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this is only seeming; for in reality he is constantly progressing; and, once arrived at the goal, he will see how the sudden ascents, the repeated descents, and the even plains were each and all so many steps lying between him and the summit he had purposed to surmount.

The sudden and, as the Christian church to its consolation and strength believes, supernatural leap taken by the apostles produced at once great practical results; but these results have required, and will still require, many, many ages for their intellectual appreciation. And we can only rejoice that their successors carried on the work begun, not indeed in the manner which the wise of this world deem glorious and good, but still in the very manner necessary to the salvation of men and the glory of God.

Let us now briefly recapitulate. Our object has been to draw from the Epistle of Clement an indirect argument for the reality of the events, and the authenticity of the books, on which the Christian church bases its existence. The following are the steps in our argument:

1. The Epistle of Clement is a work whose authorship and authenticity are critically established.

2. Its teachings, notwithstanding their formal vagueness, are substantially identical with all the orthodox creeds and with the canonical writings.

3. The character of its author, its own tone, and the tone of similar writings ascribed to the same period, warrant the belief that these teachings reflect, both as to form and substance, the spirit of the then church.

4. If such be the case, when we consider, on the one hand its intellectual unproductiveness, and on the other its grand ideas and deeds, we are compelled to assume that an age of unusual life and activity immediately preceded.

5. On examining the canonical writings, we find just such deeds and thoughts as furnish a key to the phenomena of the post-apostolic age.

6. We accordingly conclude that these deeds were

wrought and these thoughts recorded at the time and in the manner commonly supposed.

7. We have, lastly, added a few observations intended to meet the latest objections to the church's view of the apostolic and post-apostolic ages.




A DISTINGUISHED writer, Max Duncker, begins his excellent History of Antiquity with a general remark respecting

1 The following Article consists mainly of a free translation of a portion of Professor Auberlen's "Die göttliche Offenbarung: Ein apologetischer Versuch." Erster Band, pp. 123-163. The volume which contains this extract was published in 1861, and is regarded as the ablest production of that eminent scholar. The second volume has just come to hand, entitled "Zur Lehre vom Menschen als religiösem Wesen," but proves, alas! to be a fragment only, in consequence of the death of the author, and appeared as a posthumous work, in July of the last year. A friendly hand has prefixed to the unfinished treatise a brief sketch of the writer's life and character. It is a beautiful picture, and portrays to us a man who was thoroughly in earnest, whose religious convictions were heartfelt, who had received the word of God into his soul as a source of life and power, was a faithful worker for the cause of his Lord and Master, and when the last hour came could say, with a full consciousness of its solemnity: God be thanked, of death I have no fear; the Lord Jesus is my light and my song'; and in the joy of that faith passed quietly away.


It is proper to state that some parts of the essay, as presented here, are an abstract of the original, rather than a version. It was the more necessary to be thus free in some passages, because the author's style is unusually terse and idiomatic, and has so many expressions borrowed from the philosophical phraseology of the Germans. A few additional notes and references have been inserted and two or three paragraphs abridged, but nothing, of course, has been added or omitted which affects in any way the argument or ideas of the writer. After having been occupied so much, in the course of recent criticism, with the historical and philological grounds on which the claims of the Pentateuch are vindicated, it may be profitable, and serve to augment the force of other considerations, if we turn our thoughts to the internal argument, which Dr. Auberlen has so ably unfolded in the pages here laid before the reader.

the lands of Africa as divided by the equator; and then, on the second page, proceeds to speak of the lands and people of Egypt. He passes over, without a single word, the fundamental preliminary questions which pertain to ancient history, and brings us, by a single step as it were, into the presence of the various nations of which he writes. It is certainly, in many respects, a wise and commendable reserve which excludes the obscure domain of first causes and effects from the sphere of history. But it is a characteristic sign of our times that we consider it so wise to confine ourselves here to the middle of things, and not to inquire after their beginnings and ends, while in other studies the investigators who have most repute for wisdom are those who search most deeply for ultimate reasons and principles. In truth, it is hardly correct to speak here of a history of antiquity, in any proper sense of the term; at least it is antiquity more as an aggregation of separate parts, than as the representation of a world's common origin and growth. A more correct designation would be a history of the ancient nations. It is the style of history of which Herodotus is father, not that of which Moses is father. Herodotus has written for us a history of antiquity according to this idea, since he leads us, in his narratives, from one nation to another. It corresponds with the point of view of the Greeks, those coryphaei of heathendom, to addict themselves, with love as well as labor, to single objects and detached investigations, and to set forth the results of such study with artistic skill. The historic art, the plastic representation of single forms, reaches here its crowning point. But something different from this is the philosophy of history, a thoughtful, scrutinizing survey of the whole order of life, as it unfolds itself in space and time, therefore not of single nations only, but of the race, and not of the middle only, but also of the beginning and end, of the idea of the world, and its realization in history. It is only such inquiry, extended to the entire range of history, that satisfies the wants of an inquisitive spirit; for such scrutiny, all those works of his

toric art are, in the end, only preparatory labors. This highest form of history is at present one of our philosophical wants, as Schiller's well-known Academic Inaugural, for example, has shown. Such a view, indeed, does not accord with the tendency of man's fallen nature. The example of Herodotus proves this, and the example of the Greek philosophers, as well as of the Greek historians, proves this. They were not able to raise themselves to the idea of mankind—the idea of humanity. It is only where the true idea of God is, that there can be a true idea of mankind and, consequently, a true idea of history. Hence, also, in this deeper sense the Israelites are the people among whom the genuine feeling of history shows itself, and Moses is the father of history. In this point of view an immense importance belongs to the first eleven chapters of Genesis.

It is a distinguishing peculiarity of the Israelitish people, that their historical recollections have this universal background and circle of view; that their traditions are not only those of a single people, but of a primitive history of the race. In the case of the heathen nations it is not so. As, in general the world, before the Christian age, was rent into separate nationalities, so every nation, at the utmost, goes back merely into its own past existence.

The most cultivated heathen, as the Athenians, regard themselves as autochthones, sprung from their own soil. In this fact the national limitation and the operation of natu ral and physical laws are abundantly manifest. The people have no idea of any other antecedent of their existence. than their own land: the nation is born of the earth where they dwell. About the other nations, upon which they look as barbarians, they trouble themselves but little or not at all, as we find to be true of the Chinese; and if at any time a wider commerce with the world awakens a more general sense of the relationship of nations, they concern themselves with them, as remarked already, only as separate communities. The consciousness of the original connection of the nations, the idea of the human race exists among them only

in a faint degree. If they seem to have any old, primeval recollections, any views concerning heaven and earth, gods and men, which reach beyond their own national history, such imaginations are nothing more than theogonic and cos mogonic myths; myths into which they have transfused some notions of their own origin, and out of which, in turn, they have drawn some of the notions themselves.

Israel also, though in a different way, holds an attitude of strict separation from the other nations. The opposition between people of God and nations of the world is a similar one to that between Greeks and barbarians. Not only so, but the result of the political connections into which this people were drawn in the course of time, was to increase rather than diminish the consciousness of this difference between them and other nations. Israel had no Herodotus, who has written a history of the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, and the Persians, though the Jews were brought so much into contact with all these nations. General history in this sense, or that of the world, is more strictly a worldly science, and not one of a religious people, like the Israelites. The peculiarity of Israel lies, not in their culture, but in their sense of the primitive relations of men to each other. They have not only a clearer and more complete knowledge of their own origin since the time of Abraham than any other people, but a knowledge which goes back, beyond their own origin, to that of mankind, and recognizes the unity as distinctly as the separation: the lineage is Abraham, Noah, Adam. It has been justly pointed out as a noteworthy fact, that Genesis represents the ark as landing, not on Lebanon or Sinai, but on Ararat, a locality entirely foreign to Israel; while the heathen, for the most part, in their traditions of the flood, place that event on their own mountains, and convert the patriarchs of the deluge into the original men of their respective lands, and the progenitors of their nation. In the book of Genesis, therefore, the national barrier is broken through from the very outset; the people of Israel, with all their particularism, are

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