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represent it, either it could not have won the position it has, or the world is one vast bedlam; if, on the contrary, mankind be possessed of reason, Christianty must be true; and if mankind be mad, then " where ignorance is bliss, 'tis folly to be wise." In this sense, we can recommend the book as an armory of weapons against the foes of Christ.1

HARKNESS'S LATIN GRAMMAR.

The progress which has been made of late years in our country in the more critical study of the Latin language, has required a grammar which should be a better exponent of the language than any we have had. The manuals which have been accessible met well the requirements of the times when they were prepared, but they have not kept pace with the progress of philological study. The present work was prepared in view of this want. The author is himself an experienced and successful teacher; he has had the advantage of studying with the ablest German philologists, and is familiar with all the best writers on the subject. He has thus brought to the preparation of his work rich materials, gathered from the best sources. These materials have been well digested, and used with skill and good judgment; and the work now given to the public meets the wants of the times, and is the best manual for schools and colleges which has been published in the country. It is not an accumulation of isolated facts about the language, but a natural and philosophical development of its laws. It is methodical in its arrangement, clear, direct, and concise in its statements; not so full as to perplex and discourage the student, and yet sufficiently comprehensive to satisfy all the ordinary wants.

In the inflected forms the endings are printed in a different type from the stem, so that the eye catches at once what is accidental and what is unchanged.

While the syntax generally has received special attention, the treatment of the subjunctive mood is very thorough and satisfactory. The subject as here presented is relieved of much of the obscurity and perplexity which has usually attended it.

The brevity in the statement of principles is a valuable feature in the Grammar; and yet in some few instances a fuller elucidation of the euphonic changes and of the laws by which words have particular forms would have been desirable. Did our space permit, we would give illustrations of this remark. But the deficiencies are very few compared with

1 The books noticed above may be easily procured at or through Messrs. A. Asher and Co., Bedford Street, London, and Unter den Linden, Berlin.

2 A Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges. By Albert Harkness, Ph. D., Professor in Brown University, author of First Latin Book, etc. pp. 355. New York: D. Appleton and Co. 1865.

the excellences. The work needs only to be known to be appreciated. Teachers and pupils who shall use it, will thank the author for the rich contribution he has made for the more pleasant, thorough, and successful study of the Latin language.

NEANDER'S PLANTING AND TRAINING OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.1

Dr. Jonathan Edwards Ryland, the British translator of this work, is the son of the celebrated John Ryland of Northampton, England, who has been for a long time well known in this country as an author and pastor, the intimate companion of Andrew Fuller and Robert Hall, a friend and correpsondent of Dr. Johnatan Edwards, Dr. Samuel Hopkins, and other American divines. Dr. J. E. Ryland is a learned and excellent man, and has given to the British public several valuable translations of German treatises. He has long resided in Northampton, near the old chapel in which his father preached, and also near the venerable church edifice of Dr. Doddridge. Our readers are familiar with his translation of Neander's Planting and Training of the Christian Church. That translation was made from the third edition of Neander's work, and was published in 1841. A new edition appeared in 1851, containing " Additions and Corrections," taken from the fourth edition of Neander's work. "To say nothing of the inconvenience and awkwardness of such an arrangement, there remained, necessarily, a large number of alterations, both in the notes and in the text, of which no notice could be taken without a thorough revision of the translation itself. To make such a revision has been the attempt of the editor in the present edition" (p. iii, Preface to the American Edition). Dr. Robinson appears to have performed his work with care and skill, and merits the gratitude of American scholars. He has been successful in overcoming many of the difficulties of Neander's style. That style is peculiarly cumbrous, and does not exhibit to an American reader the real clearness of Neander's conceptions. The merits of the original work are well known to our clerical scholars, and the present edition of it will raise it in the esteem of those who have not access to the German edition.

BANNERMAN ON INSPIRATION.

Dr. Bannerman defines the act of inspiration to be, "the supernatural operation of the Spirit of God upon a man, by which he is enabled to

1 History of the Planting and Training of the Christian Church by the Apostles. By Dr. Augustus Neander. Translated from the German by Dr. J. E. Ryland. Translation revised and corrected according to the fourth German edition, by E. G. Robinson, D.D., Professor in the Rochester Theological Seminary. 8vo. pp. 547. New York: Sheldon and Co., 335 Broadway; Boston: Gould and Lincoln. 1865. 2 Inspiration. The Infallible Truth and Divine Authority of the Holy Scrip

speak or write with infallible accuracy the objective truth revealed to him by God for that purpose" (p. 218). He distinguishes between revelation and inspiration thus: "A supernatural communication of truth from God is a revelation; the supernatural transference of the truth to the spoken or written word is inspiration” (p. 151). "In the instance of a communication between man and man, we have a twofold phenomenon exhibited; first, of the thought or truth to be communicated, as it originated in the mind of the first; and second, of the presentation of the thought or truth to the second of the two parties between whom the communication takes place" (pp. 153, 154). The first of these is revelation; the second is inspiration. The author maintains that the whole of the Bible is not only inspired but also revealed, and the whole of is thus an infallible record. "Infallibility," he says, "does not, rightly speaking, admit of degrees; nor can those who believe that the Bible is infallible, consistently assert of any passage or statement in it, that it is more or less true than another." "In respect to all portions of the Bible equally, what it asserts or authorizes, is characterized by infallible truth and divine authority" (pp. 95, 96). The Holy Spirit revealed to the sacred penmen not only that which they did not previously know, but also that which they did previously know; and he thus secured infallible accuracy in the word.

Dr. Bannerman is not, however, an advocate of the theory of verbal inspiration, “that human language was the medium through which the Holy Spirit both revealed truth to the prophet, and empowered him to speak with infallible accuracy." "The theory of verbal inspiration ought not to be counted - it certainly cannot be found to be inconsistent with the scriptural facts of the case. Still it is a theory," a theory "which, if it cannot be affirmed to be false, can as little be affirmed to be true. If it does not run counter to anything found în scripture, it is, we suspect, an explanation of the mystery which scripture does not demand" (p. 247). Throughout this treatise, all theories of inspiration are discarded, and the mere fact is insisted on that all the statements of the Bible are revealed as well as inspired, and are absolutely free from error.

Dr. Bannerman also maintains, that "the personal fallibility of inspired men generally is perfectly consistent with the doctrine of the infallibility of their writings in the Bible" (p. 503); and that "there is a certain kind of imperfection even in these writings themselves which is compatible with supernatural inspiration"; "the defects or imperfections proper to the sacred authors, as authors, are quite consistent with the doctrine of plenary inspiration. The presence of the supernatural agency of God with the sacred penmen does not involve or require an exemption on their part

tures. By James Bannerman, D.D., Professor of Theology, New College, Edinburgh. 8vo. pp. 595. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 38 George St.; London: Hamilton, Adams, and Co.; Dublin: Robertston and Co. 1865.

from those natural deficiencies as writers which without inspiration they would have manifested" (p. 507).

In noticing the objection, that it is difficult or impossible to construct a harmony of the events of our Saviour's life out of the four biographies which we possess, Dr. Bannerman says: "These narratives do not, throughout, or in many cases, profess to follow the succession of time. It may perhaps be impossible to arrange them all according to such a principle" (p. 501). The biblical writers did not always intend to teach chronology, and were not inspired to teach it.

Although the main design of this treatise is to defend the infallibility of the Bible as a record of facts and an exponent of doctrines, yet the author states: "the necessary limitation of human language as a vehicle of thought, unavoidably leads to a greater or less degree of incompleteness in the scripture expressions of truth" (p. 547); "the necessary limitations of the human mind, exhibited in all its conceptions and productions, comes in aid of the imperfection of language to give more or less a character of incompleteness to all expressions of truth by men." "All this is familiar to us in the case of the spoken or written statements of ordinary men. It is no less found in the statements of inspired men" (pp. 553, 554).

The citations given above are sufficient to show, that while Dr. Bannerman, with signal ability, advocates the old and strict doctrine of “infallible inspiration," he does not mean to press the doctrine beyond the claims of the inspired penmen themselves. He does not maintain, that because these writers were inspired where they pretend to be, therefore they were inspired where they do not pretend to be. They had infallible guidance as teachers of religion, but not as teachers of astronomy or geology, rhetoric, logic, or any other secular science. We regard the work of Dr. Bannerman as one of much merit. It is lucid and instructive. While it defends the more rigid doctrine of inspiration, it treats with respect the disscussions of Henderson, Lee, Alford and others of the more moderate theorists. Indeed we think that the present treatise often differs from the treatises of Henderson and Lee in words merely, where it appears to differ in things.

NOTE FROM Mr. Alexander MCWHORTER.-In the Bib. Sac., Vol. XXI. 876, 877, occurs the following statement: the English author, Mr. Thomas Tyler, "complains that Mr. Alex. McWhorter has reproduced his Mr. Tyler's] view [of the Memorial Name] in a modified form, but with the omission of an acknowledgment of the source whence the ideas on which they were based were derived." In his note Mr. McWhorter replies: first, Mr. Tyler does not complain that there has been an omission of all acknowledgment, but only of suitable acknowledgment; secondly, Mr. Tyler's view of the Memorial Name was referred to in Mr. McWhorter's Article in Bib. Sac., Vol. XIV. p. 104; thirdly, in his Preface to the Memorial Name, Mr. McWhorter "expressly disclaimed origiuality in respect of any fact or interpretation brought forward."

THE

BIBLIOTHECA SACRA.

ARTICLE I.

CLEMENS ROMANUS: AN APOLOGETICAL STUDY.

BY DR. D. W. SIMON, BERLIN, PRUSSIA.

I. LIFE AND EPISTLE OF CLEMENT OF ROME.

81. Life of Clement.

ALL that can be said, with any show of probability, regarding the life of Clement, is, that he was acquainted with and esteemed by the apostle Paul, as we learn from Philippians iv. 3; that he lived and labored, for a time, at Philippi; that he became the third bishop of Rome, and held that office after Linus, between A. D. 92 and 101; that he wrote the First Epistle to the church at Corinth, in the name of the church at Rome; and that he was held in universal esteem by the Christians of his day. No confidence whatever can be placed in the romantic account of his descent, conversion, labors, and sufferings given by the Clementine Homilies and other writings of the class. Various deductions, too, from expressions of his own, as for example that he was a Jew by birth (vid. cc. 4, 31, 55), are equally uncertain.

$ 2. The Genuineness of the First Epistle.

That Clement wrote an epistle to the Corinthians seems undeniable. The only questions are: Is the present Epistle

VOL. XXII. No. 87.-JULY, 1865. 45

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