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in Jerusalem, presupposes that the book of the law was written by Moses. The whole of the temple service and worship were regulated by Solomon, (1004 years before Christ,) according to the law contained in the Pentateuch, as the tabernacle service and worship had previously been, by David-before Christ, ONE THOUSAND FORTY TWO YEARS. Moreover, that the Pentateuch was in existence in David's time, is evident from the very numerous allusions made in his psalms to its contents Next we come to Samuel (who judged Israel about the years 1100—1061 before Christ); he could not have composed it, for he could not have acquired the knowledge of Egypt which the Pentateuch implies.
Lastly, in the book of Joshua frequent references are made to the book of the law: (Josh. i. 7, 8; xxiii. 6; xxiv. 26; viii. 30. 34.) Is it probable, that Joshua, or any other man, would refer to a public record or book, for authority, had no such record or book been in existence? Joshua did refer repeatedly (as we have proved) to the Pentateuch: this was 1451 years before Christ: therefore, the books of Moses were then in existence: This brings us then up to the very time in which we saythey were written, viz: about 1450 years before Christ! If any man can resist this evidence, we have only to say -let him! The heathen evidence respecting the genuineness and authenticity of the Pentateuch, is considerable, and consists of the undisputed testimony of the most distinguished Pagan' writers of antiquity. .
CONTENTS. Under this head, we have only to refer to a few facts in these books, to prove their antiquity, &c. 1. The very mode of writing in the last four books, proves that the author was contemporary with the events he records: the frequent genealogies which occur in the Pentateuch, form a strong proof of its anti
quity; and that they were made from original materials, 2. The distribution of property by tribes and families, proves that some such catalogues of families, as are found in the Pentateuch, must have existed at the very first division of the country; these must have been carefully preserved, because the property of every family was unalienable, since, if sold, it was to return to the original family at each year of Jubilee. They therefore impart to the entire history all the authenticity of such a public register. (Horne.) Lastly, the frequent repetitions, too, which occur in the Pentateuch, and the neglect of order in delivering the precepts, are strong proofs, that it has come down to us precisely as it was written by Moses, at various times, and upon different occasions, during the long abode of the Israelites in the wilderness. Had the Pentateuch been re-written by any later hand, there would, in all probability, have been the appearance of greater exactness: its contents would have been digested into better order, and would not have abounded with so many repetitions, apparent contradictions, and improbabilities. See Samaritan Pentateuch.
PEOPLE. See Mankind.
PERSECUTION, never was sanctioned, much less authorised, by the Lord, or by his apostles; but is in die rect opposition to His and their injunctions, instructions, and example. The command " return good for evil,” at once lays the axe at the root of every argument that could be advanced in favour of persecution. Innumerable are the passages of Scripture condemnatory of persecution, in any shape, or for any object. A few may suffice. “When they persecute you in one city, flee ye to another.". So far from persecution being tolerated here, that even resistance is actually forbidden. The reprimand given by the Lord on Peter's cutting off the ear of the servant of the high priest, (Matt. xxv. 52,) is remarkable—"all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword.” Again, the Lord's reply to Pilate, (John, xviii. 36,)“ my kingdom is not of this world: if niy kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight,” &c., plainly exhibits the mind of the Great Author of Christianity himself, on this subject. Lastly, the language of the apostle Paul, in his epistles to the Corinthians, and Ephesians, exhibits the kind of warfare in which Christians were to be engaged; the kind of weapons they were to use, and the means they were to adopt in propagating Christianity. “ The weapons of our warfare,” said he, “ are not carnal but spiritual; yet mighty through God, to the pulling down of strong holds; casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ." (2 Cor. x. 4, 5.) “For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places." With what weapons? “The loins girt about with truth”—“ a breastplate of righteousness”—“the feet shod with the preparation of the GOSPEL OF PEACE”—“ the shield of faith"-"the helmet of salvation”—" and the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God.” (Eph. vi. 12–18.) How like this armour is, and these weapons are, to those used in the holy (rather UNHOLY) wars?" How like the sword and faggot, with which one class of pretended Christians treated another class ! Carnal Christianity will ever require carnal weapons for its defence. But spiritual, genuine Christianity, as found in the Bible, requires no such aid; yea treats all such assistance with SOVEREIGN CONTEMPT! See Gospel. '
* PETER, and Andrew. Matthew and Mark state, that Jesus was walking by the sea of Galilee when he “ saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea, for they were fishers.” (Matt. iv. 18.) John says that they had been disciples of John the Baptist, previously to their following Christ. (John i. 36, 37;) In those accounts, there is nothing whatsoever improbable, so far from there being any thing contradictory. For in the first place, their having been John the Baptist's disciples, did not, by any means, preclude the idea of their having been also fishermen. By what means were they to subsist ? John had no fortune; was no speculator; had no church establishment; no income from any party! If he had not, no marvel that his disciples had to earn a living in their ordinary business. John merely relates when first John the Baptist pointed out Christ to them. (i. 36.) They then go and spend that day with him (which evidently implies they did not finally remain,) “ for it was then the tenth hour.” (4 o'clock, P. M.) John i. 39. But it does not by any means follow, that they then continued with Christ, but rather went to their usual business, that of fishing, till Jesus saw them again, on the occasion mentioned in Matthew iv. 18, when he called them to follow him, and they then "straightway left their nets and followed him.” (ver. 20.)
PHARAOH. How did God harden his heart? In the same way that He hardens the hearts of millions, viz: by forbearance, by indulgence, and by not taking vengeance for their rebellion. How often it occurs that we actually harden men's hearts by kindness? Does not indulgence towards a child often harden its heart, and make it stubborn ? And the mildness of an insulted and injured man, towards his persecutor, is often by him attributed to cowardice; and thus his heart is hardened. In this way, and in no other, does God harden the hearts of men. Such mercy and forbearance from God to men ought, were they not under Satanic influence, to produce the utmost contrition and gratitude. See Language.
PHENOMENA. At the Crucifixion, the preternatural darkness, and the earthquake, which took place on that occasion, have been noticed by, 1. Phlegon, a pagan chronologist, who wrote during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, and whose testimony is cited by Tertullian, Origen, and Eusebius. 2. By Thallus, who lived in the second century, who is cited by Julius Africanus. 3. By Tertullian, who in his apology for the Christians, addressed to the Governors of the Roman Empire, says, in reference to the darkness, “ Which WONDER IS RELATED IN YOUR OWN ANNALS, AND IS PRESERVED IN YOUR ARCHIVES TO THIS DAY.” What man in his senses would have thus appealed, in a petition, to records, if such records had not been then in existence? Such conduct would have not only exposed him to be charged with falsehood; but would, to a certainty, have nullified the object of his petition. 4. and lastly. That acute enemy to Christianity, Celsus, explicitly recognised and mentioned, as Facts, both the darkness and the earthquake, at the crucifixion.
In Fleming's Christology, it is stated that a deist, lately visiting the sacred places of Palestine, was shown the cleft of Mount Calvary Examining them narrowly and critically, he turned in amazement to his fellow travellers,