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INTRODUCTORY EXERCISE.

“ God moves in a mysterious way,

His wonders to perform;
He plants his footsteps in the sea,
And rides upon the storm.”

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Quest. Who is the person concerning whom something is asserted

in the lines above ? Ans. Something is said concerning “ God."

What is said of God ? A. “God moves.

How does God move ?
A." In a mysterious way."

What way?
A. “ Mysterious way."

What mysterious way?
A." A mysterious way."

“God moves in a mysterious way”—why? A. His wonders to perform."

To perform what wonders ?
A. 6 His wonders."

Concerning what is something more said ?
Something more is said concerning God."

Why do you think so?
A. Because, in this connection, “ He” means God.

What is said concerning God?
A. “ He plants."

He plants what ? A. “ Footsteps."

A.

Q. What footsteps ?
A. His footsteps."

He plants his footsteps—where?
A. - In the sea."

In what sea ? A. The sea."

What more is said of God ?
A. He brides."

Rides where ?
A. “ Upon the storm."

Upon what storm?
A. 6 The storm.”

a

In the lines above, what is the use or office of the word

6 God ?" A. It is used as the name of the being who “ moves."

What is the use of the word " moves ?"
A. To tell what God does.

Use of “in a mysterious way?"
A. To tell how God moves.
Use of 6

?"
A. To tell what way.

Use of " mysterious ?"
A. To tell what kind of way.

Use of “way ?"
A. As the name of the thing in which God moves.

Use of “his ?"
A. To tell what or whose wonders.

Use of 6 wonders."
A. As the name of the things which God moves to perform.

Use of " to perform wonders ?"
A. To tell wherefore God moves in a mysterious way.

Use of " he ?"
A. As a substitute for the name of Him who plants and rides

Use of “plants ?"

sea ?"

A. To tell what " He" does.

Use of his ?"
A. To tell whose footsteps.

Use of " footsteps ?"
A. To tell what he plants.

Use of "in the sea ?
A. To tell where "he plants his footsteps."

Use of “ the ?!
A. To tell what sea.

Use of 6
A. As the name of the thing in which he plants his footsteps.

Use of 6 and ?"
A. To add a second thing which He does.

Use of " rides ?"
A. To tell what he does.

Use of “ upon the storm ?".
A. To tell where he rides.

Use of “the ?"
A. To tell what storm.

Use of 6 storm ?"
A. As the name of the thing upon which he rides.

REMARK.--The young Pupil has seen in this exposition of the four lines written above, that words have meaning, and that when they are properly put together, they convey the thoughts of the

person who wrote them, to those who read them. Again: As these and all other words have appropriate sounds attached to them, they may be spoken; and persons who hear them, may have the same thoughts that they would have on reading them.

It is plain, then, that one may, by speaking or by writing, (and sometimes by motions,) communicate his thoughts to others. The process by which this is done, is called LANGUAGE.

LANGUAGE.

Definition 1. Language is the expression of thought and feeling.

Remark. It is customary to give to every science a name, by which it may be distinguished from other sciences; accordingly, people have agreed to call the science which treats of Language,

GRAMMAR.

Def. 2. Grammar is the Science of Language.

English Grammar is the Science which investigates the prin. ciples and determines the proper construction of the English Language.

It is also the Art of communicating thought by proper words. Rem. Language consists in articulate sounds, represented by LETTERS, combined into WORDS, properly arranged in SENTENCES.

Def. 3. A Letter is a mark used to indicate a sound, or to modify the sound of another letter. Rem. The science which treats of Letters, is called Orthography.,

Def. 4. A . Word is a combination of letters, used as the sign of an idea.

EXAMPLES-God-mysterious--perform-wonders.
Rem. Words are combined into Phrases and Sentences.

Def. 5. A Phrase is two or more words, properly arranged, not constituting a distinct proposition.

EXAMPLES—" In a mysterious way"-"Upon the storm." Rem. Words constitute a Phrase, when they collectively perform a distinct, individual office.

Def. 6. A Sentence is an assemblage of words, so arranged as to express a fact.

EXAMPLES" God moves in a mysterious way."
Rem. A Sentence always constitutes a distinct proposition.

WORDS. A Word is a combination of letters, used as the sign of an idea.

CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS.

Remark. In a Discourse, words are used

1. As names of persons, places, or things.
2. As substitutes for names or facts.
3. As qualifiers of names.
4. To assert a fact, i. e., an act, being, or state.
5. To modify an assertion or qualifier.
6. To express relations of things or thoughts.
7. To introduce-or connect words and sentences.

8. To express a sudden emotion.
Hence-in respect to their uses,
Principle. Words are distinguished as
1. Nouns,

5. Adverbs, 2. Pronouns,

6. Prepositions, 3. Adjectives,

7. Conjunctions, and 4. Verbs,

8. Exclamations. Def. 7. A Noun is a word used as the name of a being, place, or thing.

EXAMPLES—God-man-sea-way-wonders.
Def. 8. A Pronoun is a word used for a noun.
EXAMPLES-he-it-who-her-him-whom.

Def. 9. An Adjective is a word used to qualify or otherwise describe a noun or pronoun.

EXAMPLES—Mysterious (way]-His [wonders]—the [storm.]

Def. 10. A Verb is a word used to express an act, being, or state of a noun or pronoun.

EXAMPLES—[God] moves--[He) plants.

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