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ployment might be made to contribute. , of wax and honey might be extracted, far We have never been able to account exceeding the wants of the kingdom; but for the neglect of Bees in our own coun
this advantage appears to be most lameuttry. The most eminent Bee-masters we
ably neglected, because the culture of the are aequainted with, are persons in the Bee, which is a species of rural economy humbler walks of life; but, why should carded, and we disdain to pay attention to
the most iuteresting and profitable, is disthis concern be thought beneath the oc
the cultivation of that industrionis insect, cupation of their superiors ?. On the which proves a source of affluence and Continent, it is not unusual for the prosperity to neighbouring nations. The Clergy to engage in it; and, whether remedy is in our own hands; but until the addition of a ten or twenty pounds the system of the management of the Bee per annum to the income of some of is entirely changed, no rational hope of ulthose among us, who complain of po
timate success can be entertained. verty, by means completely within their Bees to obtain possession of their treasures
The barbarous custom of suffocating the reach, in skilful management of this in- impedes the multiplication. How is it sect, would not prove an advantage, may possible that Bees should not be scarce, deserve their consideration.
when, on the one hand, very few are As we cannot enter at large into the reared, and on the other, the whole prosubject, we content ourselves with an
duce of the year is generally destroyed! nexing a few extracts : the practical uses
The true cause of the scarcity of was in
the kingdom is thus not difficult to be disof the author's precepts, must be learned
covered. from the volume.
Mr. Huish treats on the Natural His We do, however, import considerable tory of the Beemon the species- quantities of wax from Africa, from the food-Queen-&c. on the best form for Coast of Guinea, &c. which of late Hives, with descriptions of several, as
have come to a good market. proposed by Foreign, or British Apiari Mr. H. gives some very rational and ans:-On the enemies of the Bee, and the proper directions for the gathering of disorders to which the insect is subject. honey, and the hive he has constructed, iš He includes, also, in his account the with a view to facilitate that operation; methods of treatment, and the profits to
to which might added other purposes, be drawn from the products of this won
for which it appears to be favourable
. derful labourer, of which honey, no
He moderates the expectation of obtaindoubt, is the principal; though wax is ing great quantities, in common senfar from being unworthy of notice, even sons, without destroying the hive ; and in a national print of view.
in this we agree with him. His method If it be true that a country is impove
of detecting adulierations of honey may rished in proportion as it pays for the com
prove useful to those who purchase modities of another, this country is an- qnantities. nually impoverished in the sum of nearly There is scarcely any article in com80,000l. by the mere purchase in the arti merce which is more adulterated thap hocle of wax. The chief market for this ar ney, and as it is generally sold by weight, ticle is in the north of Germany; at the it is mixed with heavy farinaceous subports of which, and particularly at Dant. stances, by which means honey is never zic,, is concentrated the whole annual col- obtained in its genuine purity. lection of the interior of Germany, and There are two methods of discovering those countries immediately bordering on if honey has been adulterated with flour; it. A considerable quantity of it is thence the first is, to dilute a little honey svith shipped to England, and the question here cold water, and if it be impregnated with arises how far it is prudent or politie in four, the water will become of a milky England, to pay annually an immense sum colour; the second is to place for a commodity, which could be obtained in a pot, which pot must be half immerseul in superfluity from her own domain, and in a saucepan of water ; when the water 'which is suffered to perish for want of en is brought to a boiling heat, the hovey be couragement and attention.
comes perfectly clarified, but if adulterated, In our fields, our plains, our heaths and a thick scum rises to the top, which on words, we every where see a number of being taken off, and suffered to grow cold, of those Bowers from which an abundance crumbles into a fine farinaceous substance,
It is certainly most desirable that the other: for this purpose they are supported Bees should be brought up at home, as
with little sticks. much as possible ; but this varies with The protection afforded to these incircumstances, and we have known a sects iv other countries, might suggest ten acre field, in the course of its rota a hint to a 'nation which some describe tion of crops, become either a paradise as exhausted : have we already em: or a desert to neighbouring swarms of ployed all the powers of creating wealth bees. In some countries the swarms are conferred on our country by nature ? "led forth,' on somewhat the same I have by me a French newspaper of the principle as the Merino sheep in Spain 21st of September, 1787, in which there is are removed from one province to ano an article dated Hanover, August 30th. ther; the history is among the most “ The culture of the Bee is one of the obamusing, though not the most profitable jects of the industry of the inhabitants of parts of the volume.
this province; the produce of wax is esti
mated this year, (1787,) at 300,000 pounds; M. L'Abbe Tessier, Proutant, and if we multiply this 300,000 by fifteen, we others, inform us, that the proprietors of find that Hanover alone in that year, prothe Bees in Beauce transport their hives duced 4,500,000 pounds of honey. A every year in the month of August in carts, most incredible qnautity to be collected in into the country of the Gatinois, or to the globules, by a particular species of insects. environs of the forest of Orleans, about the distance of ten miles from their habitations concerning agricultural effects, art. 2 of
In France, by a law Sept. 25, 1791, They there fiud heath, or buck wheat in the 3d section, it was decreed, that BeePower, at a time when in Beauce, after the bives shall not be seized nor sold for any gathering of the sainfoin and
the vetches, public contribution, nor for any other debt. no further addition can be made by the By the 524 art. of the civil code, it is deBees to their winter store.
cided that Bee-hives form a part of the cs. This manner of transporting the Bees is tate on which they are placed, at least with called in the country, leading them to pas one positive exception, that he who sells ture. A single cart contains thirty or an estate on which there are Bee-hivés, forty bives. They travel only by night, cannot take them away, unless it be posiand at a foot's pace, and as much as pos- tively stipulated to that effect in the consible on
The hives are tract. covered with linen, and are arranged in Very different are our proceedings, stories, those of the upper being reversed and yet we accuse the French of levity between those of the lower story. They and indifference. Some instances of remain about two months in the place of their pasturage. The peasants take care
even superstitious notions are adduced of them for a very trifling salary. In this by our Author. season nearly three thousand strong bives Several ridiculous notions exist in the are seen in a little village. When the minds of the common people regarding hives are to be transported, they are placed Bees; they believe that purchased Bees in the evening individually on
never prosper, unless therefore a peasant cloth, in which they are wrapped, and tied cau obtain the gift of a swarm, or has rouņd with bauds of straw, osier, or pack- something which he can give in exchange, thread. Two men can carry several hives he will rather relinquish all the profit at. by passing a long stick through the knottending the management of a few lives, of the cloth which covers them. They than purchase one. In some parts of Engare thus often packed on horses or asses. land the Bees are not suffered to go out on They are placed topsy turvy on the pan- Wednesdays nor Fridays.—A belief is also niers. If they are placed in the common entertained that they are subject to witchway, that is, on their bottom, they must craft; this prejudice is derived from the be raised and sustained at the height of Greeks, ( Herod. lib. 2. cap. 281.) who had some inches, especially if the journey be of their magicians, who pretended to tell the spme days length; for it is necessary that fortunes of persons with the productions of the Bees imbibe a renovated air. The the Bee. swarms which have been newly hived The 10th of August is considered by may remain in this state two or three some people as a day of jubilee amongst days. In cold weather the bives full of the Bees, and the Bees which are seen wax, honey, and bees, may be transported working ou that day, are called Quakers, to any distance, by taking care only that from those people not observing any holi He combs do not break one against the days,
In Switzerland, when the master of the guess what price may be obtained for the house dies, the Bee-hives are all lifted up, one, or what rent for the other. Men of even in the midst of winter."
considerable experience advance opinions That is to say, they also are exposed to most widely difierent on the subjert, some death.
stating that land has not fallen above 101. per cent. and others that it has experienced
a depreciatiou of 701. per ceut. An Inquiry into the extent of the De
The medium is nearer the truth; but, preciation of Landed Property, &c. by J. after arguing the question, Mr. Sellon Sellon. 8vo. pp. 55. Baldwin and Co. states it, at about 25 per cent : not
more; because the Farmer's expences London. 1816.
must be calculated on a diminished scale, We have perused this pamphlet with also. much satisfaction. It contains a more considerate and moderate views of causes decrease in the farmer's expenses. I am
Let us now examine what has been the and consequences than is usually taken, aware that, there not being any correct by those interested. The estimate date by which they may be guided, the formed of the extent of the depression opinions even of experienced men will difapproaches more nearly to what we have fer considerably on this subject: none, had occasion to observe; though per- however, will deny that the expeuses athaps, we ought not to lose sight of thedif-tendant on the cultivation of land have de. ferences which occur in different places. creased very materially. All the most imWe shall submit an abstract of Mr. portant may be classed under the four fol
lowing heads; rent, taxes, labour, and Sellon's arguments and inferences. horse keep: of these I shall suppose that
As when any article is rising in price, the first two remain as they originally more may frequently be obtained for it than were, and merely endeavour to estimate the intrinsic value of that article, so when the decrease in the last two. The expense the same thing is filling, it is difficult to of horse-feed has diminished exactly in the obtain for it even its present worth. When same proportion with the value of the prolately land and the produce of land was duce of land ; that therefore hus fallen acrising considerably, the farmers, encou- cordiig to the former calculation 38 per raged by the golden prospects which their cent. Labour has, I understand, in most imagination framed, by the aërial castles places been reduced on an average full 20 which they had built for themselves, were per cent. ; a reduction, which, if we coneach vyeing to outbid his neighbour, and sider the high price at which all foreign conceived that too large a price could produce still remains, may prove by the ine scarcely be offered for land: now that crease of poor-rates ultimately more detrithe prospect has suddenly changed, they mental than beneficial to the landholder. are as much depressed; the same spirit If however labour has fallen 20 per cent, which before actuated them now operates and horse keep 38, (not to mention seeds, as strongly in the opposite direction; they the reduced expence of the farmers' livsee nothing but falling prices, bad crops, ing, &c.) we may I think fairly assume failures, taxation, and ruin, and are un that the average fall of the two is about 28 willing to give any thing near even the per cent. present depressed value for land. This kind of fear or prejudice operates more in
Now these two articles form so material my opinion on the present price of land,
a part of the outgoings of farming, that in than all the other causes however powerful well-cultivated land, where the expenses and alarming, where they would lower it
as 10, they would amount to at
least 7 2.5 per cent, the alarm and the prejudice of some farmers, and perhaps the advani
The farming interest, it appears, taken of the times by others, would siuk it to 50 per cent.
then, has received very essential alleviaIt has for some time past been sopposed and if corn has been depressed below its
tion, as well the tenant as the landlord; that the present marketable price of land altogether yuknown, evev amongst those true value, it will certainly rise again; who are and ought to be most conversant and the danger may require to be with the subject. If a landed estate is 1o guarded against of envy at ihe then efbe sold, or a farm let, it is difficult even to fects of what is now thought expedient.
foregoing examples, prepares the Stue A Familiar Treatisc' on Perspective; in dent for the following.
four Essays : -1. On the Theory of The figures are also dirested of those Vision, and the Principles of Per- multiplicities of lines, which in many a spective there with connected. 2. Ele- Neither are the more complex and em
learned folio are absolutely terrific. ments of the Practice of Perspective. barrassing objects introduced ; but, the 3. Perspective of Shadows. 4. On Treatise is, what it professes to be, a Aerial Perspective, or Keeping. By familiar performance. Charles Taylor. With fifty-one Entroduces a pleasing explanation of the gravings. Price 155. Taylor, London. natural powers of the eye; and particu1815.
larizes some of those delusions to which it is frequently subjected.
By thus If it were necessary to single out any drawing his instances from nature, he particular branch of Art, the principles induces the young mind to look abroad of wbich are founded in nature, and are for that ainusement, as well as in constantly exercised by us, yet elude struction, which can never be so well the sagacity of those most beholden to investigated as in the operations of Nathem, we should certainly fix of Per ture herself. spective as that branch.
It was not As Geometry is the foundation of the accurately known, so as to be reduced to science, a series of geometrical figures is practice, by any of the great masters of introduced, comprising polygons of varis antiquity whom we read of. They had ous forms, which not merely instruct the an acquaintance with optics, more or eye, but essentially promote facility of less, sufficient to guide them, and to hand, and practice. These contribute direct the appearances of the proportions assistance also, on the article of proporin their works, to a proper correctness, tions, and open the mind to truths, which when seen in their intended situacions: otherwise would pass unregarded. but, an instance of correct Perspective, The Perspective of Shadows has been shewn in buildings, parts and forms, much neglected by some Artists, espefounded on just principles, is unknown. cially Painters, who being intent on
In this our least practised performers grouping their shadows with all possible have an inappreciable advantage over speed, in order to obtain what they conAppelles and Zeuxis, with all their bre-sidered as repose, hare violated all the thren; because, this Science is now re possibilities of the scene, and have lite duced to maximns so certain, and to prin rally " put light for darkness, and darkciples so facile, that whoever neglecis it, ness for light,” as the Scripture speaks, has nobody to blame but himself. In- on the subject of morals. We have often deed we seldom, now, meet with Artists been vesed with gross errors in this rewho have not paid attention to it; and spect, in pictures, otherwise honourable ibe Lectures at the Royal Academy are to their authors. This department is proofs of the solicitude with which Artists here reduced to principles so simple, that of eminent powers enforce, both the the even a perusal of them must have a beneory, and the practice.
ficial effect on the practice of an artist. But, families, not professediy Artists, The Principles of Keeping, with the do not, and cannot well receive instruc- explanation of the retiring shade- which tions on this subject from the Public is not properly a shadow, affords amusing Professors. It is, therefore, no trifling, views of nature and natural objects: and nor unacceptable service done by this the whole is presented in an easy style, writer, to place this always useful, and and with great attention to propriety now highly fashionable study, within and neatness. reach of private families, and of ordinary
The writer censures those immense understandings. For ibis purpose, Mr. T. compositions of ceiling pieces, once so bas studied that orderly kind of arrange- fashionable. Hogarth had not spared ment, which, by a proper attention to the choice of such subjects, when he WI. IV, LIT. PAN. No. 19. N. S. Mari.
represented in the Nobleman's Grand
Saloon " the passage of the Red Sea," nent is now open to British ramblers, painted on the cieling; whence it would they may at once amuse and improve follow that the waters flowing down themselves by giving this set of Gramwards according to their natural course, mais a place in their baggage.
The the whole company assembled would bumours of a Treckschut aie seldom so share the fate of Pharoah and his host, piquant, but what an Englishman would and be thoroughly water-soaked, if not be glad of a pocket companion ;--and if drowned.
it be bis fate to drawl over the landes of Mr. T. does not confine his attention France, he will do well to beconie ipti.. to the dry study of lines and figures: his mate with his Spanish Vocabulary durEssays are diversified by remarks aris- ing the drag, were it only pour passer le ing from bis subject, and they derive a teme. . sprightliness from incidents on which he This set of works is composed with an occasionally dilates pleasingly enough. intention to facilitate the means of comThe plates are neatly executed; but, as parison between the European tongues : we cannot transcribe them, we shall con an attempt that requires an arrangement tent ourselves with inserting a paragraph, proper for the purpose, throughout the as a specimen of the writer's manner. Grainmars; while each is equally well
We have now arrived at the conclusion fitted to its own peculiar language. The of this Series of Essays on PERSPECTIVE, in choice of Examples is amusing and inwbich, it is hoped, the subject has been structive. They consist of extracts from treated succinctly, clearly, and intelligibly. I authors with whose works whoever is The importance, the universality, and the intent on acquiring the Italian language constant recurrence of these principles, lead will not fail to desire a more than superto the wish, that they were generally pro: ficial acquaintance. mulgated, not in the stackles of technical terms, or of abstruse disquisition, but in easy lessons and in colloquial language. I'Moscow : a poem. By Mrs. Hen. Rolls. is said among the faculty, that if the simplicity of remedies were known, their efficacy
Svo. pp. 31. Price 2s. 61. Law and would be denied; but we need not fear that H hitaker, London. 1816. the facility of the rules laid down, should hinder either their application, or their
We praised, with pleasure, this Lady's pularity, since; to say if principles that they poetical talents, on a fornier occasion ; are correct, and to add to correctness, sim- and the public, we believe, justified our plicity and facility, is the bighest panegyric praises, by a general approbation. The of scientific instruction.
present subject affords inatter rather for
philosophical than fur poetical considerA Grammar of the Italian Language; in ation : for, it appears to us, that the
which the rules are illustrated by magnitude of the events is too enormous, Examples, selected from the best and the impressions they have made on Authors. By C. Laisné.
our minds, are as yet, too deep and fresh, 12mo.
while the convic ion arising from simple Dulau, London. 1$15.
narrative is also tov direct though cunWe cannot say how far M. Laisné i tessedly imperfect, — to allow the efforts might take it as a compliment, were he or ingenuity of poetry any tolerable pronounced
chance of success in its attempts to stimu: well able
laie our imagination. While nothing can a To have stood Ioterpreter at Babel; exceed the effect already produced on but, the linguist who has already pub- our minds by mere historical relation, Jished Spanish, Portuguese, French and verse employs its powers in vain. We Latin Grammars, and who gives lessons know no nerve in the human frame, in German, approaches as nearly to that which, after baving been excited by a power of interpretation, as any man we powerful stimulus, can readily obey the know.
action of a weaker. We know no pririSurely his scholars must be well fur. ciple in the mind which, after having nished in point of languages for making suffered from sympathy with realities, he tour of Europc; and as the Conti I with heart-rending sorrows, the conse