, +.

FOR THE TOE. With a fine needle take 36th Row.- + 1 red on the red over up the edge of the two sloping pieces at one green, 1 red on white, 1 black on red, the toe, from the last green row to the 1 red on black, 5 black, t repeat.

ends of the 38th row. Let there be one 37th Row.-Black.

stitch taken up on the green stripe, 9 on 38th Row.—Black. Purl off 65 stitches, the red, and the same on the yellow, with on one needle. Purl the remainder of the 7 on the black. rows without increasing at the end. Join With one of the coarse needles, take up on the yellow.

9 stitches at the front of the foot. Joju 39th Row.- t I yellow, 1 black, + 32 on the black wool, and knit 8 of these 9 times, 1 yellow. Leave the remaining stitches on the right side of the slipper,

off green.

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