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goes to England in the Chester, and with whom, pursuant to the Directions of your Grace's two Letters to me in March & April last, I have acted in Concert upon all such Occasions as requir'd my consulting him with the greatest Satisfaction and Harmony, having had the pleasure to find my own Sentiments agreable to his in all Matters of Consequence, and a most hearty Disposition in him for his Majesty's Service, and to whom I have often talk'd over the Affairs of Nova Scotia.
"I will avoid repeating what I have particularly mention'd to your Grace in late Letters concerning fortifying of Chebucto Harbour and building a Blockhouse or small Fort for 150 Men at Menis, with a Trading House there for the Indians, and a Blockhouse only at Canso for 100 Men, instead of new building and enlarging that at Annapolis Royal, and erecting a larger Fortification at Canso; which in my humble Opinion would greatly strengthen that Province, and together with the introducing of french Protestant Ministers, and English Schools, & some small Encouragement by Privileges to such as should conform to the Prtestant Religion, or send their Children to the English Schools, and Presents to the Indians with Supplies of all necessaries for 'em at the most reasonable Rates, in Exchange for their Furrs &? ; the Disallowance of the publick Exercise of the Roman Catholic Religion, at least after a short Term of Years, & forbidding Romish Priests under severe Penalties to come into the Country either among the Inhabitants or Indians; and if it might be consistent with his Majesty's Pleasure, a Civil Government to be in due time introduc'd among the Inhabitants; These things, I say, my Lord together with making Examples of the most obnoxious among the Inhabitants, and his Majesty's extending his Clemency and the Continuance of his Protection to the rest upon taking the proper Oath of Allegiance, seem to me to have the most promising Aspect for making good Subjects of the present Generation of Inhabitants, at least better than they are now and good Protestants of the next Generation of 'em; especially if there was to be a Mixture of English or other Protestants introduc'd among 'em, which the Invitation of a Civil Government to be set up among 'em would bid fair for doing: and the Trading House would create in the Indians a firm Dependance upon, and Attachment to his Majesty's Government, especially if a proper Protestant Missionary or two was supported to live among 'em at their head Quarters, as is the Method of the french Priests; by wch means they gain so great an Ascendency over them.
"Just as I had finished the last Paragraph a Letter from Governor Knowles to Admiral Warren & myself, dated the 10th Instant, was deliver'd to me, in which he informs me that he has given his Opinion in his Letters to your Grace, that it will be necessary to drive all the French (I suppose he means Inhabitants) out of Accadie (Nova Scotia) in the
Spring, and that he hopes he shall have Orders to assist ‘in doing it, if Admiral Warren does not go upon the • Expedition to Quebeck, which he apprehends is rendred
more difficult than it was, by such a Number of Ships be‘ing got safe up to Quebeck this Year, as no doubt they ' have carried all manner of warlike Stores.' And in his Letter to me of the 24th of October he says “if his Majesty should be pleas'd to transport the Rebels who are Objects of his Mercy, & encourage other Highland Families to come over, he thinks the Colony of Nova Scotia would soon be repeopled; ' which it is possible he may have also propos'd to your Grace as in his Opinion the best Method for peopling that Colony, after the present french Inhabitants are drove off.
“As the Sentiments, which I have taken the Liberty to offer to your Grace upon this Subject, happen to be something different from M: Knowles's, I think it may not only be proper but my Duty to mention the Reasons of my preferring the Scheme for attempting to make the present french Inhabitants good Subjects to his Majesty, and keeping 'em in the Country, to that of driving 'em off & introducing some of the Rebels and other Highlanders in their Room.
“It seems very difficult to drive all the Inhabitants of Accadie out of so large a Province as that is, and which consists chiefly of Woods; It is most probable that many of the hardiest Men would retire (for some time at least) with their Cattle into the Woods, & form Parties with the Indians; and the remainder would doubtless retreat with their Families to Canada: Those, who are acquainted with the Indian Manner of Life & making War know that one hundred of 'em under Cover of the Woods can confine a very large Frontier within their Garrisons, even tho' they have Companies continually scouting between one Garrison and another: this is at present the Case of this Province & the other Colonies of New England & New York, tho' the People there are us'd to the Woods, & the Skulking of the Indians behind the Bushes & in Ditches with their other Wiles, & have large numbers of the Militia constantly upon Guard for their Protection; their Cattle is continually destroy'd; if any of 'em venture out into their Fields, they are frequently kill'd & scalp'd; and sometimes not only single Families or Garrisons are surpriz’d and cut off, as has happen'd lately in this Province, but even whole Vil. lages, as was the Case of Sarahtoga in New York a few Months ago; so that those of the french Inhabitants, who should mix with the Indians in the Woods, would have it in their power to put his Majesty's Garrison under such Circumstances as that it could not possibly subsist longer in the Country than they could do it without fresh Provisions, Wood & other Materials & Supplies from thence; from all which they would be wholly cut off, when the Inhabitants were drove away; And as to such of the Inhabitants, who should go with their Families to Canada, it must be expected that a very large Body of the Men would return arm'd next Spring with some Canadeans to join the Indians; from all which it seems justly to be apprehended that an Attempt to drive all the french Inhabitants from their Settlements, should it succeed, would in Effect be driving 5 or 6000 Men to take up Arms against his Majesty's Government there every Year during the War; make the reclaiming of the Indians of Nova Scotia impracticable, & render it impossible for his Majesty's Garrison there to subsist long in the Country in time of War even with the Indians only; Besides, the Addition of about 6000 fighting Men with their Families to Canada, which would greatly strengthen the French upon this Continent, and would entail upon the Posterity of those who are thus expell’d (for several Generations at least) a Desire of recovering their former Possessions in Nova Scotia, seems to be no inconsiderable Matter, but what next to the Loss of the Country itself should be avoided on the Part of his Majesty, & is I dare say an Event, which the French next to their Acquisition of this Colony would desire: It is indeed now to be wish'd that General Nicholson had upon the first Reduction of the Colony to the Obedience to the Crown of Great Britain, remov'd the french Inhabitants, when they were but a few, out of the Country, as was done at Louisbourg; and that during the Interval of Peace the Colony had been planted with Protestant Subjects; But after their having remain'd so long in the Country upon the foot of British Subjects under the Sanction of the treaty
of Utrecht, and making Improvements on their Lands for one or two Generations, and being grown up into such a Number of Families, to drive 'em all off their Settlements without farther Inquiry seems to be liable to many Objections. Among others it may be doubted whether under the Circumstances of these Inhabitants it would clearly appear to be a just Usage of 'em; it is true that the Notion of their Neutrality (which seems to have been entertain’d for some time by the English as well as themselves) is illgrounded, and does not comport with the Terms of their Allegiance to his Majesty, to which such of 'em as chose to remain in the Province are bound by the treaty of Utrecht; whereby the french King yielded up the Inhabitants as well as the Soil of Accadie, and together with their Persons transferred their Allegiance to the Crown of Great Britain; But if it is consider'd that this Notion was founded upon an Act of the late Lieut Governour Armstrong then the residing Commander in Chief of the Province, whereby he took upon himself to grant 'em by a Writing under his Hand an Exemption from bearing Arms upon any Account whatever, on their consenting to take an Oath of Allegiance to his present Majesty, which, whether it was done by him with, or without Authority, appear'd at least to them to be authentick; it may perhaps be deem'd too rigorous a Punishment for their behavior grounded on such a Mistake, to involve the innocent with the Guilty in the Loss of their Estates, and the Expulsion of their Families out of the Country; it is not improbable but that there may be many among 'em who would even prefer his Majesty's Governm! to a french one, & have done nothing to deserve such a Forfeiture; Some Allowances may likewise be made for their bad Situation between the Canadeans, Indians & English, the Ravages of all which they have felt by Turns in the Course of the War; during which they