Sidor som bilder

court was

e than

ten rupees from an old woman. The simple fact was, that Mr. Erskine thought that a personal inter

interview with this female suitor in his co necessary, and, as she would not come to his office, he was obliged to go to her house ;* and, as is the established practice in all courts, charged a larger fee for transacting business out of his office than would have been demandable had the old woman personally attended there. Such is the exact circumstance as it actually occurred, and nothing can more clearly evince how impossible Sir Edward West must find it to produce any criminatory matter against Mr.Erskine, his persisting in representing an act so perfectly, exempt from all blame as an instance of extortion, and of Mr. Erskine's having " forgotten his feelings as a gentleman and his principles as an honest man.” But even to give it this construction, Sir Edward West is obliged to assume a fact which was perfectly unfounded; as his remarks all rest on the poverty of this old woman, though the slightest inquiry would have satisfied him that such was not the case. This instance is, at the same time, most unfortunately chosen, for, as he admits that this complaint was made directly to himself, it fully confirms all that I have said with respect to Sir Edward West's having been in this case the sole accuser of Mr. Erskine, as well as investigator and judge; and that, if Mr. Erskine be absolved, he must necessarily be convicted of having exercised the judicial powers entrusted to him in a most inquisitorial manner.

It requires, also, to be remarked, that the allegation with respect to charging the suitors with fees for subpænas, when no subpænas had issued, rests entirely on the subpænas, in a few instances, not having been found amongst the papers of Mr. Erskine's office. For it is extremely singular that no reference was made to the registers of the sealer in order to ascertain whether such subpænas had been issued or not; and consequently this allegation depends on a slight presumption, while the very best evidence for establishing it existed ; and it might hence be concluded, that it was known that such evidence would prove directly the contrary of what was wished. But had it even been in any degree well-founded, it might have been adduced as an appropriate instance of negligence, but it ought not according to law to have been commented upon as a proof of fraud and extortion. For, when examined on interrogatories, Mr. Erskine declared on oath: “when there are a number of causes in court, there will sometimes be a hundred or more than a hundred subpoena tickets,' and double the number of notices. Sometimes the parties come to the office before the clerk leaves it to put off the trial, and therefore the subpoenas are not sealed till after the tickets are signed, and the clerk is going away to execute them.” The consequence of this mode of proceeding is at once admitted by the Recorder, as in his very next question he asks: are you not aware, Mr. Erskine, thật by that practice your clerks

ks are enabled to defraud the sealer as much as they please ?" But, notwithstanding

But, notwithstanding all bis admissions in these interrogatories, the Recorder's speech, on delivering the decision of the court in this case, rests entirely on the assumption, equally illogical and unfounded, that the acts done, or supposed to have been done, for even this has never yet been proved, by his head clerk, were committed with the knowledge and for the benefit of Mr. Erskine.

The internal evidence, however, of the letters published by Giovanni during the last three months, prove' that Sir Edward West has in them adduced every thing that he can in order to prove the justice of Mr. Erskine's dismissal." But

in * In the country, native women of respectability are excused, if they wish it, personal attendance in courts of justice ; and this circumstance alone proves that the old woman was not in that state of poverty described by the Recorder.

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in this attempt he has necessarily failed, because Far better bad it been for him had he at once repelled with indignation secret and insidious tale of his despicable informants, and admonished them that truth required no concealment, and that justice demanded that all accusations should be made openly and in the manner prescribed by law. For had he pursued this line of conduct, these dilators would either have shrunk from the public exposure of their turpitude, or a trial by jury would have been the consequence.

Giovanni, and the editors of the Bombay Gazette and Bengal Hurkaru, with ihe most praiseworthy charity and liberality, accuse me of having agitated this question through malicious motives, and with the intention of bringing the administration of justice in this country into hatred and contempt. But I need merely refer to the Bombay Gazette of the 17th October last to prove that I have merely stood forward to the most gross and groundless calumnies,

and to reprobate all secret, inquisitorial, and arbitrary proceedings, conducted under the colour of law, but in utter

T defiance of all precedent and usage. Nor can I doubt that such conduct will ever receive the commendation of all honourable men, although it may incur the disapprobation of those whose censure is praise.

si: 20 DW05 90 10785229390 18 104?

7 dient u ditu cilpri von 6 ' I remain, &c. Bombay, 15th Jan. 1828.

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alt About the period of the surrender of the Peshwa, in 1818, the following singular prophetic proclamation was circulated amongst the inhabitants of Central India. The document was placed in a basket with a coco-nut; the liqe of route being pointed out, through which it was to pass, as soon as it reached the chabootra of any town or village, the authorities passed it on, and thus it travelled with prodigious rapidity from place to place. At each town or village, 4 coco-nut, or copper picę was added; and when

discovered by the British authorities, the basket was nearly filled with nuts and pice, L' Blessed be the readers of this divine proclamation Dated Bysak, bood 9th. The Stars and planets shall, fall down, and a great earthquake will be felt throughout the world!

On the Jait Sood 3d. - The Europeans shall be put to death! The Peshwa will again assume his authority, as Lord of Hindostan! The Mogul chiefs will be

890116 jo et sont lo 51 poisoned!

On the Asej sood 10th. --A Rookbédi Bramin-s'son from Budrinath, who is now "Seven years of age, a handsome boy' and of a stout heart, and who will be assisted by ** divine force of 10,000 warriors, a.will reigh on the imperial throne of Delhi !ais, *** 5: The ryots will be happy. In (no year mentioned) another earthquake will be felt; all the evil onės shall be consumed to ashes, and a vicegerent of God shall appear in the world in human shape for the salvation of mea! 1: Whosoeyer shall distrust this divine announcement will ineur the guilt of killing sixty thousand cows; and whosoever shall trust and promulgate it, shall inherit the divine blessing! So be it! Forward this for the information of others.

The present Samvat (era) is Nundram.-- The Europeans will go to hell, and the Bramins will succeed them!

Such ambulatory telegraphs were not unconmon at that period: it may easily be conceived that no better expedient could be devised to alarm the country, especially when the sin of the slaughter of sixty thousand cows was the penalty of neglect.

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Review of books. Narrative of a Journey froin Constantinople to England. By the Rev. R.

WALSH, LL.D. London, 1828. 8vo. The south-eastern portion of Europe, the probable theatre of the events. which may materially change the relations of the civilized world, is now regarded with great interest. The countries beyond the Danube, perhaps better known by their ancient appellations of Thrace and Mosia, than by their modern names of Roumelia and Bulgaria, are about to be visited, as in times long past, by a people from the remote north, on their march to the city of Constantine,

Dr. Walsh has recently traversed these countries, and the picture he has drawn of their condition, and of the character of the inhabitants, will helps us in forming our conjectures as to the iss

issue of the contest between Russia formation it contains respecting Greeks and the politics of the Sublime Porte with reference to this portion of its subjects: having accompanied Lord Stangford to Constantinople as chaplain to the British embassy in 1821, and having resided there for several years, he had ample opportunity to become acquainted with the real state of things.

Although Constantinople has been often described, an individual who resides there, or at least in its vicinity, for a length of time, may collect many particulars which have escaped the scrutiny of others. For example: amongst the vast' cisterns for containing water, in this remarkable city, there is one concealed beneath the streets, the water being conveyed from thence in tubes, without (as Gillius, who describes it, says) the inhabitants knowing whence the water came. Dr. Clarke searched for this cistern in vain : Dr. Walsh, however, was more fortunate; he discovered it accidentally, and found it, exactly to correspond with the description of Gillius. “We entered a private house, descended a deep flight of steps, and found ourselves on the borders of a subterranean lake extending under several streets.' The roof was arched and supported by 336 magnificent marble pillars; a number of tubes descended into the water and supplied the streets above."

Amongst other curious details, Dr.Walsh gives an interesting account of the Jews of Constantinople, the descendants of those of Spain who were expelled that country in the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. They form a community of 50,000 persons, and inhabit a large district on the opposite side of the harbour to the Greek quarter. They are treated by the Turks with comparative kindness and hospitality, and are denominated not slaves, or subjects, but visitors. They retain most of their distinctive traits, but have a language and character peculiar to themselves. Many abominable customs are imputed to them, such as the sacrifice of Christian children. Although these representations are probably the effects of prejudice and ignorance, yet Dr. Walsh says that the Jews of Constantinople are a fierce and fanatic race; persecution and suffering have not taught them moderation, and they pursue, even to death, any apostate from their own doctrines.”

The present Sultan, whose character it is important to know in the present state of Turkish affars, is described by Dr.Walsh as actuated by a fierce and relentless energy, and ás resembling Peter the Great of Russia in many poin the same promptitude in undertaking, the same vigour in pursuin.



same inflexible determination in executing purpose. “Like Peter, he found the domineering of his Prætorian guards no longer tolerable; and as Peter rid himself of his Strelitzes, so Mahomed determined to dispose of his Janissaries." He is not in the prime, though still in the vigour of life; he is the last of the race of Mahomet of an age fit to reign; and it is to this circumstance he is supposed to have been indebted for his inviolability on the part of the Janissaries. He is versed in oriental literature, and less tinctured with prejudice than Turkish princes usually are. “ He is not a man of morose or cruel disposition in his own family; on the contrary, he has several daughters by different mothers, to all of whom he is affectionately attached, and in his ordinary intercourse in private life he is urbane and affable.” Though bar. barous towards his own subjects, he has been always moderate, and even courteous, towards Franks.

Passing over the many topics of interest connected with the existing state of affairs, which are treated ofby Dr. Walsh in the commencement of his “ Narrative," we proceed to notice the representations he has given of the character of the Ultra-Carpathian nations, with whom the Russian armies will have to deal.

From Burghaz, nearly to the Balkan range, which bounds the province of Roumelia, the country is a flat, with scarcely a tree, and for some distance without inhabitants. The commencement of the Balkans is about 140 miles from Constantinople. The pass of the higher mountains is a rent, or gap, through which a small river runs. The road is extremely difficult and dangerous, “ This ravine is, perhaps, one of the most picturesque in Europe, and far ex. ceeds the trosachs of Lough Catherine, or any that I had seen before. Its per pendicular sides ascend to an immense height, covered with wood from the bottom to the top, and leaving a very narrow stripe of blue sky between.” The bridges thrown over the chasms are fragile, and our traveller was nearly killed by the breaking of one.

Having crossed the mountain, the traveller finds himself in Bulgaria,

The present district of Bulgaria extends from the mouth of the Danube, along that river, till it meets the Timosk, above Widdin, having the river for the whole of its northern boundary, and the parallel chain of the Balkan for its southern ; including a well-defined space, about three hundred and fifty miles long, and from forty to fifty broad. The inhabitants, however, have gone far beyond those artificial limits. They, have, by degrees, expanded themselves across the chain of mountains, and occupy, almost exclusively, a considerable space of Roumelia at the other side, supplying the waste of its own population. As the fiery and ardent temperament of the Turks and Greeks mutually exhaust them, these quiet and industrious peasants creep on, and if they are allowed to proceed unchecked, will, in process of time, fill up the whole of that almost uncultivated and depopulated space which lies on the south of the Balkan, between the sea and the mountains, by a process much more desirable than invasion or conquest.

The people have now entirely laid aside the military character that once distinguished their ancestors, The great body of them is altogether pastoral, and live in small bamlets, forming clusters of houses, which have neither the regularity, nor deserve the name, of towns. They have a few, however, where they are engaged in commerce, and carry on manufactures. The town of Selymnia, on the south side of the Balkan, contains nearly 20,000 inhabitants, the large majority of whom are Bulgarians. Here they frabricate, to a great extent, several manufactured articles, which are famous in Turkey; one is a coarse woollen cloth, and another, rifle gun-barrels, which are held

esteem. But that which is most mngenial to their rural habits, is the prethe essential oil, called s

A large district, in the


of roses

caps of


neighbourhood of Selymnia, is laid out in gardens for this purpose ; and the abundance of rose-trees adds another feature to this beautitul country. A great part of the produce is brought to England; and we are indebted to these simple peasants for the most exquisite and elegant perfume in nature.

Of all the peasantry I have ever met with, the Bulgarians seem the most simple, kind, and affectionate; forming a striking, contrast with the rude and brutal Turks, who are mixed among them, but distinguished by the strongest traits of character. On the road we frequently met groups of both, always separate, but employed in the same avocations; the Turks were known by turbans, sashes, pistols, and yatigans ; but still more, by a ferocity of aspect, a rude assumption of demeanour, and a careless kind of contempt, that at once repulsed and disgusted us." They never turned their buffaloes or arubas out of the way to let us pass, or showed the smallest wish to be civil or obliging; on the contrary, were pleased if they pushed us into a bog in the narrow road, or entangled us anong trees or bushes. Any accommodation in houses was out of the question : if we approached one for a drink of milk or water, we ran the hazard of being stabbed or shot. The Bulgarians were distinguished by brown sheep-skin; jackets of cloth, made of

of the wool, undyed, of dark brown sheep, which their wives spin and weave; white cloth trowsers, and sandals of raw leather, drawn under the sole, and laced with thongs over the instep; and they carried neither pistol nor yatigan, nor any other weapon of offence: but they were still more distinguished by their countenance and demeanour. The first is artless,

and benevolent; and the second is so kind and cordial, that every one we met seemed to welcome us as friends. Whenever their buffaloes or arubas stopped up the way, they were prompt to turn them aside ; and whenever they saw us embarrassed, or obliged to get out of the road, they were eager to show us it was not their fault. Their houses were always open to us, and

our presence

e was a kind of jubilee to the family; the compensation we gave scarcely deserved the name, and I am disposed to think, if not offered, would not be asked for.

Con 10 Hoiatu 4.2. In the campaign of 1810, the main body of the Russian army reached Shumla, in the centre of this province; and although the cossacks crossed the Balkan, and rode up to the suburbs of Burghaz, eighty-four miles only from Constantinople, Shumla was the real limit of the Russian invasion. Of their chance of success on the spresenti occasion, Dr. Walsh expresses the following opinion: 1) vysokno 5714 2915289

5.8 in autourlavastusyhed over bist to TY: 13 de and The Russians withdrew hdrew from the provinces of

ces of Wallachia and Moldavia, which they had occupied for seven years, and have never since entered them: they are pow, how, ever, in appearance, about to renew their desperate conflicts

, and dye the Danube again with blood ; and the general opinion is

, that they will

meet with no effectual opposition to their further progress ; þut certainly the events of the last campaign should

a different

pt opinion. They, ayailed themselves of a moment of their nemies weakness, and advanced, with little opposition, to that river:

hat river here they stopped ; and after a very sanguinary and persevering conflict of six years, we find them, at the end of that period, still on its shorts. Whenever they

attempted to proceed beyond it, they were driven back with carnage, and a single town scarcely fortified, as contemptible in the eyes, as it would be weak in the hands, of European troops, effectually arrested their career,

Pomide Should they force this artificial barrier, they have to encounter a natural one, rinfid nitely more formidable ; and that is, the Balkan Mountains. Over this great rampart there are five practicable passes. One from Sophia to Tartar Bazargic; two from Ternova, by Keisanlik and Selymnia ; and two froin Shumla, by Carnabat and Haidhos. The three first lead to Adrianople, the two last directly to Constantinople, Of these, the roads by Ternova are the most difficult, as they pass over the highest and most inaccessible hills of the chain; that by Haidhos is the most frequented-the chasm in the face of the mountain affording a greater facility of ascent than elsewhere. Any of the passes, however, do not appear to be impracticable for Turkish Spahis. These


induce us to adopt a dif


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