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to him the path of preferment. Already he has attracted to his lectureroom a larger number of students than listen to some of the eminent and highly meritorious professors at Marburg, and the animated style of this volume affords clear proof that he is skilled in imparting truth, as well as in garnering it into his own mind. It is an earnest of many and rich fruits yet to be received from his study. His tendencies are toward the high orthodoxy of the German Lutheran church, and he is in close sympathy with such divines as Vilmar, Hengstenberg, and Phillippi.

Stated in brief, the design of this volume is to elucidate the difference between the Shemitic and the Indo-Germanic races, and thence to derive a clear view of the difference between the Christian system, which is Shemitic, and the systems of mere science, of naturalism, of paganism, which are Indo-Germanic. The design of the volume is thus to oppose the fundamental principles of Renan and Strauss, and to form an energetic apology for Christianity.

Messrs. Sheldon and Company, New York, have published, in two volumes, "Explanatory Lectures on the Heidelberg Catechism," by George W. Bethune, D.D. These Lectures grew out of a requirement of the Dutch Reformed church in this country that the pastor should go through the exposition of the Catechism once in four years, giving to the congregation on the Sabbath a view of the doctrines taught in it. Forty-seven Lectures are here published. The number would have been extended to about fifty had the author lived to complete the work. The subjects presented are the most important in the theological science, and they are treated in a popular manner, in the pure and finished style for which the author was distinguished. The volumes contain a valuable exposition of the leading doctrines of the Bible; and most of the views presented will meet with a hearty assent in a few instances there is ground for objection.

The beauty and richness of these Lectures will remind the reader of Leighton (12mo. 1864).

President Woolsey of Yale College has prepared a second and much improved edition of his “Introduction to the Study of International Law.” The subject of neutral and belligerent rights has assumed new importance in this country since the first edition appeared, and is now fully and thoroughly treated. While the work discusses the most important and intricate questions of state polity, it presents them in a manner attractive and clear, even to those who have not given special attention to the subject.

In England and France persons are educated expressly for diplomatic service; while in this country political prominence is generally the immediate use of diplomatic appointments. To meet this defect in our own course of education this work is eminently adapted, by its clearness, vigor of thought and admirable arrangement. And especially now, when we are

in the midst of a gigantic war, and are liable to foreign intervention, it becomes us to study the issues that may be presented, and to be ready to decide with fairness the intricate questions which are daily presented to us.

Every one who wishes to be able to form in his own mind an opinion on these great questions, and to settle them for himself, will find this an inval uable help in prosecuting such a study. It will also be found a valuable text book in our Colleges. (8vo. pp. 441. New York: Charles Scrib

ner. 1864).

"Ancient Law," by Henry S. Maine, is an exposition of the growth of legal ideas of the expansion of the law of the ancients to meet our broader views of justice.

The author presents the progress of law, from the rude decisions of the earlier kings of Rome to the clearer dicta of the "Twelve Tables," until, by the gradual infusion of Greek skill and learning, useless ceremonies were discarded, and the law approached its present form under the Justinian Code. He explains the gradual development of the principles of equity, by means of "legal fiction" and legislation, until it has reached its present high position in English and American jurisprudence. IIe also shows the great debt we owe to the past for the persistent efforts of the men of earlier times to elevate the standard of legal practice.

Quite a large portion of the book is devoted to the origin and progress of certain departments of modern law; for instance, the chapter on conveyancing will serve to elucidate what must seem to many, mere forms to which the legal practitioner is constitutionally wedded. The work throughout shows great research and ingenuity. Mr. Maine has filled a gap in our literature which has long remained vacant. To all, not to jurists merely, but to students who wish to understand the growth of constitutional government, which is founded on a liberal rendering of equity, we can commend this book. (8vo. pp. 400. New York: Charles Scribner. 1864.)

A Hebrew Chrestomathy; or Lessons in Reading and Writing Hebrew. By William Henry Green, Professor in the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J. 12mo. pp. 261. New York: John Wiley, 535 Broadway. 1864.- This volume is accurately printed; the selections, as well of elementary forms for the exercise of the pupil as of passages for reading from both the prose and poetry of the Old Testament, are judicious, and sufficiently varied and extended; and the notes are accurate and valuable. Immediately following the vocabulary is a classification of nouns "according to the character of their ultimate syllable," which we have long believed to be the true principle, not, indeed, for a philosophical discussion of the forms of nouns in their relation to each other and to the roots from which they spring, but for the student's aid in the elementary part of his

course. The volume forms a good accompaniment to Prof. Green's Hebrew Grammar.

In connection with the above it is in plaec to add, that the "Indexes to Green's Hebrew Grammar," issued, we believe, subsequently to the publication of the Grammar itself, are of great value, adding much to the worth of the original volume.

We have received from Robert Carter and Brothers, 530 Broadway, New York, the following works:

The Dawn of Heaven; or, the Principles of the Heavenly Life applied to the Earthly. By the late Rev. Joseph A. Collier, of Kingston, N. Y. With a brief biographical sketch of the author. 12mo. pp. 305.

God's Way of Holiness. By Horatius Bonar, D.D., Author of "God's Way of Peace," "Hymns of Faith and Hope," etc. 12mo. pp. 261.

The Cedar Christian; and other Practical Papers and Personal Sketches. By Theodore L. Cuyler, Pastor of the Lafayette Avenue Church, Brooklyn. 12mo. pp. 215.

The Martyrs of Spain, and the Liberators of Holland. By the Author of "the Schönberg-Cotta Family." 12mo. pp. 400.

Egypt's Princes. A Narrative of Missionary Labor in the Valley of the Nile. By Julian Lansing, Missionary of the United Presbyterian Church in Egypt. 12mo. pp. 426.

History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin. By J. H. Merle D'Aubigné, D.D., Author of the History of the Reformation in the Sixteenth Century. Vol. III., France, Switzerland, Geneva. 12mo. pp. 463.

Notes, Critical and Explanatory, on the Book of Genesis. From the Creation to the Covenant. By Melancthon W. Jacobus, Professor of Biblical Literature and Exegesis in the Theological Seminary at Alleghany, Pa. 12mo. pp. 304.- This volume will be reviewed in a future Number.

We have received from Carlton and Porter, 200 Mulberry Street, New York, the Life and Times of Nathan Bangs, D.D. By Abel Stevens, LL.D., Author of "the History of the Religious Movement of the Eighteenth Century, called Methodism." 12mo. pp. 426.-Dr. Bangs was distinguished, not only as a philanthropist and a Christian, but also as an author and a theological controversialist. His controversies with Mr. Williston, Mr. Haskell, and with the conductors of the Christian Spectator, will long be remembered. He was one of the best metaphysicians in the

Methodist church.

A Notice of "Religion and Chemistry," by Professor Cooke of Harvard University, prepared for this Number, is omitted, as the work will be reviewed hereafter.

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THE

BIBLIOTHECA SACRA.

ARTICLE I.

WORKS ON THE LIFE OF CHRIST.1

BY REV. SAMUEL J. ANDREWS, Hartford, Conn.

THE numerous works published in Germany within the last ten or twelve years, some of the more important of which are given in the list at the foot of the page, show how deep the interest that is felt in the earthly life of our Lord. It confirms the fact, long since noticed, that the religious contests that agitate Christendom are centreing more and more

1 Das Leben Jesu Christi. Von Dr. Joh. N. Sepp. Regensburg: 1853-1862. 6 vols.

Geschichte des Lebens Jesu Christi. Von Dr. J. H. Friedlieb. Breslau:

1855.

Das Leben Jesu Christi. Von Dr. Jordan Bucher. Stuttgart: 1859.

Francisci Xaverii Patritii e societate Jesu de Evangeliis Libri Tres. Friburgi, Brisgoviae: 1853.

Geschichte Christus und seiner Zeit. Von Heinrich Ewald. Zweite Ausgabe. Göttingen: 1857.

Das Leben Jesu. Lehrbuch zunächst für akademische Vorlesungen. Von Dr. Karl Hase. Vierte verbesserte Auflage. Leipzig: 1854.

Lebensgeschichte des Herrn Jesu Christi in Chronologischer Uebersicht. Mit erläuternden Anmerkungen von Dr. F. W. J. Lichtenstein. Erlangen :

1856.

Wissenschaftliche Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte. Ein Kompendium für Geistliche und Studirende. Von Joh. H. A. Ebrard. Zweite Auflage. Erlangen 1850.

:

Das Leben Jesu nach der Apokryphen. Von Dr. Rudolph Hofmann. Leipzig: 1851.

VOL. XXII. No. 86. APRIL, 1865.

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1

around his person. We cannot be surprised that this should be so. Christianity is no system of abstract doctrine. Christianity is Christ. It exists because he exists; and cannot be overthrown so long as he stands in the pathway of the assailant. The enemies of Christianity are not ignorant of this; and it is against him that they direct their deadliest attacks. Let the faith of men in him be destroyed; let sceptical criticism envelope in doubt the great facts of his earthly life; let the Gospels be resolved into myths or fables, and Christianity becomes an empty shell — a mere abstraction. A belief in a Supreme Being may remain, but all that is distinctive in the Christian faith passes away. Whatever tends to undermine the historic credibility of his work in flesh, as narrated by the evangelists, smites our religion in its most vital part. It becomes thus a matter of deep significance to every Christian to know how far the evangelical narratives stand the fiery trial to which they have been subjected during the last quarter of a century. Assaults from every possible point have been made upon them; have they yielded to these assaults? We think ourselves fully warranted in saying that the historical accuracy of the Gospels never stood so well confirmed, and in such clear light, as to-day. Time proves all things; and it has shown that the objections deemed but yesterday by their advocates irrefutable and fatal are cast away by the assailants of to-day as frivolous and worthless. Strauss despises the rationalism of Paulus, and Bruno Bauer despises the myths of Strauss. Who shall follow Bauer, or what new weapons against Christianity the enemy may forge, we know not; but we doubt not the future will be as the past, and that the cries of victory, which have so boastfully heralded each fresh attack, and are now so lustily shouted in the Westminster Review and kindred journals, will speedily die away into the silence of defeat. "I am the truth," said Christ; and he is also "the same, yesterday, and to-day, and forever."

It is not, however, now our purpose to enter into any controversial points, but simply to give some account of

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