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several successive days to obtain a sight of England, and the English People. them, fell into the greatest embarrass

ments. By Jean-Baptiste Say. Translated by

Those even who are at their ease in their J. Richte. 8vo. pp. 68. Sherwood and occupations, and who can relax at their Co. London, 1816. 8vo. pp. 68. pleasure, continue to work, in order to The opinions of foreigners are too profusion of the times (marcher de pair

become rich and to keep pace with the often despised by our countrymen. The dans toutes les profusions). The greatest imperfect informatiou such visitors are disgrace in France is want of courage-in able to obtain, with the no less imper- England, want of money. The one is, fect manner in which they express their perhaps, not more reasonable than the sentiments, give a certain air of awk-other. wardness, or of incompetence, to their

This state of things produces a deploraremarks, and those who might benefit ble effect on the mind, and makes the by them turn a deaf ear, or, perhaps, of Bacon, of Newton, and of Locke, will

philosophic observer fear that this country are so rude as to convert good sense into

soon make rapid and retrograde steps toridicule. On the other hand, it must be wards barbarism. It appears certain that confessed, that a Aying visit is no ade- they read much less than they did: they quate means of forming an estimate of have not time, and books are tou dear. a people or a country; of acquiring a The rich, who think of nothing but ennotion of advantages or disadvantages, joyment, have other pleasures than those as they apply to apparent facts, or re

of the mind, and the one destroys the aptilative situations.

tude for the other. Tbe little wbich peo

ple of fashiou iu general read is never of Many things which foreigners think the best. Truly useful reading requires an much to our disparagement, we rejoice application which is troublesome to them; in, as blessings of no conmon magni- and when by accident they read good tude: while, we have often regretted on works, it is like seed thrown on a barren their behalf, those very circumstances in soil, which brings forth no fruit. The which they have gloried.

middle class is the only one wbich studies A curious instance of these opposite soon be unable to study in England.

usefully for society, and that class will inferences, is furuished by our author,

Now, we conceive, that no plague who says.

worse than idleness can befall a country; There are to be found there, without that, where any class, or number of indoubt, great land holders and rich capital

dividuals, can loiter ists, who may idly fold their arms, and

away their time, not whose pleasures are their only business: merely uselessly, but injuriously, from their revenues are so great, that they ex- morning to night,” in “ coffee-houses, cecd all wants, and defy all dearness: but billiard-rooms," and other kinds of what the minber of these is always small, com assumes the name of amusements, they pared with the bulk of a nation. The suffer in their own persons ; their English nation in general, with the ex- connections suffer also; and their counception of these favourites of fortune, is

try suffers with them. compelled to perpetual labour. She can.

Has not France most woeful reason to not rest. One never meets in England professed idlers: the moment a man ap

complain of the consequences of idleness pears unoccupied, and looks about him, he in her community? Would it not have is stared at.' There are no coffee houses, been infinitely to her advantage, had no billiard rooms, filled with idlers from those who were the instruments of her morning to night; and the public walks calamities some years ago, been emare deserted every day but Sunday. There ployed in exertions of honest labour ? every body runs, absorbed in his own af- The man who busily plies the loom, or fairs. Those who allow themselves the the hammer, is too much and too beo smallest relaxation from their labours, are neficially occupied, to hire himself at a promptly overtaken by ruin. I was assured, when at London, thạt, during the few shillings a day, for a massacre of visit of the Allied Sovereigns, whose pre- his fellow citizens. That a city so vast sence excited a lively curiosity, many fa- as our metropolis, should furnish idlers milies of that class who had little before enough to do mischief, while it is conhand, and who sacrificed their labour for fessed, is lamented; but, this only

proves the general conviction, that, were hooks, or what obtain the character of every man at his post, the security of good books, are circulated in immense the public would be the more solid and numbers, from country presses, as well permanent.

as in London editious; and that, could One of the laudable arts of Govern- the whole be calculated, it would demona ment is, to find occupation for every strate an astonishing increase of readers, snul ; and, though it is not possible to and students, within the last thirty years, effect this, strictly speaking, yet the in the country of Bacon, Newton, and immense and constant demand for la- Locke. bour in England, should be placed It is true, vevertheless, that our Lonamong the felicities, not among the dis- don tradesmen delight in the appearance advantages, of the people.

of wealth ; and were it free from decepWe have known minor politicians who tion, it might pass without censure : computed the cost to the nation of a but, while the public has no other means public sight, supposed to occupy a single of forming a judgment on the value of a day; it amounted to thousands of stock of goods, than by the specimen pounds, in the labour, &c. &c. sus- shewn at the shop window, this advanpended for the time. They proceeded tage will continue to be taken, notwithto calculate that arising from the vi-standing the condemnation of it by M. sits of the Sovereigns : the result would say. have appeared frightful, reduced to Nowhere are the efforts made to attract French livres. The attack and defence purchasers pushed further than in England. of the house of Sir Francis Burdett, his Hence that dressing out of shops, those escort to the Tower, and bis expected extravagant and fautastic ornaments, which procession, when released, amounted to

are designed to compel attention. Hence

those numerous a sum, which, as we have not the fi- offered at less than prinie cost; that air

advertisements; those goods gures at hand, we are unwilling to state of quackery, which strikes all foreigners In short, every honest man among us Even the managers of the principal theaknows, that “the hand of the diligent tres boast, in the most pompous style, of maketh rich,” but “idleness clothes a the applauses which their actors have reman with rags."

ceived from an enraptured audience, an As 10 the progressive barbarity of our audience which, to a certain extent, they times, the translator has entered his pro- to the public a new undertaking, or even

had composed themselves. To announce test against the conclusions drawn by his

a simple change of residence, an immovaauthor: we insert his words :

ble bill at the corner of the streets is not lo the short time the Author spent in sufficient; and they carry about like ban. this country, as he visited Scotland as well uers, in the midst of the busy crowd of as most of the manufacturing towns, he had London, walking nosices, which the pas.' not time to become acquainted with the sengers may read without losing a minutę.. actual habits of the people; nor does he As to our foreign commerce, it inight seem to have heard of those novel estab- well bid defiance to the utmost rigour lishments, the inpumerable " Book Socie- and vigilance of the Continental Sys-' ties," which are to be found in almost tem, M. Say, himself, being judge.every town; by means of which many single copies of these works, and of the bet. His statement justifies our assertion. ter kiou too, pass, almost as soon as pub Speculators of every nation were enabled lisbed, into the bands of a great number of to purchase goods in England, and to proindividuals; after which they are frequently cure, at an advantageous rate, the money sold, at reduced prices, to persons who are

to pay for them. If they bought an artieager to avail themselves of so much cle at Birmingham which cost a pouud easier an opportunity of possessing some sterling, instead of paying twenty four portion of the literature of the times. Thus, francs for the pound which they were the etfect of the “ dearness of books" is obliged to remit for it, it cost them outy also, in a considerable degree, prevented.

eighteen francs at most ; so that they This is not all : it consists with our

might be content without gaining

What do I say? They might be content knowledge that the number of books of

even to lose on the goods, since, by the exeducation now furnished by the press, change alone, they gained 25 per ceut., a is beyond all former precedent: thai good fourth part of the sum to be remitted.

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So then, the worst to which Napoleon simply because fortune has made bim the could force this turbulent generation brother of an admiral who lost his life in a was, to exert industry, somewhat more

naval engagernent. than formerly: to labour more dili

This is what the family of Nelson annugently, in order to meet the pressure of ally costs the English nation :

To Earl Nelson, brother of the £ the expences necessarily incurred in de

admiral, besides a peerage : 5000 fending the Sacred Island against his For the purchase of an Estate, visitation, and, at length, hurliug him 100,0001., the interest of from bis throne. By this diligence, we which costs the couutry

5000 sold our productions cheap ; and his To Viscountess Nelson, his Witormented slaves could afford to defy his


2000 most terrific prohibitions ! So much for

To Mrs. Bolton & Mrs: Matchhis Berlin and Milan Decrees! against

am, his sisters, 10,000l. each, this “nation of shopkeepers."

the interest of which costs
the country

1000 Nor is this all : the habit of industry formed by necessity, will continue its

£13,000 action fo many a day to come. this be added, that consuminate skill The public Treasury continues to pay and care which we have repeatedly to the Duke of Marlborough, who is not pressed on our population, we confess, descended from the great Duke, but who that the secret is manifest on which we

took his name in consequence of marrying depend for that favourable reception in

a descendant, 50001. annually, besides the foreign markets, which is now indis- maguificent estate of Blenheim, which he

inherits. pensable to us; and for the continuance

But, if male issue were denied by nature of that superiority which has hitherto to the Duke of Marlborough ; must his been assigned to our productions by the descendants by his danghters be oververdict of the world at large.

looked? They too were beroines in Let it not be thought that we are in- their way : and it is well known, that sensible to the difficulties of our coun one of them struck such awe into a try: we both see them, and feel them : footpad who presented a pistol at her, but, at the same time, we indulge the that he failed of his purpose : No, inpersuasion that they are not insurmount-deed, fellow! what! the daughter of able ; and while we look at them John Duke of Marlborough be robbed !" steadily, we equaliy steadily look around, to discover-not the shortest, but,-the The State of the United Kingdom ut best method of surmounting them. Nor

the Peace of Paris, November 20, 1815, let this nation abate its gratitude to those worthies in every department of the

repecting the People; their Domestic State who have been conspicuously suc

Energies; their Agriculture; their Trade; cessful in humbling the foe. Our nier

their Shipping; and their Finances. By cbayts, our manufacturers, our George Chalmers, F.R.S.S. A. Price gineers, with others beyond number 1s. Stockdale, London, 1816. deserve statues, in our opinion ; but we The best answer that can be given to trust they have received, generally Foreign prognosticaters of evil, may be speaking, more substantial rewards. derived from the Official Tables, of Not so, our military chiefs : where is the which this sheet is an Epitome. As to Briton who will not rejoice in the ability native predictors of ruin, we would not of his country to continue to reward the willingly spoil their pleasure; and, thereposterity of the Hero of Blenheim, and fore, we acknowledge the fact, as a the family of the Hero of Trafalgar. matter of course :-ruined we certainly Says M. S.

Mr. Chalmers has heretofore furI do not know up to what point politi

nished acceptable matter for our pages: cal justice requires that the money of a na —again he appears, and speaks the lantion should be given to a citizen who bas guage of chearfulness. done nothing for it, and who is not recom Our PEOPLE, says Mr. C. were, about mended by any particular talent or virtue, 1780 not less than 8,447,000 souls: in




1801 they were found by Parliamentary Our Readers will have observed the Enquiry to be 9,340,000 : in 1811 they gradual reduction of prices of GOLD were by the same authority, 10,150,615. and Silver, as marked in our CommerThe number in Scotland in 1801 was cial Report: Gold is now at £4. 0. 0. 1,618,303 ; in 1811, it was 1,805,000. per oz. for the best coined gold. Silver The population of Ireland in 1800 was at 4s. 11d. for Dollar Silver. These supposed to be 4,000,000; in 1814, it prices have lately tallen with great deliapproached to 6,000,000.

beration; but, we hope and expect to The Local IMPROVEMENTS in the see them continue falling, notwithstandUnited Kingdom, Mr. C. deduces from ing that reluctance. the number of Acts of Parliament passed: Mr. C. states the SINKING Fund on these were

February 1, 1815 at £11,324,760, but, from 1784 to 1792.... 750

he has not stated its amount for the year 1792 to 1800....1,124 1916. We doubted the propriety of 1806 to 1814....1,632.

touching it, when the Chancellor of tbe AGRICULTURE has received under its Exchequer trespassed on it for a part of cultivation, during the present reign, at the Assignments to the Public Creditor: least 3,500,000 acres: the number of and, we should be glad to see it consiActs of Parliainent for draining wet dered as sucred; for a long, a very long, lands, for dividing commons, &c.

time to come. 1,591. Of course these are suspended

The proportion which its available for the moment; but, he must be a

amount bears to that of the National bold man, who will venture to affirm, Debt fairly met, and fully stated, should that they will not be either confirmed, be constantly kept witbin view of Paror resumed, in two or three years from liament. Every quarter, every nionth, this time.

it should be put into the hands of memCOMMERCE presents a very lively Pic- bers; in a more effectual way thau by ture : our Exports from Britain, in

being merely “laid on the table.” 1756 were about......12,371,867 1793


In our opinion the Health and Strength 1803

.33, 614,992

of the Body Politic resembles that of the 1809


Body Natural. While the circulation 1814


Hows freely from the heart and to the

heart, the Constitution is safe, though The Exports from Ireland were : in

the arms and the legs may be weary and 1751 about


overworked. Fever, announced by too 1801


rapid motion of the blood, is dangerous ; 1809


not less a motion too slow and languid, 1814


Let us hope, that Britain is in no danger Now it must be acknowledged, that po from failure in her other systems ;-that small part of this encreased value con

she need fear no paralys!s, for instance; sisted in the amount of taxes, added to but, her heart and her head being the cost price of the goods : neverthe-sound, however the Doctors may disless, the encreased quantity of goods agree on the treatment proper to certain produced, and exported, was very consi- symptoms, that she may yet enjoy a life derable, and absolutely undeniable: as

of ages. She will do very well, if the appears from many pages of our work, Doctors do not kill her. in which this is justified by Tables. The quantity of Shipping bas kept

Mr. C. will probably include this pace with the quantity of goods to be sheet in a larger work. carried abroad. The Tondage, was, in For particulars of the Former “Esti

Tons British. Foreign. mate of the Comparative Strength of 1756 496,254 76,456

Great Britain, after every war since 1793 1,255,939 262,558

the Revolution,” by the same Author, 1803 1,470,520 589,404

see Literary Panorama. Vol. IX. p.

1019, et seq.
1809 Total... .2,230,902.
1814 Total. .2,447,268.

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same time, another subscription was proAn Account of the First Edinburgh fund, in order to provide for ultimate pay,

posed to the public in name of a guarantee Musical Fistival, held between October ment, if the expenses of the Festival should 30 and November 5, 1815. By G. F. happen to exceed the produce of the

tickets. Both of these subscriptions were Graham, Esq. Edinburgh, Blackwood;

most liberally entered into by the public; Baldwin, and Co. London. 1816.

and the Directors having uow solid grounds Music, as a study with professors of to support their hopes of success, joursued Music, seeking in it their gratification, the object in view with additional ardour

and unwearied diligence. is placed in a situation not without difficulty; though it must be recognized the concourse of strangers towards Edin

For some time previous to the Festival, as a natural talent, and a gift derived burgh was unexampled. From England, from the Author of our nature. To for- and the remotest parts of Scotiand, indibid the exercise of a power, in itself viduals and whole families poured into the neither detrimental, nor blameable, were city. Every house and every room that to be wiser than the Wisdom to which could be obtained, was occupied by persons we owe our being; on the other hand, of all rauks and ages, who had lefi, for a it cannot be denied that the study bas time, their own habitations, incited by proved a snare to many an ingenuous ger curiosity and animated by high hopes mind, and has issued in the rain of many the splendour and nagnificence of an enter;

of pleasure which were to be gratified by a hopeful youth. On this we speak feel- taiumevt altogether vew in Scotiand, and ingly: the reputation of singing a good nowhere surpassed in point of select music, song,, has issued, to our certain know- eminent professors, and accurate performledge, in an augmentation of the num anice, ber of “ Whereas's" in tbe Gazette.

The list of performers, and of pieces Mr. Graham, aware of the force of is truly respectable ; and the historical facts, endeavours to parry their conse remarks of the writer are intelligent, quences, in the opening of bis Introduc- and instructive, Many of them are tion to this pleasing volume. He justly calqued on the criticisms of Dr. Bur: lays the blame on the want of self-controul in the person injured; but, his and indeed, the narrative strongly brings

bey on the Commemoration of Handel ; reference to other indulgencies, no less that Musical Festival to mind. We canpernicious than music, affords no logical pot render these intelligible to our consequence, such

as he endeavours | readers ; and therefore, we prefer to take to draw from it. The sleep-producing pipes of Mercury, were found irresistibly nexed to the main history.

an extract from a sensible Essay an

Says powerful by the hundred eyes of Argus: Mr. G. and when those vigilant optics were all gradually closed-we know the issue. is very remarkable, that the Greek

The melodies of Scotland hold a dis- Dorian Mode, as altered by Olympus, (actinguished rank among national airs; cording to Aristoxenus, who lived $40 and it cannot be wondered at, that they sions, the scale in which many of the old

years A. C.) exactly resembles, in its omisshould be firmly fixed on the minds of Scottish melodies are composed. In these the population. It appears, however, scales the fourth and seventh of the key that more scientific compositions of are omitted This seems to shew, that the sweet sounds are relished with avidity, origin of the Scottish music is of much by the musical amateurs of that country. greater antiquity thau is commonly ima

About the close of 18ļ4, a few gen- gined.* That this peculiar kind of scale tlemen, of refined taste, agreed to intio

was not derived from the Irish or Welsh, duce a Musical Festival into Edinburgh, appears from the circumstance of these and as the public charities stood in need people having, at a very remote period, of assistance, this mode of extending

harps capable of producing the whole sebelp to them, was readily adopted.

By putting the series of sounds used A subscription for the Festival was by Olympus into a major key, for instance opened at the rate of three guirieas for each C major, we shall have exactly the ancient set of six transferable tickets; and, at the Scottish scale.

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