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the holding of Annapolis Royal in particular will be establishing to his Majesty the Mastery of the Northern Part of this Continent against the French, Secure to him inexhaustible Nurseries of Masts, Yards, Bowsprits & other Stores for his Navy, & Timber for Ship building within his Northern Colonies independent of any foreign State to be purchased with British Manufactures & transported in British Vessels

- that the Inhabitants of the Northern Colonies would in time make such an Addition of Subjects to the Crown of Great Britain as would make their number Superior to that of any Prince's upon the Continent of Europe; and in the meanwhile the Vent of Woolen & other British Manufactures, & all Kinds of European Commodities imported into the Colonies from Great Britain must increase in proportion to the Increase of their Inhabitants: by all which means the main Sources of Wealth, & a larger Extent of Power by Sea & Land than any State in Christendom at present enjoys, seems capable of being secur'd to his Majes's Dominions; But which will in the End otherwise be in all human Probability the Lot of the french Dominions; And I would in particular observe to your Grace the most practicable Step the Enemy can attempt making towards their obtaining that seems clearly to be their rendring themselves Masters of Nova Scotia, the Consequences of wch would give 'em so strong an hold upon this Continent as would make it difficult to dislodge 'em & put it very much in their power to harrass & annoy his Majtys Colonies both by Land & Sea, in such man. ner as to weaken 'em extremely, if not by degrees finally subdue 'em.

“I am with the most dutiful Regards,
“My Lord Duke,
“ Your Grace's most devoted
"and obedient Servant



(Extract.) "... I would beg Leave to observe to your Grace, ył the Danger to his Majesty's garrison arises chiefly from within the heart of the government itself, the Inhabitants & neighboring Indians whose Numbers are sufficient of themselves with a small assistance from Canada & the help of a proper Train of Artillery, slipt up the Bay in small Vessells (wch would give 'em great Encouragement to take up Arms age the garrison) to reduce it. However while the Attempt against Canada is depending, that will certainly go far towards holding the Inhabitants of Nova Scotia in suspense, till the success of it is known; & I hope by next Spring they may either be put upon a better foot of Subjection, or the most dangerous among 'em removed. ..."


(Extract.) “... I may assure your Grace y one of the principal motives I had to desire I might succeed General Phillips in his Command, was the hopes I have of it's putting it in my power to promote his Majesty's Service in his Province of Acadie, or Nova Scotia by securing the fidelity & Allegiance of the Inhabitants there to his Majesty's Government in the best manner, and thereby preventing the French from making themselves masters of it, the Acquisition of woh to them with the help of the Indians would likewise endanger the Loss of the Province of New Hampshire & the Mast Country to his Majesty with the Fishery of the Acadie or Cape Sable's Shoar, including that of Canso, to his Subjects here in present, & should not Canada be reduc'd, would enable the enemy to harrass & Diminish all his Majesty's Colonies & on the Continent, & have an inevitable Tendency to make themselves masters of the whole of it in time; not to mention the Continual Danger, wch their possession of Nova Scotia would at the same time expose Cape Breton & even Newfoundland to.

“ The Considerations have induc'd me to take the Liberty of submitting it to your Grace, whether it might not be for his Majesty's Service, that before the six Regiments to be employ'd ag Canada return to England, orders may be sent that such part of 'em as shall be thought necessary to assist in removing the most obnoxious of the French Inhabitants of Nova Scotia from thence, should be employ'd in that Service, we would not take up much time; I am not certain whether a sufficient Strength might not be spar'd from the Garrison at Louisbourg a short time for this purpose, weh if it could, would make the Assistance of any other Troops needless.

“And I would particularly submit it to your Grace's Consideration, whether in case of any Disappoinment in the present Attempt for the reduction of Canada, the immediate removal of some at least of the French Inhabitants of Nova Scotia, & securing the province in the best manner would not be ... adviseable and even necessary.

“ If your Grace should think this deserves so much of your Attention there will be time enough for transmitting his Majesty's Commands to me upon it before the present Expedition is over. “I am with the most Dutifull Regard

“My Lord Duke
" Your Grace's most Devoted
" & most obedient Servant


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(Extract.) “I must acknowledge I should rather apprehend the french Fleet (if it is design’d for North America) is order'd to Canada; or else to Annapolis Royal, where the Enemy may depend that upon the Apperance of such an Armament the french Inhabitants of Nova Scotia (to the Amount of between 5 & 6000 fighting men) and a considerable Number of Indians & some Canadeans, would immediately join em, and they would have a most convenient Country to rendezvous in within a very few days sail of Chappeaurouge Bay at Cape Breton, and be not far from Canada, than that they should attempt to enter Louisbourg Harbour with their Ships; and I am the more inclin'd to this Opinion from the Accounts I have receiv'd lately from M' Mascarene, and the Officers of the Garrison at Annapolis Royal which inform me that the french Inhabitants at Menis & Schiegneto (in Nova Scotia) have cut off all communication with the garrison for these last five Weeks, and have stop'd the Messengers sent from thence by M Mascarene for Intelligence; being in Expectation of an Armament from France; And indeed it seems probable that this will for ever be the Case; and that the Province of Nova Scotia will never be out of Danger, whilst the french Inhabitants are suffer'd to remain in Nova Scotia upon their presert Foot of Subjection."


(Extract.) " I shall finish my troubleing your Grace upon the Affairs of Nova Scotia with this Letter after having once more Cause either two

Men each to be bothe Garrison'd ou

Submitted it to your Grace's Consideration as a proper Scheme for better securing the Subjection of the French Inhabitants and Indians there; that the Governour & Council or such other Person or Persons as his Majesty shall think fitt to join with 'em, should have a special authority and directions from his Majesty, forthwith to Apprehend & Examine a convenient number of such of the Inhabitants, as shall be by them judg’d to be most obnoxious & Dangerous to his Majesty's Government, & upon finding 'em guilty of holding any treasonable Correspondence with the Enemy &c to dispose of them & their Estates in such manner, as his Majesty shall order by his Commissions and to promise his Majesty's Gracious Pardon & a general Indemnity to the Rest for what is past upon their taking the Oaths of Allegiance to his Majesty; And to Cause either two strong Blockhouses (or small Forts) capable of holding 100 Men each to be Built, one in Menis & the other in Schiegnecto, which may be Garrison'd out of Phillip's Regiment when Compleated, or else that at least one Blockhouse (or small Fort) should be Built at Menis capable of holding 150 men; and a trading house be kept at the Fort at Menis or some other part of the Province well Stock'd with all proper Supplies for the Indians to be sold or barter'd to 'em for Furrs &c at the most reasonable Rates, and some presents annually distributed to 'em: by which means and removing the Romish Priests out of the Province, & introducing Protestant English Schools, and French Protestant Ministers, and due encouragement given to such of the Inhabitants, as shall Conform to the Protestant Religion, and send their Children to the English Schools, the present Inhabitants might probably at least be kept in Subjection to his Majesty's Government, and from treasonable correspondencies with the Canadians; and the next Generation in a

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