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to be done in hades, to dig the fields, to water the trenches, to carry the sand of the west to the east." 1

It is with a feeling of melancholy that we examine the solitary fragment of Dr. E. Robinson's Geography of the Bible, which seems to stand as a monument over the cherished but unfinished work of his life. We remember how many years his studies were directed to the elucidation of biblical geography; at what cost and risk his painstaking explorations were made; and again, with what assiduity he labored, with impaired eyesight and failing health, to systematize the results of these travels and studies in one work, that should embrace all existing knowledge of the physical, the historical, and the topographical geography of the Holy Land. Yet of this noble plan, for the execution of which the author possessed such admirable qualifications, we have only the Memoir upon the Physical Geography of Palestine Proper, with a fragmentary outline of the physical geography of the Syrian Coast. True, the materials and references for the whole work are largely contained in the Biblical Researches ; but only the author could have digested and arranged these in harmony with his general plan. Had he been willing to avail himself of collaborators, Dr. Robinson might have accomplished his original design; but his conscientious accuracy forbade him to depend upon an amanuensis for citations and references. Happily this trait has secured the completeness, so far as it goes, of that portion of the work which remains to us from his hand. This is divided into four parts the first treats of the mountains, hills, vallies, and plains of Palestine; the second, of rivers, streams, lakes, and fountains; the third, of climate; the fourth, of geological features. The chapters on the flora and fauna of Palestine were not completed by the author; but the substance of them is given in the Appendix on Syria. We should have prized an essay from Dr. Robinson upon the changes of climate and of feature in Palestine caused by the destruction of the forests. But even in its unfinished state, this volume will be accepted as an authority, and will prove of great value to the student of the Bible. The style is clear and compact; the arrangement is scientific; the marginal references are copious and trustworthy. The work was published under the careful supervision of Mrs. Robinson, who was aided in the proof-reading and in preparing the Index, by W. H. Thomson, M.D., an accomplished scholar in the Arabic language and in the geography of his native Syria.

1 This formula is interpreted, by Dr. S. Birch, in the Zeitschrift für Acgyptische Sprache, for March, 1865.

2 Physical Geography of the Holy Land. By Edward Robinson, D.D., LL.D. Boston: Crocker and Brewster.

VOL. XXII. No. 88.

87

ARTICLE VIII.

NOTICES OF RECENT GERMAN PUBLICATIONS.

SUBSTITUTIONary SufferinG.

Der Begriff des Stellvertretenden Leidens entwickelt. Von Dr. H. Schultz. Basel: Bahnmaier's Verlag; London: Asher and Co. 1864. - In the first part of this very interesting and suggestive inaugural discourse, Dr. Schultz shows that substitutionary suffering is a law of nature; a law of humanity; that it is rooted in sin; and that it is not punishment, because none but the relatively innocent can be substitutes for the guilty. In the second part, he shows that though God cannot suffer in the vulgar sense of the term, he does suffer for his creatures in general, when by infusing his life into them he preserves them from destruction; and for sinners especially, when he sorrows over their conduct, sympathizes with their misery, and hates their sin. His spirit of life and love communicates itself healingly and quickeningly to sick humanity, in the suffering of love. Accordingly substitutionary suffering is the grand thought of redemption. And this is the key to the mystery." We do not think the full depths of the question are sounded by Dr. Schultz; but still no one will read the discourse without profit, and its ideas would help to mellow our own views.

66

INFANT BAPTISM.

Ist die Kindertaufe schrift-und rechtmässig? Von Adolf Stöber, PfarrerBasel: Bahnmaier's Verlag; London: Asher and Co. 1864.- This is a clever discussion of the question of infant baptism from the Lutheran point of view. Many of the arguments, particularly in the chapters on the early testimonies respecting infant baptism and on the mode of baptism, will commend themselves to all Pedobaptists. All Pedobaptists, however, will of course not agree with the views set forth, so far as they issue in baptismal regeneration. The treatise is in the form of dialogues, and is clear, popular, and cheap.

JESUS AND THE PARTIES OF HIS AGE.

Jesus im Verhältniss zu den Parteien seiner Zeit und zu Johannes dem Täufer. Von Lic. Dr. Kleinert. Berlin: Wiegandt und Grieben; London: Asher and Co. 1865. - An excellent apologetic lecture on a subject of great importance at the present time. The parties touched on are the Sadducees, Pharisees, Galileans, and Essenes and the sketch given of them contains so many new hints, that we should be glad to hear that Dr.

Kleinert was bringing out a larger book on the subject. Of the Sadducees he adopts the view expounded by Dr. Geiger of Frankfort on the Main, who regards them as the descendants of Zadok the high priest, and as forming a kind of hereditary aristocracy. The Pharisees, on the contrary, were the popular religious party; the Galileans were fiery zealots, ever ready for revolution; and the Essenes were the quiet in the land, of whom, however, Christ said reprovingly: "No man lighteth a candle and putteth it under a bushel." We wish the little book a large sale.

JUDAISM AND ITS HISTORY.

Das Judenthum und seine Geschichte bis zum Ende des zwölften Jahrhunderts. Von Dr. A. Geiger. 2 vols. Breslau: Schlettersche Buchhandlung; London: Asher and Co. 1865. This is not a connected history of the Jews, but a series of lectures on the significance of Judaism in the history of the world. Dr. Geiger belongs to the Reformed Jewish party; and is a man of great learning and ability. With the tendency of his work we are not at all agreed; but we must at the same time say, that it thoroughly deserves attentive perusal. It contains many hints which throw light on the rise of Christianity, and which a skilful advocate may use well for its defence. We can conscientiously promise discriminating readers a great treat.

How far Dr. Geiger is from being an Old Testament Jew the following thoughts will indicate: "The consciousness of sinfulness, that is, the consciousness of being naturally finite and limited as to purity." "Our sensuous nature is the mother of sin." "The Jewish nation had a genius for religion. There dwelt in it an original power, which enabled it to look deeper into the higher life of spirit, to recognize the close relationship between the spirit of man and the spirit of the universe, and so forth. And this was revelation." In other words, the Jews were religious geniuses, as Shakespeare was a dramatic genius. The peculiarity of Jesus was that instead of foretelling, he preached: "The kingdom of heaven is come"; "The time is fulfilled." Whatever he taught had been also taught by Hillel ; so that one can only wonder that Hillel did not become the founder of the Christian church. In short, to our taste Dr. Geiger is more a Gentile than a Jew in his judgments and modes of thought. There are two appendices, one directed against Renan and Strauss, the other against Prof. Hultzmann of Heidelberg.

But notwithstanding our total disagreement with Dr. Geiger's positive views, we cannot but commend his book to the notice of our readers as remarkably interesting and instructive. One chapter- that comparing the religion of the Jews with that of heathens-has considerable apologetic value, even for us Christians.

A DEFENCE OF THE PRINCIPAL DOCTRINES OF CHRISTIANITY.

Jesus der Christ. Apologetische Vorträge über die Grundlehren des Christenthums. Von Professor Dr. Held. Zürich: Meyer; London: Asher and Co. 1865. - The above sixteen lectures on the fundamental doctrines of Christianity were delivered by Dr. Held, before mixed audiences, in Zürich, where for some years he held the position of "Christian Advocate." The subjects are as follows: "The Fundamental Fact of Christianity"; "Development of the Church"; "Jesus, the Messiah of the Prophets and the Christ of the Apostles"; History of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ"; "The Atonement"; "Faith"; "Justification"; "Sanctification"; "Difference between Christian Life and Rationalism"; "Holy Scriptures"; "The Church"; "The Sacraments"; "Christian Hope."

―――

The soundness of Dr. Held's point of view will be clear from the following brief extract: "Two words, which express not a doctrine, but a fact, contain the entire secret of Christianity, - - the two words, Jesus is the Christ. The circumstance that Christianity has this person, who as Jesus is altogether ours, altogether humanity's, and as Christ is altogether God's, altogether Deity's, constitutes it superior to all other religions, and will ensure it the victory over the world. Heathen religions yearned for atonement and fellowship with God, even the most degraded; for humanity cannot rid itself of the need of and hunger after God. The Old Testament possessed the firm hope and certain prospect of atonement. But as a fact accomplished, realized, Christianity alone is in possession of full atonement."

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"These lectures," says the author, "seek to show that the present age, as truly as former ages, stands in need of the entire, full, biblical Christ; that it damages and disgraces itself when it allows him to be diminished and put into the shade; and that the innermost and best elements of man's nature yearn for the Christ of the prophets and the apostles."

We can unhesitatingly recommend these lectures as the very readable and stirring production of a warm-hearted, earnest Christian theologian.

EVIDENCES OF THE TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY INCIDENTALLY SUPPLIED BY UNIVERSAL HISTORY.

Thaten und Lehren Jesu mit ihrer weltgeschichtlichen Beglaubigung. Von Dr. Sepp, Professor of History at the University of Munich. Schaffhausen: Hurter; London: Asher and Co. 1864.- Dr. Sepp, a Roman Catholic, is the author of a large Life of Jesus, which contains a mass of curious information, and of a work on Palestine. The work whose title is given above has special reference to Strauss and Renan; and comprises some sixty short chapters on as many different points connected with the history of Jesus. The following titles will give our readers some idea of the

contents: "The Family of David"; "The Star of the Messiah"; "The Year of Christ's Birth"; "Christ's Temptation"; "Jesus and the Woman of Samaria"; "Abolition of State and National Religions"; "The Miracles of Jesus"; etc. Dr. Sepp has collected a vast number of interesting facts from general history bearing upon, illustrating, and analogically confirming the life of Jesus. The first chapter, on the "Family of David," is of very considerable weight. The example of Hillel the younger is adduced, who traced his descent on his mother's side from David, and partly on that account was raised to the position of Nasi in Israel. Renan supposes that the idea of Jesus having descended from David was a later invention, for the purpose of vindicating his right to the title of Messiah ; but Dr. Sepp asks: "If this were the case, how came the Jews not to protest against such an assumption? How came some of the Talmudists to call Mary a daughter of Eli; words on which Raschi remarks: "Jesus sanguine regio cognatione conjunctus erat." That it is fair to meet such notions by such questions is surely clear from the words of Josephus cont. Apion. I. 7: "Whoso wishes to become a priest must be married to a wife from his own people, and must bring proof of his ancestry from our archives. The same rule is observed wherever any of our nation dwell, for they all send lists of their fathers and forefathers, with the names of witnesses to Jerusalem. Our high priests keep written family registers, which contain the names of their ancestors for two thousand years back" R. Jochanan is reported to have once exclaimed, referring to this practice: "By the temple! it is in our power to expose those who are not of pure blood in Israel." And R. Levi says: "They found in Jerusalem a book of family registers, in which Hillel was shown to be descended from David."

But these specimens must suffice. Readers who like a curious and instructive, though somewhat unconnected book, will find Dr. Sepp to their

taste.

THE LIFE AND LABORS OF JEROME.

Hieronymus. Sein Leben und Werken aus seinen Schriften dargestellt. Von Prof. Dr. Zöckler, Giessen. Gotha: F. A. Perthes; London: Asher and Co. 1865. A life of Jerome, one of the most learned men of his day, the most learned of the early Fathers of the church, the man whom Erasmus styles the Christian Cicero, and who did more than any other churchman, to establish the principle of monasticism, must command the interest of every theologian. Dr. Zöckler has supplied a life deserving, in every sense, of attention. We have seldom read a German historical work at once so thorough and unpretending, so clear and profound as this on Jerome. It has been remarkably well received, too, by all the principal critical organs of Germany; even by such as deviate widely from Dr. Zöckler's orthodox point of view.

The work has the following divisions; Introduction, giving notices of

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