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perhaps by centuries, than that which must forever go on. We welcome the history records. ...

theories wroughť out in new hope, but “ There has never lived a generation we cling to the assurance founded on of men possessing such wealth of historic experience. All that is, is not bad; all materials, such capacity for candid anal- that is to be, will not be ideal. We ysis, such broad experience to guide cannot lift the veil to the future, but we them in right determination, as the gen- can analyze and understand what has eration to which we belong. Likewise gone before. It is good to keep our feet there has been none which confronted firmly on the earth, though we gaze in more complex and difficult problems. high hope for human brotherhood and Therefore I like to commend study of the high attainments. history which began here at Plymouth “Just as the Pilgrims had a practical in its relations to the sweep of modern mind for material things amid effective affairs. It teaches us that sometimes pursuit of their higher ideals, so must schism may lead to true solidarity; that we with our inheritance. God never indivision may mean multiplication. tended an achievement without great ef

"We stand today before the unknown, fort; there is no reward without great but we look to the future with confidence“ labor. Freedom is the field of endeavor, unshaken. There is no retracing; we not the fancied abode of idleness."

Must Elect New Congress, Says

"Reformer" N

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OAH W. COOPER and his com

“ Our Southern folks are for it. We hope

the North and West are too. mittee of twenty-five, represent


have all to gain and nothing to lose from this ing the Southern Methodist

law. If this Congress does not pass the law, Conferences, waited upon Congress on we must elect a Congress that will." July 13 and 14, and presented their bill

The proposed national Sunday law as for a drastic national Sunday law, to

printed in the Congressional Record gether with a lengthy petition which

reads as follows: was printed in the Congressional Record

Be it enacted, etc.: of July 13. Their proposed national

“1. Hereafter it shall be unlawful for any Sunday law was so “ blue” that it would

person in the employment of the United States almost make indigo look white by con- to work or carry on his ordinary vocation on trast. Consequently they could not find


“ 2. It shall be unlawful for any person or a Congressman who would champion

corporation to operate on Sunday any freight their measure. Being beaten and de

or passenger train, or mail train, or any other feated in their efforts to engraft their

train or part of a train, on Sunday, in the religious notions upon the nation through carrying on of interstate commerce, trade, or a Federal law, Mr. Cooper and his com

traffic of any kind.

“ 3. It shall be unlawful for any post office to mittee went to New York City to reform

be open on Sunday or to deliver mail on Sunthat " wicked city," as a New York paper day; it shall be unlawful for any mail to be puts it, but received a very “cold recep- carried or delivered on Sunday by any emtion,” and according to the Evening ployee of the United States, whether in city

or country. World, Mr. Cooper, in the course of a

« 4. It shall be unlawful for any newspaper farewell statement referring to his pro

or other paper or publication published or posed national Sunday law, said:

purporting to be published on Sunday to be


Photo, U. & U., N. Y.
Supreme Court Justice Frank S. Gannon, Second District of New York, Spearing in a

Group of Men and Women as Citizens of the United States

received, carried, or delivered as mail by any vided, however, That emergency instances of agency of the United States, in any post office, charity and necessity are not included nor punor over any route under the jurisdiction of the ishable under the provisions of this aet." United States.

Congressional Record, July 13, 1921. “5. It shall be unlawful for any person or corporation engaged in interstate commerce or

Mr. Cooper says that nineteen Methcarrying on any business or vocation under the odist conferences of the Southern States laws of or with the permission or license from are backing up this proposed bill. It is the United States, or any of its agencies, to do

purely a church measure seeking to enor carry on ordinary vocation or business on

force the church discipline concerning Sunday, the purpose of this act being to express our national determination to honor the Sab- Sunday observance upon all the citizens bath day and keep it holy as God commands, of the United States, and this for purely thereby securing for all that opportunity for

religious reasons. spiritual and bodily refreshment decreed by our Lord for the happiness of all men and the

Mr. Cooper further charges in his safety of all nations.

petition, which was printed in the Con“6. Any person who does any of the things gressional Record, supporting this reabove declared unlawful, or who procures or aids another in doing any of the things above

ligious measure, that all the wars, declared unlawful, shall be guilty of a misde

calamities, accidents, sins, and crimes meanor and punished upon conviction by due which have formed a part of our past process of law by a fine of not under $100 nor history are due to

due to a disregard of over $10,000 for each offense and by imprison

proper Sunday observance, and if his ment for not over six months, in the discretion of the court.

proposed national Sunday law is en7. And any corporation that does or aids acted, all these disturbances will disapin doing these forbidden things shall, upon pear. This is the same old argument that conviction, befined not less than $1,000 nor

the persecutors of medieval times adover $100,000 for each offense, and, upon con

vanced against those who did not agree viction a second time for like offense, shall forfeit its charter and franchise and be enjoined

with their church-and-state régime of from operating in interstate commerce: Pro- compulsory religion. All the ills of life were charged up against dissenters and would even take life to enforce upon nonconformists, and the most cruel pun

their fellow men their views of proper ishments were justified on this basis. Sabbath keeping. Even the earthquakes and storms were The Jews sought to kill Christ becharged up against so-called heretics, cause He would not observe the Saband many innocent people were legally bath in harmony with their notions. executed, while others were slain by They put their loyalty to the Sabbath mobs whenever these natural disturb- above the value of human life. They ances took place.

worshiped the Sabbath instead of "the And this is what Mr. Cooper advo- Lord of the Sabbath." They were so cates. Listen to this statement in the jealous about their religious creed and petition: “Murdering the Sabbath is traditions that they sought every opworse than murdering men.” Again he portunity to have them enforced upon says that the man who does not observe unwilling subjects under the severest Sunday is "stabbing" God and "dig. penalties. ging the grave of his

.. nation.”

When the tower of Siloam fell and Thus he lays both the charges of "mur

mur- killed eighteen persons, these selfder” and of “ treason " against the man righteous Jews charged them with bewho refuses to observe Sunday in har- ing "sinners above all men that dwelt mony with his notions. If refusal to in Jerusalem." But the Saviour deobserve Sunday is worse than murder, nied this puerile charge, and placed then, according to the philosophy of the providences of God above the petty these reformers, no punishment is too notions and whims of superstitious men, severe and cruel, even hanging and the who assumed the air and spirit of "I am electric chair being proper penalties for holier than thou.” It is very evident all who for any reason refuse or even that the sect of the Pharisees did not all neglect to keep Sunday.

die in the days of Christ. Mr. Cooper claims that if Congress This modern champion of enforced refuses to enact his bill into law, the

religion is anxious to establish a second nation and government will go to de

theocracy upon the earth, with his own struction, and even Christianity will

church as the mouthpiece and representacome to naught and the Christian church

tive of Jehovah. He would like, perhaps, be blotted out of existence, and anarchy,

to occupy the place of Phinehas, clothed tyranny, and bankruptcy reign supreme with an armor and sword to hew the everywhere. In his closing appeal in his Midianites and Benjamites to pieces. petition to Congress, he says:

But he has evidently forgotten that God “God calls our nation as He called Israel

Himself abolished the theocracy of Isto be a light to all the world, to carry His sal

rael and said it was to exist no more ration to the ends of the earth. If we fail to save the Sabbath [Sunday], we lose all. If our

until He shall come whose right it is to nation fails to honor it and teach it to all take the scepter and to reign forever and people, soon our boasted treasures and liberties

forever. But observe that this scripture will be torn away like Solomon's temple. And

refers to the second coming of Christ in the Babylon of ruin our enslaved posterity

and not His first advent. will weep over the folly of their God-defying, Sabbath-breaking forefathers. Oh, we beg you

It is not the business of the civil govto help us turn back! Now is the accepted

ernment to teach the Sabbath and to time; now is the day of salvation."

carry the salvation of God to all the ends This is a striking illustration of the of the earth. The commission of teaching length to which even good men will go, the gospel of salvation from sin has been impelled by a false zeal for their moral

intrusted to the church and not to the ideals and religious dogmas. As in the state, to the chosen ambassadors of Jesus case of the Jewish leaders of Christ's Christ and not to the civil ambassadors day, these modern pseudo-reformers of the nations.

Mr. Cooper and his coreligionists fail against these drastic proposals to ento draw a distinction between divine and croach upon the rights of honest and uphuman government, between the specific right dissenters and citizens. When the functions of the church and the proper Constitutional guaranties of civil and refunctions of the state, between religious ligious liberty are so boldly assailed, we obligations and civil duties, and between deem it our patriotic and Christian duty man's relationship to God and his secular to warn the people of the dangers which relationship with civil society. They con- threaten the Constitutional provisions fuse and confound the duties set forth which were enacted in defense of human on the first table of the decalogue with rights. those of the second table. The first four The danger is not so much that this commandments, written on the first table, proposed bill will pass in this session of are duties we owe exclusively to God, and Congress, but that a compromise Sunday with these the civil government has abso- observance measure of a milder characlutely nothing to do so far as their en- ter will be enacted as an entering wedge forcement or punishment of their viola- for more drastic legislation along this tion is concerned. The civil magistrate line a little later. This is the scheme of can deal only with men relative to the the “professional reformer” who is loblast six commandments of the second bying Congress in behalf of Sunday legistable, which reguląte a man's proper re- lation. Herein lies our real danger. The lationship with his fellow man, and then “reformers ” are working now for a Sunonly with overt acts. When man invades day law for the District of Columbia the rights of his fellows, then the civil which is to be followed with a national magistrate has not only a right but a Sunday law for the whole nation. There duty to step in and protect the rights of fore we ask every lover of religious libthat man, but the civil authorities cannot erty to send in his protest against the two of right control a man's conduct toward compulsory Sunday observance bills now God so long as in exercising his religion pending in Congress for the District of he does not invade the equal rights of Columbia, namely, S. 1948 and H. R. others.

4388. If any desire petition blanks to A failure to recognize this distinction secure signatures against these Sunday in the past has led to a union of church bills, we shall be glad to forward the and state and to all the cruel religious same upon application. Let us defend persecutions of the past. Let us keep the and guard our glorious democracy and church out of politics. It is high time to our Constitutional freedom, for now as voice a very earnest protest against this never before eternal vigilance is the proposed national Sunday law, and price of liberty."

Plea to Bring Back 6 Blue”



dispatch of the Associated Press
at the last General Assembly

meeting of the Presbyterians at Winona Lake, Ind., says:

“ The Sunday law question was thrown before the Presbyterian General Assembly by H. L. Bowlby, secretary of the Lord's Day Alliance, also the chairman of the Presbyterian Committee on Sabbath (Sunday] Observance,

and in his report he said: “The battleground of the church is on the field of the Christian Sabbath. . . . We have already warned the leading ministers of the country that the most dangerous movement against the American Sunday in fifty years is now in progress. This should stir the blood of every American patriot, and certainly every American Christian.

« Close up the movie theater, shut the gates of the ball parks, lock the doors of many places of business, and this paramount problem of the attendance at divine services compulsory churches will be well on its way to solution.'”

in an indirect way? They would get Dr. Bowlby evidently agrees with the about as much good out of a religion of sentiment expressed by Rev. S. V. Leech, this sort, as the boys did whose father D. D., in the Homiletic Review, when he knocked them down on their knees for gave the reason why Sunday laws were

prayers with a club every time they rewanted, as follows:

fused to bow the knee when they had “Give us good Sunday laws, well enforced worship. After they left the parental by men in local authority, and our churches will

roof, the boys refused to take to religion be full of worshipers, and our young men and women will be attracted to the divine service.

and the father said: “I can't understand A mighty combination of the churches of the why my boys don't take to religion. I United States could win from Congress, the tried to bring them up right. When they State legislatures, and municipal councils, all

refused to bow in worship, I would knock legislation essential to this splendid result.”

them down on their knees.” This shows clearly that these profes- Force never made any one religious, sional reformers are seeking legislation to but it does make hypocrites for the time fill the church pews on Sunday. But how out of those who are willing to sell their much good will the people get out of the soul to save their skin. We do not quessermon when they have been literally tion the sincerity of the men who are chained and shackled through the preach- in this Sunday movement, but we do er's request by a Sunday law which made discount their judgment. C. S. L.

An American Theocracy

By Mrs. M. E. Steward


HE Puritan theocracy of Massa- land, he was thoroughly indoctrinated in chusetts had its start in connection Calvin's theology. Here he founded the

with the Reformation of the six- sect of Presbyterians, a part of whose teenth century. John Calvin, who lived members went to the north of Ireland. at that time, was a French Roman Cath- From these two bodies in Scotland and olic. He studied civil law and the Bible, Ireland, many emigrated to America, and and became a Reformer, with headquar- settled in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaters at Geneva.

ware, New Jersey, and Virginia. Some While Catholicism paid no attention of these crossed the mountains into Kento heart work, proselyting by cities and tucky and Tennessee. These all still hold countries en masse, Calvin held strongly in varying degrees to a union of civil auto personal religion. But when he left thority with the ecclesiastical, and from the Catholics, he took with him their be- them have sprung the men who today lief in a union of church and state. He are leading this country toward a union was himself both persecuted and a per- of church and state. secutor. He showed no mercy to the Under the English persecution, hunZwinglians, and secured the condemna- dreds left their native country. Many tion of Michael Servetus, burned at the went to Geneva. Among them was Cartstake, Oct. 27, 1553.

wright, their leader. He received from When persecution of the Protestants Calvin his religious tenets. On Cartbroke out in Scotland, John Knox fled wright's return to England, he became to Geneva, where he studied five years the founder of the Congregationalists, with Calvin. When he returned to Scot- who, like the Presbyterians, believe in

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