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of the whole catalogue of duties specified in
Our Duty When Conflict Arises the ten commandments. Those of them which
Mr. Simmons then told Judge Graare purely and exclusively religious in their
ham, who had by this time become connature cannot be, or be made, civil duties, but all the rest of them may be, in so far as they versational and interested, that the Bible involve conduct as distinguished from mere condemns the enforcement of any law of operations of mind, or states of affections." the land which attempts to regulate one's
Judge Graham concurred with the duties to his God. He showed that in opopinion of Chief Justice Bleckley, and position to the Roman law, which forsupported his position by stating that bade the teaching of any new religion, Christ respected the law of the land when the disciples preached the gospel and He sent one of His disciples to the fish sealed their faith with their blood. The to get the coin to
reason given for pay His taxes.
this opposition was Distinction Between WHY SUNDAY LAWS ARE
that Christianity Religious and Civil
unsettled the Duties “Give us good Sunday laws,
minds of men, and Mr. Simmons well enforced by men in local au- tended to render
thority, and our churches will be then told the court
civil institutions full of worshipers, and our young that he believed it men and women will be attracted
less stable. But to be in harmony
to the divine service. A mighty when Peter and
combination of the churches of with the teachings
John were brought the United States could win from of the Bible for all Congress, the State legislatures,
before the authoriChristian people to
and municipal councils, all legis- ties for teaching
lation essential to this splendid pray for and to result."- Rev. 8. 7. Leech, D. D.,
and preaching in honor those in au- in the Homiletic Review for Novem- the name of Jesus, thority, and to ber, 1892.
they exclaimed: obey the laws of
“ We ought to obey the land so long as
God rather than those laws are not in conflict with the men.” Because the faithful followers of law of God.
Christ did preach the gospel in opposiIt is both right, and good religion to tion to the law of the land, and did pay debts, including taxes. When Chief obey God rather than men,” we are Justice Bleckley applied this principle enlightened and Christianized by the to the whole ten commandments in jus- beautiful religion we tification of laws enacted by the state to The experience of the three Hebrew enforce all the ten commandments, the children was then presented to the Court. Honorable Court was in error. The first Mr. Simmons emphasized the fact that four commandments, including the Sab- the law of Nebuchadnezzar, requiring all bath commandment, regulate one's du- his subjects at a certain time to bow to ties to his God, and the state has no the great image, was contrary to the first right to legislate concerning them. The and second commandments of the decalast six commandments tell of one's du- logue, and the miraculous deliverance ties to his fellows as well as to God, and from the burning fiery furnace of the in so far as they can be enforced they three Hebrews who refused obedience to are proper subjects for legislation. The the king's decree, attested God's approval observance of the Sabbath is "purely of their loyalty to Him. When King and exclusively religious," and could not Nebuchadnezzar exclaimed, “The form be rightfully and constitutionally en- of the fourth is like the Son of God,” he forced directly or indirectly under pre- gave evidence of the fact that Christ tense of regulating civil conduct.
himself came down from the courts of
heaven, and entered the fiery furnace with His three faithful followers, delivering them in vindication of the superiority of His law over civil legislation.
The case of Daniel was also cited. Darius, the Medo-Persian king, issued a decree making the offering of prayer or the presenting of a petition to any one but the king a capital offense for thirty
“ The question is whether the Act of 1762 was not repealed by the Tenth Section of Arti. cle IV of the constitution of Georgia. Does not this act give those religious societies which believe that the Lord's day' is the first day of the week a preference over those which believe that 'the Lord's day' is the seventh day of the week? If it does, it is in conflict with that section. These questions we do not determine, that not being necessary in the view we take of the case."
“During nearly all our American history the churches have influenced the States to make and improve Sabbath laws."— Rev. W. F. Crafts, in the Christian Statesman, July 3, 1890.
days. Notwithstanding this unchange
Correct View of the Lord's Day able law, Daniel, as his custom was, three Mr. Simmons further proceeded to times a day prayed to the God of heaven show the Court that the law in question with his face toward Jerusalem. His reveals its religious character by requirtrial and condemnation resulted in his ing cessation from labor on “the Lord's sentence to the lions' den, where he re- day.” Religionists differ as to which mained unharmed overnight. Daniel ex- day of the week is "the Lord's day." plained to the king why he was miracu
Some say Sunday is “the Lord's day,” lously delivered : “My God hath sent His in commemoration of the resurrection of angel, and hath shut the lions' mouths, Christ. The defendant in this case bethat they have not hurt me.”
lieves the Sabbath, the seventh day of Mr. Simmons emphasized the fact that the week, is “the Lord's day," because God sent His angel to deliver Daniel from God in His commandment says, “the sevthe penalty of that presumptuous and enth day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy tyrannical law which the king had no God." In harmony with this, Isaiah 58: right to make. This interposition of 13 reads: "If thou turn away thy foot God in behalf of His faithful servant was from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasfurther evidence of the inability of the ure on My holy day.” The defendant state rightfully to legislate against or holds that the State had no right by law
“ The experience of centuries shows that you will in vain endeavor to preserve Sunday as a day of rest, unless you preserve it as a day of worship."— Dr. Joseph Cook, in Boston Monday Lectures," 1887.
for the enforcement of any of the first to determine which day is “the Lord's four commandments of the decalogue. day," and that to the individual consci
ence should be left the decision of that Sunday Laws Unconstitutional
question. Mr. Simmons then argued that not- Judge Graham referred to the diverwithstanding the numerous decisions by gence of religious faith. Mr. Simmons the supreme court of Georgia upholding replied that because of this confusion evthe constitutionality of the Georgia Sun- ery citizen should be given the freedom day law, it still remained an open ques- of choice. tion whether the Sunday law was in vio- According to the rules of the highest lation of the Constitution. In support of court in the State, in the case of Gunn his position he referred to the obiter vs. State, 89 Ga., p. 341, it is held that dictum expression of Chief Justice Sim- “Sunday" and "the Sabbath day" are mons in the case of Sanders vs. Johnson, synonymous. “Sunday,"
“Sunday,” “the Sabbath 29 Ga., p. 526:
day," and "the Christian Sabbath" are
frequently used interchangeably. Sun- that they work six days as it is that they rest
on the seventh. And if their conscience comday is called the “ Christian Sabbath " by many because Christ rose on the first
pels them to rest one day, and the law forces
them to also rest another, they would thus be day of the week. The defendant, S. T. forced to violate the first provision of the Page, believes the seventh-day Sabbath commandment they are attempting conscienis "the Christian Sabbath,” because he tiously to keep." believes that Christ made the seventh- Court Hesitates to Condemn Sabbatarians day Sabbath at creation.
The argument in this case consumed JUDGE GRAHAM: “Do you mean to say that half a day. The judge, after carefully Christ made the Sabbath?” MR. SIMMONS:
going over the different features of the Yes, Your Honor, Christ was the active agency in the Godhead that not
case and reading from authorities on the only created the Sabbath, but also the world." question, manifested a reluctance to
JUDGE GRAHAM: “ That was before He came overrule the demurrer. He finally said: to the earth”
“The eloquent and splendid presentaMR. SIMMONS: “Yes, Your Honor, He not only made the first Sabbath, but He rested on
tion of the case by the learned counsel or kept the first Sabbath, and when He was on has been beneficial to the Court, and has earth He kept the Sabbath day that He made, been enjoyed very much. This very imand called Himself 'Lord also of the Sabbath.'
portant question has been fully and ably * All things were created by Him; and without Him was not anything made that was made.". argued, and whatever my personal views "He was in the world, and the world was made
on this question may be, it would be both by Him, and the world knew Him not.'” egotistical and presumptuous for me, as
From these texts, and others, the de- an inferior court, to rule contrary to the fendant believes as a part of his religion many decisions in our State on this questhat the seventh day of the week is "the tion."
"A weekly day of rest has never been permanently secured in any land except on the basis of religious obligation. Take the religion out, and you take the rest out." - Rev. W. F. Crafts, in “ Hearing on Sunday Rest Bill," Deo. 13, 1888, p. 21. Sabbath,” “the Lord's day," and "the The argument was made to a crowded Christian Sabbath," and he should be courtroom composed of judges, lawyers, permitted to worship Almighty God ac- jurors, litigants, and visitors. A procording to the dictates of his conscience. found impression was made on the audiThe Oklahoma Decision Favors
ence. Many lawyers congratulated Mr. Sabbatarian Rights
Simmons, and said that if they were on Mr. Simmons further argued that in
the Supreme Bench they would either order to keep the Sabbath it is impor- modify or annul the Georgia Sunday law tant not only to rest on the seventh day
so that Seventh-day Adventists could of the week, but to work on the other six keep the seventh-day Sabbath and work days. The commandment to work six the other six days according to their redays is just as imperative as the injunc- ligious convictions. tion to rest. “Six days shalt thou labor, Judge Graham spoke from the bench in and do all thy work."
complimentary terms of the high class of The opinion of Judge Brett, in the citizenship of Seventh-day Adventists, case of Kreiger et al. vs. State, 160 Pa- of the world reputation the sanitariums cific Reporter, p. 36, was read to the conducted by them are enjoying, and the Court on this point:
great respect they merit as dietitians. “But it is facetiously argued by some courts The case was dismissed upon motion by that to say to these people they shall keep our the solicitor for the State, very much to Sunday, does not prevent them from also the gratification of many of the good peokeeping the day they regard as 'holy day.' “But these courts overlook the fact that
ple of that community who were present under the divine commandment these people
at the hearing, and who firmly believe in are striving to obey, it is just as imperative liberty of conscience.
An Appeal to the Congressmen A
By the Editor
N earnest effort is being put forth destroy every immunity and guaranty of to bring to life the two compul- the rights of the individual to obey the
sory Sunday observance bills that dictates of conscience, and would impose were introduced at the beginning of the a yoke of bondage upon the American last session of Congress,- one in the Sen- people, worse than the Pharisees and ate and the other in the House of Rep- scribes of Christ's day imposed upon the resentatives.
Jewish people. We appeal to every AmerThe Lord's Day Alliance, which is ican citizen, to the American press, and represented by Dr. Harry L. Bowlby, to every Christian who loves the fundaand the International Reform Bureau, mental principles of American liberty represented by Dr. Wilbur F. Crafts, and a Christianity that does not rest are the instigators and promoters of a upon force and consequent hypocrisy, to campaign to Puritanize the District of petition his Senators and RepresentaColumbia, and ultimately the whole tives in Congress to use their influence United States. These two bills, which against the passage of these un-American they framed and caused to be introduced, and unchristian bills — S. 635 and H. prohibit all unnecessary things on Sun- · R. 12504. day. If these bills are enacted into law, We appeal to the Congressmen to they will transport the inhabitants of stand by the Constitutional guaranties the District of Columbia back to the days of civil and religious liberty which our when Puritanism held absolute sway in Constitutional forefathers handed down all things civil and religious. All Sun- to us as our heritage of freedom, and day privileges, outside of church attend- which Congress has thus far so grandly ance, will be denied them.
and nobly safeguarded whenever asBut this is only a small part of the sailed. More than one hundred sev. program. This law is to be a model law enty compulsory Sunday observance bills for the whole nation, after the battle has of more or less drastic character have been won in the District of Columbia. been introduced into Congress during This Sunday blue law for the District is the last forty years, but to date there is simply to serve as an entering wedge for not a single Sunday law upon the Feda flood of religious legislation of the most eral statute books. May Congress condrastic nature to follow. If these so- tinue to turn a deaf ear to every churchcalled “reform” societies, or rather lead- and-state measure.
Our liberties are ers, could have their way and manipulate safe as long as the church and state reCongress and our courts, it would not be main separate and religious observances long until the streams of America would are matters of choice, of faith, of piety, flow crimson with the blood of martyrs and of conscience. as they did in Europe under a union of church and state.
THE golden rule in the Old Testament Since they aim to apply these drastic is stated thus: “He hath showed thee, O “blue laws” to the whole nation as well man, what is good; and what doth the as the inhabitants of the District of Co- Lord require of thee, but to do justly, lumbia, who are helpless because of being and to love mercy, and to walk humbly disfranchised, it behooves every citizen with thy God?” Abraham Lincoln of the United States to stand up for his adopted as his creed this definition of own and his brother's rights under the true religion by the prophet Micah, but Constitutional guaranties of religious he never joined the church, because he liberty. These compulsory Sunday ob- felt the church was not walking in the servance bills, if enacted into law, would true light.
The Bluest Blue Law Yet
HE associated reform organizations are evidently determined to
carry their entire program through with a high hand, and in spite of all opposition. But the press of the country is becoming aroused, and the reformers may encounter difficulties they did not foresee.
The Washington Post of Nov. 30, 1920, contains the following:
“ Fines ranging from $100 to $10,000 and six months imprisonment are provided in the most drastie Sunday observance act ever drafted in America, which the associated reform organizations will seek to have Congress pass.
“ Corporations guilty of making their employees work Sunday or of violating the law in other ways, would be subject to a fine of not less than $1,000 nor more than $100,000; if found guilty a second time, their charter would be forfeited and they would be prohibited forever after from operating.”.
The bill sanctioned by the reformers provides :
“1. Hereafter it shall be unlawful for any person in the employment of the United States to work or carry on his ordinary vocation on Sunday.
* 2. It shall be unlawful for any person or corporation to operate on Sunday any freight or passenger train, or mail train, or any other train or part of a train, in the carrying on of interstate commerce, trade, or traffic of any kind.
"3. It shall be unlawful for any post office to be open on Sunday or to deliver mail on Sunday; it shall be unlawful for any mail to be carried or delivered on Sunday by any employee of the United States, whether in city or country.
“4. It shall be unlawful for any newspaper or other paper or publication published or purporting to be published on Sunday to be received, carried, or delivered as mail to any agency of the United States, in any post office or over any route under the jurisdiction of the United States.
"5. It shall be unlawful for any person or corporation engaged in interstate commerce or carrying on any business or vocation under the laws of, or with the permission or license from, the United States, or any of its agencies, to do or carry on any ordinary vocation or business on Sunday, the purpose of this act being to express our national determination
to honor the Sabbath day and keep it holy, as God commands, thereby securing for all that God opportunity for spiritual and bodily refreshment decreed by our Lord for the happiness of all men and the safety of all nations.
“6. Any person who does any of the things above declared unlawful, or who procures or aids another in doing any of the things above declared unlawful, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and punished upon conviction by due process of law by a fine of not under $100 nor over $10,000 for each offense and by imprisonment for not over six months, in the discretion of the court.
“ 7. And any corporation that does, or aids in doing, those forbidden things shall upon conviction befined not less than $1,000 nor more than $100,000 for each offense, and upon conviction a second time for a like offense shall forfeit its charter and franchise and be enjoined from operating in interstate commerce; provided, however, that emergency instances of charity and necessity are not included nor punishable under the provisions of this act.”
This new organization of Associated Reform Societies had a long list of prominent Congressmen, governors of States, and other public officials listed as office holders in their organization and champions of the Sunday blue laws. In looking over this list we are wondering by what hook or crook they secured the consent of some of these men to have their names identified with the Sunday law crusade. These “reformers” are evidently assuming that every person who stood for a national prohibition amendment, is also in favor of a national Sunday law, and are taking the liberty of putting his name upon their official roster,
But in this way they are presuming too much. There are hundreds of thousands of strong prohibitionists who absolutely refuse to have anything to do with compulsory Sunday observance. When the leaders of the associated reform organization approached Representative Randall, the prohibition member of the House, who achieved war-time prohibition fame, and requested him to intro