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nerally employed to represent it,

This assistance whatever from European arprinciple was adopted by Bishop Wilkins, tists, was likewise exhibited; and, alby Franklin, and by Jones, who has been though not coming within the immediate followed and improved by Dr. Wilkins, sphere of the Society's exertions, was Mr. Shakespear, and some other distin considered so striking an instance of naguished orientalists; and its elegant tive ingenuity and imitative skill, as to simplicity and want of nationality will deserve an encouragement. A donation probably ensure its very general adop of fifty rupees was therefore presented to. tion.

the ingenious blacksmith. -Cal. Gov. One principle to be kept in view, in Gaz. the construction of a perfect alphabet, is the representation of each sound by one

TURKISH CONTRADICTIONS. single letter; and, as in using the limited I had occasion to remark the strange Roman alphabet, adherence to this rule is aptitude of a Turk to differ from a Frank, impossible, it became necessary to vary even in his most trifling habits. The the characters by other prosodial, or ac house next to the barber's shop was in centual marks, and by combinations.

progress of building, and there was a In constructing an entirely new alpha man writing down some inventory. All bet, Dr. Butter is of opinion, that the the persons I saw engaged were working following principles should be strictly ad in a manner opposite to our usage. The hered to, as far as they are consistant barber pushed the razor from him-ours with each other. First, brevity; no'en draws it to him ; the carpenter, on the couragement should be given to contrac

contrary, drew the saw to him, for all tion, the grand source of corruption. the teeth were set in-ours pushes it Second, perspicuity; every letter, writ from him, for all the teeth are set out; ten with care, should be at once distin the mason sat while he laid the stones guishable from every other. Third, capa ours always stands; the scribe wrote on bility of being connected with the pre his hand, and from right to left-ours ceding and following letters, without always writes on a desk or table, and from lifting the pen. There is no difficulty in left to right; but the most ridiculous difconstructing abundance of different alpha ference existed in the manner of building bets on these principles, and Dr. Butter the house. We begin at the bottom and has adopted the simplest figure which finish to the top : this house was a frame presents itself; namely, a line, diversi- of wood, which the Turks began at the fied with loops, hooks, and central turns. top, and the upper rooms were finished,

and inhabited, while all below was like a AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL lanthorn. However absurd these minutia SOCIETY OF CALCUTTA.

may appear to you, they are traits of The second annual examination of ve Turkish character, which form, with getables, cultivated for the supply of the other things, a striking peculiarity. It Calcutta market, took place on the 16th is now more than four centuries since January, at the Town-hall, in the pre they crossed the Hellespont, and transsence of the Right Honourable Earl Am ported themselves from Asia to Europe; herst and the Countess Amherst, patron during all that time they have been in and patroness of the society, Lady Sarah constant contact with European habits Amherst, Sir Charles and Lady Grey, and manners, and, at times, even peneand a very numerous assembly of mem trated as far as Vienna, and so occupied bers and visitors,

the very centre of Christendom. Yet, About 120 malees, or native gardeners, while all the people around them have attended, and it was highly gratifying to been advancing in the march of improveobserve a display of kitchen-garden pro ment, in various ways, they have stood duce, not inferior to any hitherto seen still and refused to move; and such is in this country, and far exceeding, in ex their repugnance to any assimilation, that tent and variety, all preceding exhibi almost all the men who attempted to imtions. It was an agreeable treat to see prove them, have fallen victims to their such numbers of thin-skinned large po- temerity, or the Turks themselves have tatoes, cauliflowers, knoll-coles, turnips, perished in resistance ; and, with very peas, beets, broccoli, &c. A considera few exceptions, the great body of them ble degree of difficulty seemed to be ex are, at this day, the same puerile, preperienced in determining upon the fittest judiced, illiterate, intractable, stubborn subjects for the prizes, for at each call for race, that left the mountains of Asia. a shew the tables were literally filled, And so indisposed are they to amalgaand seemed groaning under the weight mate with us in any way, that they still of articles claiming attention and deserv preserve a marked distinction in the ing praise.

greatest as well as in the minutest things A curious model of a steam-engine, not only in science and literature, but made by Goluk Chunder, blacksmith of in the movement of a saw and a razor.-Tittighur, near Barrackpore, without any Walsh's Narrative.

LIBRARY AT ABO.

the villagers of Wichtis sent fifty barrels The museum and library of Abo in of rye; the University of Dorpat las Finland have been involved in the dread contributed 394 scientific works, besides ful calamity which has lately befallen that many philosophical instruments and coltuw'n, which was destroyed by fire. The lections in natural history. One liberal British public have subscribed nearly Russian bookseller (Mr. Hartmann, of £900 for the relief of the inhabitants. Riga) has presented books to the value of An effort is now making in this country 5,357 silver rubles, or nearly £800 sterto restore the library. We subjoin the ling. His townsman, Mr. German, sent following extract of a circular letter from 193 volumes. Dr. Hassar, of PetersMr. Bowring :

burg, 995; and Professor Storch (whose

works on political economy are so well “ When I visited Finland a few years known), 269. Many other useful and ago, the university of Abo was in a most generous donations have been received ; prosperous and improving condition. It and I confidently trust that examples so had many distinguished professors, and honourable will find many imitators here. was the seat and the source of the civili- Messrs. George Cowie and Co., of No. zation of the whole country. A literary 31, Poultry, have kindly undertaken to journal was established there, and almost receive and forward any works, instruall the works published in Finland issued ments, &c., which may be liberally given from the press of Abo. Attached to the to the Abo University Library. I shall university were a valuable museum of be most happy to communicate any parnatural history, extensive philosophical ticulars I possess; and if information be apparatus, and a library consisting of desired from the spot, the venerable Archmore than thirty thousand volumes, rich bishop of Finland, Dr. Tengstrom, or in records, and unpublished manuscripts M. John Julin, will, I am sure, be most relating to the history of Finland and happy to furnish it. -JOHN BOWRING." Sweden. With the exception of about Transactions of learned and scientieight hundred volumes, of which not fic Societies will be particularly acceptmore than two hundred form perfect able.” works, the whole of this interesting collection perished in the flames; and the We trust that nothing more is necescircumstances were so much the more sary than the bare announcement of this distressing, as the library funds had been application, to induce all who read it to wholly exhausted, and even anticipated contribute whatsoever they are able tofor years, in order to gain possession of wards this very laudable object. works which were then obtainable, and which were deemed of great importance to the establishment. In a country like The following account of a visit to the Finland, so little visited, so far removed Rainbow, British man of war, by a Hinfrom the attention and sympathy of the du, appears in the Jami Jehan Numa: civilized world, the destruction of the “ Wonders of the Rainbow, man of only large public library is a calamity, the war !— Mirza Eywaz Khan, son of the greatness and extent of which can hardly late Nouroz Khan, a nobleman of the be estimated here.

court of the Nawab Azof-al- Doulah, and “ I have been addressed by some valu- himself in the service of Mr. Donnithorne, able Finnish friends on the subject, and salt agent at Hidgelee, being about to rehave been requested to ascertain whether turn to his home, took leave of that genmany of the literary and scientific indivi- tleman, and then called upon the officer duals of our country would not probably who bas charge of the ships that touch at contribute their own writings or those of Kedgeree. Through that gentleman's others, to repair the dreadful loss with friendship he had an opportunity of going which Finland has been visited. And I on board the Rainbow, a royal vessel, have ventured to say, that I feel per when he was struck with astonishment suaded numbers would be found cheer at the elegance and splendour of what fully to assist in the re-formation of their he beheld-sufficient to efface from relibrary. The inhabitants of Finland are collection the beauties of the Taj. He almost universally poor, but as univer said to the unworthy writer of this artisally desirous of instruction ; and of late cle, that what he saw was never witmany men have appeared among them, nessed even in magical illusions, or 'in who have done no inconsiderable services the bowers of enchantment. It is imto science, philosophy, and the belles- possible to find out, or explain, that of lettres. So much have even the Finnish which no description has ever been given. peasants been touched by the destruction It is sufficient to declare, without any of the Abo library, that in some places hesitation, that the houries of Paradise where money is little known, they have are not better lodged than they could be subscribed the produce of their farms on board the Rainbow. He who has not towards its restoration : and among them seen this ship has not yet gathered the

ORIENTAL DESCRIPTION.

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rose from the pleasure garden of existence. This account has been written in accordance with the saying, that the description of a treat enjoyed by one person is half a treat to others.

THE GARDEN OF THE HESPERIDES.

M. Pacho, the French traveller in Cyrenaica, has discovered the situation of the garden of the Hesperides. In a paper which he read before the Geographical Society of Paris, on the 20 May last, he refutes the opinion of those who place the garden near Berenice, and, supporting his hypothesis by the description of Scylax, and by several passages in Herodotus, Lucan, and the anonymous Periplus, he fixes its position on the summit of the promontory of Phycus, or Ros-al-Sem, where he discovered, near an ancient port frequented by the Phæ. nicians, the same trees and shrubs mentioned by Scylax in his description as well as other topographical details given by this geographer on this subject, and which, M. Pacho observes, cannot be found elsewhere than in Cyrenaica.

RELIGIOUS SECTS IN ABYSSINIA. The English missionaries about to enter Abyssinia give the following account of the state of religion there :

“ They are now divided into three principal religious parties. One says, that Christ is God and man, by Himself, without having required the help of the Holy Spirit in his incarnation : another says, that He became man by the power of the Holy Ghost : and the third holds that Christ was only a man, till the Holy Ghost descended upon Him in Jordan at His baptism. The first faith is called, “ the faith of the Two Nativities ;” the second, “ the faith in the Unction;" and the third, “ the faith in the Three Nati. vities.” This is almost the single point of religion, on which they have been speaking for years.

That there are those who deify the Virgin Mary, as we have heard here, does not appear to be true. Their old Coptic Bishop, of whom we bave written before, lives in Tigré : he is said to be in a state of perpetual intoxi. cation : if the life of the head of the church be such, what must be the spiritual condition of the people!

“ The political state of the country is much the same as it The King has nothing at present for his support, but what the governors are pleased to give him: he has no soldiers. The governor of Samen Helle Mariam, who sent Girgis, is dead; but his son, who is an inti. mate friend of his, has succeeded him. The Governor of Shoa Selassy takes the title of king, and is by far superior to all others in power."--Miss. Reg.

MEDICAL EFFECTS OF TRANSITION FROM

INDIA TO EUROPE. When an invalid has suffered under the cholera and biliary Auxes, and chronic hepatic obstructions of an Indian climate, and comes home to this more cold and moist climate, to recruit the enervation occasioned by a long tropical residence, the first effect is generally very favourable, partly from the benefits of the sea voyage, and the adual manner in which the migration takes place towards this more temperate, cool, and bracing atmosphere. But, by and by, the sedative impressions of a cold English winter are too much for the enfeebled and irritable state of the habit to resist; the skin becomes dry and inactive, without perspiration; the liver, long subject to obstruction, is now affected with torpor and congestion ; the bowels are confined, and the bile accumulates in large and unhealthy quantities in the first passages; then the head begins to feel affected, sudden fits of giddiness occur, with wind at stomach' and indigestion, and the gout speedily invades. Perhaps such an invalid, feeling the chilling and torpefying effects of the cold, betakes himself to a town residence, and carefully shuts himself up within doors, more fearful of the cold air without, than of the half-suffocating atmosphere he breathes in his close air-tight chambers within. In this situation he daily loses more and more that healthy energy of the brain and nervous system on which depends the whole functional accounts of the frame. He gets more and more susceptible to the cold; and although he hardly stirs out of doors, excepting to pay an occasional visit, or make one at a dinner party, or attend to social engagements with his friends, and then taking the utmost care to protect himself against the weather, yet he is sure every now and then to suffer severely from exposures, of which he was entirely unconscious at the time. This man takes little exercise, breathes a most impure mephitic air, crams his stomach well at dinner (his only or chief enjoyment), buries himself up nightly in a well-curtained bed, feels himself languid, drowsy, unrefreshed, nervous, low-spirited, flatulent, and affected with many other uncomfortable sensations in the mornings. The circulation comes now to partake in the disturbance of the functions; it is habitually directed to the head in excess. The gout, if he has had it, becomes more and more abortive in its efforts to seize the old place in the feet; it rises towards the knees or elbows, or threatens to attack the stomach. The invalid in this state is living with a sword suspended over his head by a hair. After some exposure to the weather and a full dinner, perhaps the brittle thread snaps, and he is in a mo

ment

was.

THE

ment in the convulsive struggles of apo in Roumelia, to 313 in Wallachia and
plexy, or finds his constitution a wreck Moldavia. - Statistique de la Turquie by
under paralysis.-Rennie on Gout and M. Jomard.
Nervous Disorders.

SHAHNAMAH."
NUMERICAL FORCE OF TURKEY.

We are glad to observe that the King The depopulation of half of the Otto

of Oude has been induced to patronize man territories is so great, that even in

the printing and publication of the colcluding Greece and Egypt in the pro

lated edition of the Shahnamah, under vinces of Turkey, the mean number of in

the superintendence of Major Macan. It habitants of this empire is but at the rate is stated in the Akhbars, that his Majesty of 294 individuals per square league, whilst

had actually paid his liberal and munifithe number in France is 1,200, in Eng

cent contribution, amounting to 22,000 land 1,600, in the Netherlands and Lom

rupees. bardy 2,000. The same number of individuals collected in Paris on a surface of

CHINESE ETIQUETTE. four or five square leagues, would in Turkey be dispersed over a territory of

Men should not speak of in-door con1,700 leagues ; and in order to make a

cerns, nor should women speak of outlevy en masse of 30,000 or 40,000 men,

door affairs. Unless performing sacrifithe whole military population of a coun

cial, or funeral rites, men and women try much larger than Sicily or all Bel

should never hand any thing to each other. gium. In the Turkish provinces in Asia,

When they do give and receive, they in order to collect a population equal to

put what they give in a basket; if that of London, it would be necessary to

there be no basket, then both parties assemble all the inhabitants dispersed

must kneel and place the thing to be over a territory of 7,000 square-leagues,

given on the ground, then it may be

taken. Men and women must not draw that is, as large as half Italy or all England. There exists, doubtless, in these

water out of the same well, nor bathe in provinces a population sufficient to fur the same place, nor sleep, though at difnish a levy en masse of 400,000 men, or

ferent times, in the same bed, nor boran efficient army of 200,000. But it is

row of each other, nor wear the same easy to conceive the difficulty of raising piece of clothing. What is said by the such a force, when it is considered that

women in-doors must not go out, nor each of the soldiers who are to compose

must what is said by the men out of doors it is separated from his nearest comrade by

be mentioned in the house. When a an interval of three leagues and a half : a

man enters the house he must not speak, corps of 1,000 men may be surrounded

nor sing, nor read with a light trifling with a desert of 300 square miles. Thus

tone, nor point with his finger. At night the Persian army, the troops of which

he must travel with a lantern : if he have are so little formidable that they could not

no lantern he must stop. When a female make head against the Russian troops a

goes out she must cover her face, and at single day in the last campaign, penetrat- night carry a lantern: if she has no laned into Asiatic Turkey in 1822 without

tern she must not proceed. In walking

on the road the male sex must take the meeting a single obstacle. They invaded the northern and southern provinces at

right and the female the left. Le Key.the same time, and were about to take

Chinese Chronicle. possession of Erzeroum and Bagdad when the cholera put them to flight. Thus the

ERRORS OF POLYGLOTTISTS. Turkish provinces in Asia, far from be The Franks, who have commonly a ing able to succour those in Europe, very bad ear, and who consequently would require aid to oppose the Russian mangle in their pronunciation the sounds armies of the Caucasus.

The whole po

of eastern dialects, sometimes amuse pulation of Turkey in Europe may be themselves in drawing up immense tables thus estimated :

of words of different languages which Roumelia

2,280,000 they pretend to compare together. These Bulgaria

1,440,000 words, ill-understood, and rendered still Servia and Bosnia 1,680,000 more defective by their alphabets, have a Wallachia and Moldavia... 1,840,000 general apparent resemblance; but there Macedonia ..

1,160,000 would be found not a shade of affinity Albania and Dalmatia 1,490,000 between them, if pronounced by natives. Livadia or Greece Proper 850,000 Thus a'resemblance has been discovered Morea..........

420,000 between the Finnish word erek and the The Cyclades

80,000 Arabic word arak; but I wish these

manufacturers of polyglottic jokes would Total population ......11,240,000 hear an Arab and a Fin pronounce the The average number of inhabitants for respective words, and they would pera square league is 480, varying from 860 ceive the vast interval which separates

them

...

them, and the difference of the organs lexicographical game at domino, in which wherewith the two people articulate instead of dice are substituted words of sounds, which in a vile transcription in different languages : in appending these Latin letters appear to be the same. In words one at the tail of another, whenshort, no sensible mind can be seduced by ever they discover some apparent resemthese optical illusions of polyglottism, blance with words already placed, very and must even be disgusted at seeing in varied results are obtained; and by a dividuals sitting in judgment, with all little tricking, the player wins the game the solemnity of critics, upon tables and of the reader who does not understand atlasses of words which can bear no in

the art. This is the sum of the system igation, and which appear to be a of the Asia Polyglottæ and the Atlas sort of learned recreation rather than Ethnographiques ! · Note of Koutlouk serious works. It is, in fact, a species of Fouladi.

East-India College at Waileybury.

GENERAL EXAMINATION, May, 1828. On Thursday, the 29th of May, a Depu.

Highly Distinguished. tation of the Court of Directors visited

Onslow, the College, for the purpose of receiving

R. K. Dick, the Report of the General Examination of

Skipwith. the Students.

Passed with greut Credit. The Deputation, upon their arrival at

Blane. the College, were received by the Princi

Third Term. pal, Professors, Assistant Professors, and the Oriental Visitor.

William Courtney, prize in political Soon afterwards they proceeded to the

economy, and highly distinguished in other

departments. Hall, accompanied by several visitors, where, the students being previously as

William Dent, prize in Persian, and

with great credit in other departments. sembled, the following proceedings took place :

Mungo Smith Gilmore, prize in BenA list of the Students who had obtained

gali. prizes and other honourable distinctions

George Malcolm, highly distinguished. was read.

James Cumine, with great credit.

Second Term. Mr. William Francis Thompson delivered an English essay : the thesis was

Wm. Pulteney Masson, highly distinThe circumstances of Great Britain and

guished.

First Term. of other countries which have had settlements in the East compared and contrasted.

Hugh Rose, prize in Bengali and highly The Students read and translated in the distinguished in other departments. several Oriental languages.

Prizes and other honourable Distinctions, Prizes were then delivered by the Chair oblained by Students remaining in Col. man according to the following report : lege.

Third Term. Medals, Prizes of Books, and other honour

John M. G. Robertson, prize in clas. able Distinctions obtained by Students sics, and highly distinguished in other deleaving College at the Public Examina

partments. tion, May, 1828.

Robert Deane Parker, prize in Sanscrit, Fourth Term, :

and with great credit in other departments. William Francis Thompson, medal in

Chas. Walter Kinloch, prize in Hinclassies, medal in political economy, medal doostani, and highly distinguished in other in law, prize for English essay, and highly departments. distinguished in other departments.

James Dewar Bourdillon, prize in law, John Sutherland Law, medal in Sanscrit, and with great credit in other departments. medal in Persian, prize in Hindustani,

Thomas Hamilton Pillans, prize in maprize in Arabic, and highly distinguished thematics, and with great credit in other in other departments, and also in Mah departments. ratta.

William Hunter, prize in Arabic, and Donald Friell McLeod, medal in mathe- highly distinguished in other departments. matics, and highly distinguished in other

Highly Distinguished. departments; also a prize in drawing.

Smith, Henry Unwin, prize, in Bengali, and

D. White, with great credit in other departments.

Tottenham.

Passed

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