Sidor som bilder
PDF
ePub

THE

LITERARY PANORAMA,

AND

National Register :

For APRIL, 1816.

BETWEEN

AND OTHER

NATIONAL and PARLIAMENTARY The arrangements made at, and near

Paris, in 1814, by the Allies, then vicNotices,

tors in the heart of France, were not PROSPECTIVE and RETROSPECTIVE. completely satisfactory to any reflecting

mind. Inasmuch as they were connect(BRITISAI & FOREIGN.)

ed with Peace, they were welcomed by every heart in which glowed a spark of

humanity. TREATIES:

But, as they left too much

to the honour of a man who never knew Class C.

what honour was, too much to the com

passion of a soi-disant hero, who beheld DEFINITIVE TREATY

unmoved that “ consumption" of hu

man life, at which the most hardened of HIS MAJESTY AND HIS MOST

bis Generals wept, and the whole of

them shuddered, a kind of suspicion CHRISTIAN MAJESTY.

could not but lurk in the apprehensions Signed at Paris, November 20, 1915. of those who had acquired by expe

rience, a passable acquaintance with CONVENTIONS AND DOCUMENTS.

revolutionary movements.

The man who with greater joy than Presented to both Houses of Parliament,

Cæsar, saw whole armies fallen on the JY COMMAND OF #. R. H. THE PRINCE REGENT, ensanguined plain, who 1816.

Stetit aggere campi [rura Eminus, unde omnes sparsus par

Thessala It were, perhaps, inconsiderate to Aspiceret cladesaffirm that the extraordinary times in

Lucan. Phar. lib. vii. which we live never have had a pa- Again his eyes rejoice to view the slain, rallel ; for, the wisest of men observes, And ro unweary'd o'er the dreadful plain, that what has been, is that which is; He views the woeful wide horizon round, and he ventures to add, is that which then joys that earth is no where to be found, shall be. Their picture is so vivid, be

And owos, the gods he serves, bis utmost wish cause it passes close before our eyes.

have crown'd, We think them so very singular, because they occupy the whole field of

That man

was not to be trusted : our vision : because, being informed, Again he “ cried havock! and let slip more fully than history can inform us the dogs of war.” He was defeated. on other subjects, of the introductory His defeat rendered so much the more causes, and the concurrent particulars of difficult the office and the duty of rethese, the interest we take in them mag- newing with the King of France the nifies their importance, as it multiplies Peace which he had not broken ; of imtheir difficulties, and misleads our judg-posing that peace on the guilty among meil,

ihe French population, which they hated Vol. IV. No. 19. Lit. Pan. N.S. April 1. B

war.

in their very hearts, which they exe- she were not free, is forced acquies. crated with their voices, which they cence valid ? Such an argument could would violate without compunction, as not escape her casuists. Again, these they endure it with anguish and gnash- armies demanded a compensation for ing of teeth. It is Peace : the very the expenses to which France had un. name is abhorrent to these fiends of necessarily put them: nothing could be

more reasonable :—but, how to obtain It was a wise foresight, by the exer

it? nothing could be more difficult. cise of which so many troops were

It will be recollected that we have arplaced in Belgium, and so much force gued the question on the principle of was held on foot, in a certain degree of PERMANENCY. How was this to be readiness. The wisdom of instantly preserved, in future, seeing it had been so combining all Enrope to crush the rising grossly violated in past instances ? Yet, monster, that threatened to devour it, unless this were obtained, nothing was obhas already engaged our attention. But, taided. If arrangements now made were these very considerations encreased the not permanent, the dangers, the dis. difficulties of arranging thai pacification tresses, the exertions which had led to which should be satisfactory to His them were nugatory: to say all in one Most Christian Majesty on the one part, word, British blood had flowed in and to irritated Europe on the other. vain. Neither was that sound part of The mere contemplation, though in the French nation which abhorred the idea only, of a million and a half of men,

treason forced upon it, to be forgotten : ralled to arms, rushing from all

these friends to real freedom cherished

quarters, with a proinptitude animated by a strong sense of honour; and it was their feelings and conviction, is distin- not policy to drive these to despair, guished by a vastness which astonishes though no such deference were due to and perplexes the mind. What then their guilty compatriots. must have been the perplexity of those Amidst this diversty of counteracting councils which felt that their country powers, those entrusted with the nego was the object of this vast force ?-and ciation of the present treaty had much what, the conflicting interests of those to do; much to restrain; much to corwho knew that this vast force waited rect; much to arrange, for the present; but their nod to realize those expecta- much to foresee, for the future. tions which had impelled them from Our readers know, already, that a their native forests and rivers, their main part of this agreement stations a crags, their steppes, their mountains, body of a hundred and fifty thousand and their deserts.

troops of the Allies in the line of forFrance, or, at least, such a portion of tresses on the northern boundary of her people as assumed the name of France ; to be maintained at the exFrance-had beguiled the too credulous pense of France, during five years ;-in Allies, who placed confidence in her the mean while France is to pay, grahonour : was the possibility of a repeti- dually, about thirty millions sterling, as tion of this guile to be left open ? Cer-compensation for the expences to which tainly not. Yet, in the mean while, she has put Europe. A partial compennone imputed to the King of France, pensation, as is well known; and not with whom the treaty was to be made, the smallest for the lives which bave the smallest participation in this guile. been been sacrificed to her onprincipled Why punish him for faults to which he ambition. was no party, and by which he was For, it was her unprincipled ambieminently the sufferer There was no de- tion that brought these troops to her sign of punishing him. But,--then- frontiers: they were all safe at home, how refrain from punishing France, and why did she call them back! They bringing upon her that retribution which were rehearsing former adventures, why sooner or later altends every deviation did she rouse them to the renewal of from rectitude ? France was surrounded feats of arms ? Who threw out the sigl'y arnjes, rould she be free? and if | nal at which they resumed the sword ? It

save

was

was France. Who rendered necessary , ration of the Constitutional Charter, the the heroic exertions of these martial order of things which had been happily rebands, to astonished Europe established in France, as also in the object: from the deadly grasp ? - It

of restoring between France and her peighFrance, For this France must pay. Idence and goodwill, which the fatal effects

bours, those relations of reciprocal confiAnd though France be not humbled, of the Revolution, and of the System of she must be mortified: though not im- Conquest had for so long a time disturbed : poverished, she must be taught restitu- persuaded, at the same time, that this last tion. The traitors in her bosom must object can only be obtained by an arrangelearn their impotence, while her king ment framed to secure to the Allies, protriumphs in the resumption of his power. per indemnities for the past, and solid guaIt is easy enough to state these prin- cert with flis Majesty the King of Frauce,

rantees for the future; they have in conciples, and to enforce their propriety: taken into consideration, the means of to reduce them to practice, to give them giving effect to this arrangement; and being animation and predominance, is the la- satisfied that the indemnity due to the Albour of no ordinary mind. That bas lied Powers cannot be either entirely terri. been effected, by retaining an over torial, or entirely pecuniary, without prewhelming power in France, until the judice to France in the ove or other of army which, by addicting itself to the her essential interests, and that it would principles and fortune of Napoleon, had be more fit to combine both the modes, in supported its treason against the king, would result, were either resorted to sepa

order to avoid the inconvenience which by force of arms, was disbanded :

rately. Their Imperial and Royal Majesuntil such a power was raised up in its ties have adopted this basis for their prestead, as might support loyalty, and pro- sent transactions, &c. tect the crown. Then, and not till then, was it safe for the Allies to withdraw;

As to the territorial cessions by France, and if, in the course of five years, the they are rather nominal than real: they same Jacobinical disposition which re

pare off a few acres of her boundary, to. called Buonaparte and re-kindled the meet the convenience of her neighbours ; Hames of war in Europe, should be but, the loss of them nothing impairs satisfactorily suppressed, then it will be the formidable strength of the French safe for the whole of the “army of oc

dominions, or the general interests of eupation," --more properly, perhaps, Europe. denominated an “ army of observation, The fifth Article is the most mate. to retire to their respective homes, rial; and that we give in its Oficial and to their remembrances and recol- integrity. lections of the fruitful plains of the Low

ARTICLE V. Countries,

The state of uneasiness and of fermenta. The principles we have stated, are tion, which after so many violent convul. those expressed, in the Preamble to the sions, and particularly after the last catasDEFINITIVE TREATY. An introduc-trophe, France must still experience, nottion which it required no little skill to withstanding the paternal intentions of draw up. It simply states the fact of Her King, and the advantages secured to the case, in the following terms.

every class of His Subjects by the constitu

tional Charter, requiring, for the security IX THE NAME OF THE MOST HOLY AND of the ueighbouring States, certain mea

sures of precaution, and of temporary guaThe Allied Powers having by their rantee, it bas been judged indispensable egited efforts, and by the success of their to occupy, during a fixed time, by a corps ams, preserved Fravice and Europe from of Allied Troops, certain military positions the convulsions with which they were me along the frontiers of France, under the baced by the late enterprise of Napoleon express reserve, that such occupation shall Buonaparte, and by the Revolutionary in no ways prejudice the Sovereignty of System reproduced in France, to promote His Most Christian Majesty, nor the state its success; participating at present with of possession, such as it is recognized and His Most Christian Majesty in the desire to confirmed by the present Treaty. The consolidate, by maintaining inviolate the number of these troops shall not exceed Royal Authority, and by restoring the ope one hundred and fifty thousand men. The

UN DIVIDED TRINITY.

Commander in Chief of this army shall be , ministrations, as well as for the arming nominated by the Allied Powers This and provisioning the fortresses, which in army shall occupy the Fortresses of Condé, virtue of the fifth article of the treaty of this Vallenciennes, Bouchain, Cambray, Le day, are to remain as a deposit in the hands Quesnoy, Maubeuge, Landrecies, Avesnes, of the Allied troops. Rocroy, Givet, with Charlemont, Mezières, The Civil Administration, the Adminis. Sedan, Montmedy, Thionville, Longwy, tration of Justice, and the collectiou of Bitsch, and the Tète-de-Pont of Fort Louis. taxes and contributious of all sorts, shall As the maintenance of the army destined remain in the hands of the agents of His for this service is to be provided by France, Majesty the King of France. a Special Convention shall regulate every The same shall be the case with respect thing which may iplate to that object to the Customs. This Convention, which shall have the same force and effect as if it were inserted

That the disturbers of the public word for word in the present Treaty, shall

peace will do their utmost by disseminatalso regulate the relations of the army of ing false reports, by propagating their occupation witin the civil and military sanguinary doctrines, to create misunauthorities of the Country. The utmost derstanding between these troops and extent of the duration of this Military Oc- the inhabitants, cannot be doubted: that cupation, is fixed at Five Years. It may they will endeavour to corrupt the loyterminate before that period, if, at the end | alty of these troops, cannot be doubted : of Three Years, the Allied Sovereigns, that among so great a number of troops after having, in concert with His Majesty the King of France, maturely examined

some will be found unwise enough to Their reciprocal situation and interests, listen to the syrèn tales told them, canand the progress which shall bave been not be doubted. It follows, that the made in France in the re-establishment of system to be enforced, is a system of order and tranquillity, shall agree to ac- vigilance: the officers of these troops knowledge that the motives which led have the safety of Europe in their hands: Them to that measure have ceased to exist. they, if active, will confer security on But whatever may be the result of this de

the civilized world; if negligent, will liberation, all the Fortresses and Positions bave to pay with their lives the forfeit occupied by the Allied Troops shall, at the

of their temerity. expiration of five years, be evacuated with out further delay, and given up to His We have not stated these ideas withMost Christian Majesty, or to His Heirs out having well considered the subject, and Successors.

according to the best information that The Special Convention, referred to has reached us. In the suppression of in this article, is of the following tenor: factious writings, discourses, priuciples,

This army shall be maintained by the consists the safety of France: in the French Government in the manner follows alertness and vigour of the allies, coning:

sists the safety of Europe. The smallThe lodging, the fuel and lighting, the est error, overlooked, may lead to conprovisions and forage, are to be furnished sequences, which we tremble to think iu kind.

of; the slightest indulgence of unhalIt is agreed that the total amount of daily lowed passions, may prove fatal to a rations shall vever exceed two hundred system professedly intended to subserve thousand for men, and fifty thousand for horses, and that they shall be issued ac

a temporary purpose, till time and

events have given solid strength to a cording to the Tarif annexed to the pre power too recent to be called old; too sent Convention,

old to be termed recent. With respect to the pay, the equipment, the clothing, and other incidental matters, The revulsion of affairs to which the French Goverument will provide for France had been a prey, afforded an opsuch expense by the payment of a sum of portunity for re-stating some of those fifty millions of francs per annum, payable claims on that country which had lain in specie froin month to month, from the dormant, though not abandoned, in the first of December, 1815, into the hands of the Allied Commissioners.

previous arrangement of 1814.

In fact, Trance engages equally to provide for it was scarcely possible, among such an the keeping up of the fortifications, and of infinite diversity of interests to think of the buildings of the Military and Civil Add them all, to adjust them all, at that criti

cal moment. Among others left unset- to whom the occupation of the frontier tled, was the claim of British creditors of France is entrusted, yet, it must be on France, for justice against the Con- reinembered, that, the Alied Sivefiscations and Sequestrations, which, at reigns, themselves, stand personally different times, had been issued by her pledged to promote the stability of the various tyranuic Governments against arrangements made. They have pledged their property, in that Country, A Con- themselves to augment their military vention regulates this : of which we only forces, if necessury; to employ the whole quote one article, with the coudition of resources of their Dominions, if necessathe whole.

ry; but, while we hope, and trust, that no The subjects of His Britannick Majesty,

such necessity will arise, we cannot but holders of permanent stock underthe French

see in the following agreement, a mode Government, and who on that account for preventing that neressity by anticipahave, since the first of January, 1793, suf tion. It is, we believe, new in the annals fered by the confiscations or sequestrations of Diplomacy; but, it is not the only decreed in France, shall them elves, their noveliy, to which late affairs have given heirs or assigns, subjects of His Britannick birth. Majesty, he inscribed in the great book of

To facilitate and to secure the execution the consolidated debt of France, for an amount of stock equal to the amount of the the connections which at the present mo

of the present Treaty, and 10 consolidate stock they possessed prior to the laws and ment so wiosely unite the four sovereigns for decrees of sequestration or of confiscation the happiuess of the world, the high conabove-mentioued.

In the cases in which the edicts or de tracting parties have agreed to renew their crees constituting the above-mentioned meetings at fixed periodis, either under the

immediate auspices of the sovereignis themstock shall have added thereto profitable conditious, or favourable chances, account the purpose of consulting upon their com.

seives, or by their respective ministers, for shall be bad thereof in favour of the creditors, and an addition, founded upon a

mon interests, and for the consider:ition of just evaluation of such advantages, shall still be considered the most salutary for

the measures which at each of those periods he made to the amount of the stock to be ine repose and prosperity of nations, and inscribed,

The new inscriptions shall bear date and for the maintenance of the peace of Europe. bear interest from the 22nd of March, 1816. !f the term of five years, during which

Such subjects of His Britannick Majesty, the Allied troops hold possession of the who by receiving their annuities at a third, frontier provinces of France, should after the soth of September, 1797, have be all wed to slip away unimproved, by submitted themselves by their own act to her neighbours, who have the greatest the laws existing upon this subject, are exempted from the above-mentioned dispo- severity of censure could be sufficiently

occasion to dread her insurgence, no sitions.

When the three millions five hundred severe : the heaviest imputations would thousand francs of interest, mentioned in lie on their prudence and foresiglot, on the niuth article, shall have beeu inscribed their talents and understanding. It in the vame of the Commissioners who are would be in vain, even to attempt to to hold that sum in deposit, and on the strve such heedless no-thinkrs. But, first demand which shall be thereafter the Powers have announced their inten. made by the French goverument, ' bis tion, that while France is in no capacity Britannick Majesty shall give the necessary orders to carry into execution the res

in impede their operations-whila an toration of the French ('olonies, as stipu. -fficient army is interposed on the fronlated by the Treaty of Paris, of the 3016 ouers, certain strong places shall be proBay, 1814, comprehendiug Martiique vided, certain fortresses shall be precird, and Gundaloupe, which_have been since which, hy opposing the operations «fan occupied by the British Forces.

attacking forre, may oblige an erreny The inscription above-mentioned shall to lose time sufficient in whitever inbe made before the 1st of January, at the roads be may make, to allow of assislatest.

tanc' arriving from the general confeBut, though we have suggested an deracy. opinion that the tranquillity of Europe But fortifications are expensive erecdepends much on the conduct of those;' tions. It may well be, that the coun

« FöregåendeFortsätt »