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That the plough is an instrument of parts of India, seems to differ little from the highest antiquity is apparent, both the old model. from the oldest writings that we possess The different essential parts of a plough and from the existing monuments of | have certain names usually given to them Egypt. The oldest forms of the plough | The Body of a plough is that part to of which we have any description in which all the other parts are attached. ancient authors, or which are represented The bottom of it is called the Sole or Slade, on monuments or coins, are very simple : ) to the fore part of which is affixed the a mere weage, with a crooked handle to Point, or Share; the hind part of the sole guide it, and a short beam by which it was is called the Heel. The Beam, which drawn, form the whole instrument. The advances forward from the body, serves to light Hindoo plough, now in use in many keep the plough in its proper direction,
and to the end of it are attached the oxen somewhat higher crowns than the drier or horses, which are employed to draw it. ones. Robert immediately mentioned the Fixed in the beam, in a vertical posi- name of a field where the soil was clayev sion, before the point of the share, with and heavy, where he had noticed the ridges its point a little forward, is the Coulter,! as being higher in the crown or centre which serves to cut a vertical section in than those in the adjoining field, but he the ground, while the point of the share, had supposed it had proceeded from some expanding into a Fin, separates a slice by whim or mismanageinent of the parties a horizontal cut from the subsoil or solid that had last ploughed it, rather than from ground under it. The Mould-Board, or any design or intention. Mr. Lightfoot Turn-Furrow, is placed obliquely behind then went on to inform him, that although the fin, to the right or left, in order to some farmers at the present day throw up push aside and turn over the slice of their wet soils in ridges with very elevated earth which the coulter and share have crowns, particularly where it is intended cut off: it thus leaves a regular furrow | they should continue under grass for wherever the plough has passed, which several years, the practice was by na furrow is intended to be filled up by the means so common as it formerly used to slice cut off from the land by the side of be. But this is not, continued he, the it, when the plough returns. The Stilts, point to which I proposed principally to or handles, of which there may be either draw your attention, for I wished to say one or two, as is thought more convenient, a few words upon the three most ordinary direct the plough by keeping it in the line modes of ploughing, or, it might be said, required and at a regular depth in the upon the three heads into which plougnground. The single stilt appears to be ing is commonly divided; which, among the most ancient form.
agriculturists, are known by the terms Wheels are a modern invention in com- casting, cleaving, and gathering. Now the parison with the other parts. They sup- | ridges you are here engaged upon are port the end of the beam, and prevent it thrown up in three-bout ones, in order from going too deep into the ground or that the soil might be more exposed to rising out of it while the plough is going the action of the weather, than if they had on. The greatest improvements intro- | been ploughed in wider lands or ridges. duced into modern ploughs are in the One..bout or two-bout ribs would have shape of the mould-board, or turn-furrow, answered quite as well or better, but in and the contrivances for regulating the that case the surface would have required line of draught, so as to make the plough to be levelled before the new seed ridges go at an equal depth, and cut off a regu- could have been formed. Now, although lar slice of equal breadth, without any you have been ploughing these lands after great force being applied by the plough- the manner called cleaving,- for you have man who holds the stilts.
cleft the original ridges, and so formed The following extracts from an interest. I new ones of precisely the same size ; you, ing little work published by Houlston and probably, by collecting two halves into a Stoneman, entitled the “ Ploughman," new ridge, conceived that you were ploughwill afford some useful information to ing in the manner known by the term those of our readers who are unacquainted gathering ; but even admitting this were with the various processes in which this the case, you are aware that you never saw valuable implement is employed :
corn growing upon my farm upon such "You will have observed, said Mr. Light- | narrow ridges as you are making, except 100t, an experienced farmer to his pupil in the far spring-field, or the clayey pas. Robert, that some fields are ploughed up ture. My intention was to gather two of in a different inanner from others, and the the original ridges into one, and nothing lands or ridges formed differently-some could have been easier, for by commenc. being very narrow, others of a considerable ing in the first furrow from the fence, and breadth, and a difference is also made ploughing each of the old ridges into (between the light soils and the heavy that furrow, both ways, a new ridge ones) in the shapes of the ridges, the wet would then be formed of double the size soils being thrown up into ridges with of the old ones, having its crown exactly
in the place of the furrow into which the the original crowns, and furrows too, in soil was turned by the plough in the first the situations they previously occupied; bout. There being an old furrow on but, continued the master, you never see either side of the new ridge, care should this plan adopted by my men, and it is be taken to raise a little new soil in these rarely practised upon arable farms, where respective furrows—that is, at the last the soil is scarcely ever allowed to remain bout that finishes the new ridge,-a por- over two years undisturbed. Neither is tion of which, when the harrows pass the plan now much practised, which was along, will be forced back into the furrows anciently called gathering, and which is between the newly-formed ridges, which, performed by beginning in the centre of otherwise, would be wider than necessary. the ridge, and ploughing it inwards, both Robert at once saw the plan he ought to ways, thus raising the crown higher by a have adopted, and, had he taken the time I new addition of soil, and making the old to think, he probably would have got' right furrows deeper by taking some more soil without any specific instructions; for out of them. I have seen in my youth, although he had gone on for a few ridges, said the farmer, fields that have been he had felt by no means satisfied that he ploughed in this way from time immemowas doing his work properly, and when rial, and never in any other; and the conMr. Lightfoot appeared in sight he was sequence was (the ridges being twelve or glad that an opportunity of being better in- fifteen feet wide), that the crowns of the formed upon the subject was afforded him. ridges were probably two feet higher
There appeared no other means of than the level of the furrows, which had rectifying the mistake than by re-plough- become large trenches, and from which ing the few lands he had already com- all the soil, or all that was valuable, had pleted; but as he had an odd half-land, been taken and thrown up, furrow after where he left off, he did not at once see furrow, to the very crowns of the ridges. how it was to be managed. But Mr. We have frequently seen the most expert Lightfoot pointed out to him the fact of and practised ploughmen-men who were his also having thrown out, towards the able to perform their work in a neat and fence where he had commenced, another handsome manner-ploughing every furodd half-land; so by beginning again at i row as straight as if it had been set out by the outside, and gathering that and half a line, and never deviating in the breadth of the next ridge together, and proceeding or thickness of the furrows, so that upon in this way until he had re-ploughed the inspecting their work it was impossible few ridges, he would find both the original that the most fastidious master could find ridges and furrows exactly in the places fault with it; and yet, after all, in the they ought to have been, and no odd half absence of some superior directing power, ridges in any part of the work. Robert they were by no means efficient workmen. soon comprehended this part of the busi- | This may appear, at first sight, somewhat ness, and when he was about to re-com- paradoxical, but we will proceed to exmence, his master told him to delay a few plain our meaning. A labourer may be minutes, as he wished to say a few words taught mechanically, as it were, to perupon the other heads of ploughing. form this or that sort of work, according
Although it is the custom among plough- to some plan or pattern laid before him, men in many parts of the country to call until by care and constant practice he the plan that Robert was directed to attains the desired degree of perfection; pursue gathering, and with some appear- / but all this while, if the reasons for perance of propriety-for two ridges had to forming operations after some peculiar be collected and formed into one-yet manner have never been explained to him, among agirculturists “gathering" signi- | nor he has never had the interest or curiofies quite a different mode of proceed- sity to make the necessary inquiries, such ing; and, as Mr. Lightfoot informed persons may be very little better than Robert, the mode he had to pursue is machines set in motion, for they possess called casting, that is, casting two lands no views or ideas of their own. One of into one. But this term is also applied the chief acquirements in a ploughma to ploughing ridges in pairs, and keeping is, in addition to turning up straight or
even furrows, such an acquaintance with
INDUSTRIOUS. MONARCH. the nature and qualities of the various sorts of soil as will enable him, in the It was the custom of Peter the Great to absence of an intelligent master, to plough visit the different workshops and manudeep or shallow furrows, and to lay his factories, not only to encourage them, but Pidges in the most approved way, both as also to judge what other useful establishregards the water being carried off, and ments might be formed in his dominions. the facility with which the land may be cul- | Among the places he visited frequently, tivated. The width of the ridges too should were the forges of Müller, at Istia, ninety always be considered; for although narrow versts from Moscow. The Czar once ridges are far more general than they passed a whole month there ; during used to be, where the soil is light, and which time, after giving due attention to the situation naturally dry, there can be the affairs of state, which he never neno good reason given for sowing such land glected, he amused himself with seeing in very narrow ridges; for except under and examining everything in the most very peculiar circumstances, the grain minute manner, and even employed himdoes not thrive so well in the furrows as self in learning the business of a blackupon the ridges. Where the ground is smith. He succeeded so well, that one hilly, particular care ought to be exercised day, before he left the place, he forged regarding the way in which the ridges eighteen poods of iron, and put his own and furrows run. Formerly it used to be particular mark on each bar. The boyars, the almost universal custom to plough and other noblemen of his suite, were such situations directly up and down the employed in blowing the bellows, stirring declivities, whereby an exceedingly power the fire, carrying coals, and performing the ful team was necessary in order to draw other duties of a blacksmith's assistant. the up-hill furrows; and when the work When Peter had finished, he went to the was completed, heavy falls of rain were proprietor, praised his manufactory, and sure to wash away the seed and a large asked him how much he gave his workmen quantity of soil down the furrows, thereby per pood. “ Three kopecks, or an altina," injuring the present crops as well as those answered Müller. “Very well,” replied that might succeed them. In those days there the Czar; "I have then earned eighteen were none of those hand-wrest ploughs, altinas.” Müller brought eighteen ducats, with moveable mould-boards, calculated offered them to Peter, and told him that he to plough steep banks, where there is no could not give a workman like his majesty particular objection to having all the fur- less per pood. Peter refused the sum, rows turned one way, that is, down-lill ; | saying, “Keep your ducats, I have not whereas, at the present day, where it is wrought better than any other man; give not considered that furrows are necessary me what you would give to another ; for carrying off the water, such declivities I want to buy a pair of shoes, of which I may be ploughed horizontally, by the aid am in great need." At the same time he of ploughs of the above description. But showed him his shoes, which had been in most cases, where the ground has a con- | once mended, and were again full of holes. siderable descent, without being what Peter accepted the eighteen altinas, and would be considered very steep, as Mr. bought himself a pair of new shoes, which Lightfoot explained one day to Robert, he used to show with much pleasure, saywhen he was sent to plough up a piece of ing.-" These I earned with the sweat of ground where a broad-cast crop of turnips | my brow." had grown, that the best plan, and that One of the bars of iron forged by Peter which is now usually adopted, of plough- the Great, and authenticated by his mark, ing such places, is to let the furrows run is still to be seen in Istia, in the forge of diagonally, or slanting along the side of Müller. Another bar is preserved at St. the ascent sufficiently so as to allow of Petersburgh.--Peter was a wonderful inthe water passing off, but at the same stance of self-denial and perseverance; time cutting the acclivity in such a way and it is undoubtedly to his great qualities that there shall be no great difficulty in that Russia is indebted for the position she turning the furrows against the ascent. I is entitled to sustain among nations.
Straighstrength we he's, both powse he himself
POPULATION OP MANCHESTER.-A census of ADAM-EDEN-EVE-THE FALL. Manchester, just taken, shows the population of Poor man! How happy once in thy first state!
Manchester to number 339,427 persons. When yet but warm from thy great Maker's hand,
EDUCATION IN POLAND.-In 1850, Poland had. Hestamp'd thee with His image, and well pleased,
ased, 1,561 schools, containing 82,942 pupils,-being Smiled on his last fair work!
fifty-seven pupils for every one thousand inhaHer rash hand, in evil hour,
bitants. Forth reaching to the fruit, she pluck'd, she ate! PRIMITIVE METHODISTS.- The first ittle band Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat, thirty-three years ago, was a “ class" of about Sighing, through all her works, gave signs of twenty, but now they have 6,000 regular travelwoe,
Jing preachers, about 10,00 lay preachers, 5,255 That all was lost !
MILTON. chapels, and 109,000 members, with an increase Thou man thy image mad'st, in dignity,
of between 4,000 and 5,000 members every year. In knowledge and in beauty like to thee;
STATUTE LAW OF ENGLAND.-According to Placed in a heaven on earth ; without his toil, the statement of Mr. G. Willmore, Q.C., the The ever flourishing and fruitful soi!
statute law of this country occupies no less than Un purchased food produced: all creatures were
thirty-eight quarto volumes, some of the latter His subjects, serving more for love than fear.
containing more than a thousand pages of close
SANDYS. print, exclusive of the index. The weight of When by his word God had accomplish'd all, this cart-load is said to amount to 221 pounds Man to create he did a council call;
avoirdupois weight. Employ'd His hand to give the dust He took
LONGEVITY. - We read, in the Paris ConA graceful figure and majestic look;
stitutionnel, “It is said that men live to a greater With His own breath convey'd into his breast Life and a soul fit to command the rest.
age than women, on account of their more robust WALLER.
constitution. This is remarked more particu.
larly among the people of the north than those What weaker breast,
of the south." We read in a Russian statistical Since Adam's armour fail'd, dares warrant his? journal that, in 1850, there died, in that empire, That, made by God of all His creatures best, three men who had lived to the ages of 153, 159, Straight made himself the worst of all the rest :
and 151 years, whilst the oldest woman had only If any strength we have, it is to ill;
reached 130 years. It is remarked that in many But all the good is God's, both power and will: communes of France, longevity proceeds in an The dead man cannot rise, though he himself inverse ratio. may kill. GILES FLETCHER.
PERNICIOUS LITERATURE --The circulation of Troops of unknown diseases, sorrow, age,
pernicious publications is immense. In 1845 it And death assail him with successive rage, was calculated from London alone there was a Hell let forth all her furies : none so great
yearly circulation of stamped and unstamped As man to man, ainbition, pride, deceit;
newspapers and serials of a decidedly pernicions Wrong arm'd with power, vice, rapine, slaughter character to the extent of 28,862,000! During reign'd,
the last five years, while cheap religious periodAnd flatter'd vice the name of virtue gain'd. icals have made limited progress, either in num
• SAXDYS. bers, or interest, the corrupt printing press has () happy pair,
been unceasingly at work. The present cirLords of fair Eden's blooming range, where earth, I
culation in London of immoral unstamped pubBenignant parent, from her verdant.lap
lications of a halfpenny to three-halfpence each, Spontaneous pour'd immortal.sweets, and gave
| must be upwards of 400,000 weekly, which Whate'er could minister delight! Too soon,
would give the enorinous issue of 20,800,000 Alas, this scene was closed : behold them now,
yearly. So lately rich in happiness, and bless'd With converse of the living God, o'erwhelm'd PAUPERISM IN ENGLAND.--Out of a popula In misery, and tortured by the stings
tion of 17,000,000, it appears that 1,000,000 per Of conscious guilt!
SAMUEL HAYES. sons constartly receive relier, or, in other words,
are maintained at the expense of their neigh Difference of good and ill for man to know
bours, and that 3,000,000 (or from 1 in 5 to 1 in Was needless sure, while with the fearless eye
of the whole population) receive relief to a Of an obedient son, he might look up
greater or less extent in the course of a year. To the Almighty Father of his race,
The number of children under 16 relieved for > And claim his guidance.
longer or shorter period, out of the poor-rate, Let us make now man in our image, man
in the course of a given year, is estimated at In our similitude, and let them rule
1,000,000, and the number of able-bodied male Over the fish and fowl of sea and air,
adults similarly relieved at no less than 500,000. Beast of the field, and over all the earth,
This large body of paupers is maintained by And every creeping thing that creeps the ground. funds proceeding from three different sources, This said, He form'd thee, Adam, thee, Oman, viz., parochial and other old charities, voluntary Dust of the ground, and in thy nostrils breathed | contributions, and poor-rates, yielding respecThe breath of life: in His own image He
tively 1,200,0001., 2,000,0001., and from 5,000,0006. Created thee, in the image of God
to 6,000,0001, yearly; or altogether between eigns Express.
MILTON. I and nine millions of money per annum.