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roy, the duty of his furnishing assist the great roads, are declining; but the ance to their royal master ;-aod when cause is obvious, in their being immedihe declined interfering, a hint was ately exposed to the power of the competidropped of the possibility of the Queen tors for the crown, and to the pillage of

their armies. sending her veil to him, which would

But even if we admit the inferiority of lay him under an obligation indissolubly the Afghaun institutions to those of the binding.

more vigorous governments of other AsiaWithout tracing these manners anytic countries, we cannot but be struck further, we remark that Mr. E. disco- with the vast superiority of the materials vers in the limited powers of the So- they afford for the construction of a navereign, and the authority enjoyed by better adapted to a bad than to a good go

tional constitution. The other nations are the clans, together with the prevailing influence of general opinion, ample ma- contribute their whole force to the sup

vernment. They can all be brought to terials for the construction of a well re- port of a despotism, within the time that gulated Empire. It is curious to con is required to uver-run their territory ; and template the reveries of a Briton, who ages must pass away, before the slaves of discerns British principles, prevalent India or China could be made capable of among a race so distinct and distant. taking a share in the government of their

country; but if a King, of sufficient geAnother incalculable advantage of the nius to form a design of cordially uniting present system is, that although it encou- his subjects, should spring up among the rages little disorders, it affords an effec- Afghauns, he would necessarily fall on a tual security against the general revolution beautiful form of government, as the only and calamities to which despotic countries one by which he could possibly accomin Asia are so frequently subject. In Per-plish his design. An ordinary monarch sia or India, the passions of a bad king are might endeavour to reduce the tribes to felt through every part of his dominions ; obedience by force ; but one Afghaun and the civil wars wbich occur almost as King * has already had the penetration to often as a King dies, never fail to throw discover that it would require a less exerthe kingdom into a state of misery and dis- tion to conquer all the neighbouriug kingorder: part of the inhabitants are exposed doms, than to subdue his own countrymen, to the licence and cruelty of the contend-A monarch such has I have supposed ing armies, and the rest suffers, nearly in would therefore be obliged (as the King is an equal degree, from the anarchy that at present +) to concert his measures with follows a dissolution of the government the hereditary Khauns; and the necessity which has hitherto maintained the public of consulting the interests of the whole, tranquillity. The consequence is, that a would induce them to carry on their de-. tyrant, or a disputed succession, reduces bates in a general assembly: such an arthe nation to a state of weakness and decay, rangement would be congenial to the hafrom which it cannot wholly be retrieved, bits of their internal government, and conbefore its recovery is checked by the recur- formable to the practice wbich the King rence of a similar calamity. In Afghau- now observes with the Dooraunee Sirdars; pistaun, on the contrary, the internal go- and it would form a council of the nobiverament of the tribes answers its end so lity, connected both with the King and the well, that the utmost disorders of the royal people, though more immediately

with the government never derange its operations, King. In most Ooloosses, the Khauns nor disturb the lives of the pieople. A number of organised and high-spirited re

can levy no taxes, and can take no public

measures, without the consent of the publics are ready to defend their rugged elected Mulliks, who are obliged, in their country against a tyrant, and are able to turn, to obtain the consent of their divi. defy the feeble efforis of a party in a civil sions. The King might try to strengthen war. Accordingly, if we compare the the Khauns, and by their means to draw a condition of the two kingdoms, we find supply from a reluctant people, but unless Persia in a state of decay, after twenty he began with greater means than the years of entire, tranquility; while Afghau- Kings have yet possessed, his attempt nistaun continues the progressive improve would probably be attended with as little men which it has kept up during twelve

Ahmed Shauh. gears of civil warfare. New aqueducts are constantly made, and new lands brought † No measure was determined on in into cultivation : the towns and the coun-Shauh Shuja's time, without a council of try round them, indeed, as well as that on the Dooraunee lords.

success; and if he wished for general and / which we used to set out. A little before cordial aid, it must be procured by adher- sun-rise, people began to assemble at the ence to the preseut system, and by obtaja-mosques to their morning devotions. After ing the consent of ihe nation. Thus the the hour of prayer, soine few appeared Khauus would be sent, as they now are, to sweeping the streets before their doors, and persuade their tribes to contribute to the some great men were to be seen going to general revenue. They would find the their early attendance at Court. They people's ignorance of the national exigen. were always on horseback, preceded by cies, a bar to their granting any addition from ten to twelve servants ou foot, who to the established supplies; and it surely walked pretty fast, but in perfect order, would not be an unnatural expedient to and silence: nothing was heard, but the prevail on them to depute one or two of the sound of their feet But, when we rewisest of their Mulliks, to ascertain at the turned, the streets were crowded with men court the real state of the public affairs. of all nations and languages, in every vaAn elective assembly would thus be formed, riety of dress and appearance. The shops of which every individual would be closely were all open.

Dried fruits, and nuts, connected with his constituents, and would bread, meat, boots, shoes, saddlery, bales be regarded by them as their natural and of cloth, hardware, ready-made cloaths, hereditary head; they would represent a and posteens, books, &c. were either dispeople accustomed to respect their chiefs, played in tiers in frout of the shops, or but as much accustomed to debate on, and hung up on hooks from the roof. Amongst to approve or reject, the measures, which the handsomest shops were the fruiterers, those chiefs proposed. The nilitia of the (where apples, meions, plums, and even tribes would constitute an army which oranges, though these are rare at Pe. would be invincible by a foreign invader, shawer, were mixed iu piles with some of while the King would be without any the Indian fruits); and the cook-stops, force that could offer a moment's resist- where every thing was served in eartheu ance to a general combiuation of his sub- dishes, painted and glazed, so as to look jects.

like china. in the streets were people Such are the people of the country, of crying greens, curds, &c., and meri, carwhich the greater part are shepherds, backs, and announcing their commodity

rying water in leathern bays at their and remove from place to place accord-by beating on a brazen cup, in which they ing to the seasons. The inhabitants of give a drauglit to a passenger for a trifling the towns are less favourably spoken of, piece of money. With these were mixed, and the courtiers have excited nur au- people of the town in white turbaus, some thor's strongest censure. They are ac in large white or dark blue frocks, and cused of avarice and profligacy in va

others in sheep-skin cloaks ; Persians and rious forms. Mr. E. did not, however, Afghauns, in brown woollen tunics, or penetrate to the metropolis Caubul, but, skin or coloured silk; Khyberees, with the

fowing mantles, and caps of black sheepmeeting the King at Peshawer, that city straw sandals, and the wild dress, and air was the furthest stage of his journey of their mountaius; Hindoos, uviting the The splendour of the King's appear- peculiar features and manners of their own ance, we need not repeat. The Envoy nation, to the long beard, and the dress of speaks very favourably of his Majesty's the country; and Hazaurels, not more repolitical talents, of his personal manners markable for their conical caps of skin, as a gentleman, and of his general in with the wool, appearing like a fringe tegrity. These, therefore, we pass, to

round the eilge, and for their broad faces, insert a part of Mr. E.'s description of

and little eyes, than for their waut of the

beard, which is the ornament of every the city and people of Peshawer.

other face in the city. Among these, The inhabitants of Peshawer are of Inmight be discovered, a few women, with dian origin, but speak Pushtoo as well as long white veils, that reached their feet, Hindkee. There are, however, many and some of the King's retinue, in the other inhabitants of all nations; and the grotesque caps, and fantastic habits, which concourse is increased, during the King's mark the class to which each belongs.-visits to Peshawer. We had many oppor- Sometimes a troop of armed horsemen tunities of observing this assemblage in re- passed, and their appearance was anturning from our morning rides; and its nounced by the clatter of their horses effect was heightened by the stillness and hoofs on the pavement, and by the jingling solitude of the streels, at the early hour at of their bridles. Sometimes when the VOL IV. No. 2i. Lit. Pan. N. S. June 1.

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King was going out, the streets were distressing, than the heat in some prochoaked with horse and foot, and drome vinces, while in others, the cold equals daries bearing swivels, and large waving that of Greenland. As the latter is the red and green flags; and, at all times, more remarkable, we shall chiefly alloaded dromedaries, or beavy Bactrian ca

tend to it. mels, covered with shaggy hair, made their

On entering the plain of way slowly through the streets ; and Peshawer, February, 24, 1809, says mules, fastened together in circles of eight Mr. E. four ranges of mountains were or ten, were seer off the road, going round distinctly seen on the north. The lowand round to cool them after their labour, est range had no snow: the tops of while their keepers were indulging at an the second range were covered with cating-house, or enjoying a smoke of a it, as was the third range half way down. hired culleeaun in the street. Amidst all tlris throng, we generally passed without

The fourth was the principal range of any notice, except a salaum alaikum from the Indian Caircasus, which is always coa passenger, accompanied by a bow, with vered with snow, is conspicuous' from the hands crossed in front, or an applica- | Bactria, and the borders of India, and is tion from a beggar, who would call out

seen from places far off in Tartary. We for relief from the Feringee Khauns, ad- first saw these mountains at the distance monish us that life was short, and the of one hundred miles; but, they would benefit of charity immortal, or remind us

have been visible long before, if the view that what was little to us was a great deal had not been shut out by the hills through to him.

which we travelled. In appearance, It sometimes happened, that we were however, they were very near. The ridges descried by a boy from a window; and and hollows of their sides were clearly bis shout of Ooph Feringee would bring discernable; and, this distinctness, joined all the women and children iu the house to the softness and transparency which to stare at us till we were out of sight.

their distance gave them, produced a sioThe roads in the country were seldom gular, and very pleasing effect. very full of people, though they were

The snowy range is by no means of sometimes enlivened by a groupe of horse. equal elevation, being in some places, surmen going out to forage, and listening to a

mounted by peaks of great height and Pushtoo or Persian song,

which was magnitude, which do not taper to a point, shouted by one of their companions. It but rise at once from their bases, with was common in the country to meet a man

amazing boldness and grandeur. of the lower order with a hawk on his

The stupendous height of these moun. fist, and a pointer at his hec!s; and we tains; the magnificence and variety of frequently say fowlers catching quails their lofty summits; the various nations by among the wheat, after the harvest was waom they are seen, and who seem to be far enough advanced. A net was fastened brought together by this common object; at one corner of the field, two men held and the awful and undisturbed solitude, each an end of a rope stretched across the which reigns amidst their eternal snows; opposite corner, and dragged it forward, fill the mind with admiration and astonishso as to shake all the wheat, and drive the ment, that no language can express. The quails before it into the net, which was height of one of these peaks was taken dropped as soon as they entered. The by Lieutenant Macartney, and appeared numbers caught in this manner are almost to be 20,493 feet. If this measurement be incredible.

correct, the peaks of Hindoo Coosh are Nothing could exceed the civility of the higher than those of the Audes. The country people. We were often invited measurement made by Lieutenant Webb, into gardens, and we were welcomed in in the eleventh volume of the Asiatic Reevery village by almost every man that searches, gives a still greater height to

They frequently entreated the those of Hemalleh. The height of Hindoo gentlemen of the embassy to allow them Coosh, is undoubtedly very great, since the honour of being their hosts; and, we could perceive no diminution in the sometimes would lay hold of their bridles, on any part of the range in the and not permit them to pass till they had month of June, when the thermometer in promised to breakfast with them on some

the plain of Peshawer was at 1139. future day, and even confirmed the pro The intervals between the lower tuise, by putting their hands between ranges of mountains afford a profusion theirs.

of European fruits and flowers: their We have hinted at the change of sea- sides are covered with forests of pine, sons in Caubul. Nothing ean be more I oak, and wild olive: the vallies are wa

saw us.

SDOW

“ price.

tered by clear and beautiful streams, and “ the frame, notwithstanding which, the enjoy a most delicious climate. The “ (ostaud never mistakes the regularity of province of Cashrnire is inferior to none

“ the most figured patterns. in this respect; and though it was not

“ The wages of the Oostaud (the emvisited by any of the party, being then

ployer furnishing materials) are from six

to eight pice per day; of the common in rebellion, yet they obtained much infor

“ workmen, from one to four pice (a pice mation coucerning it. As the productions “ in Cashmeer is about three half-pence). of that province are in high esteem “ A merchant, entering largely into the among the fashionables of our land, we “ shawl trade, frequeutly engages a number insert the account given of the manu “ of shops, which he collects in a spot facture of that costly and elegant article,

“ under his eye; or he supplies the head the shawl.

" workmen with thread which has been

previously span by wonien and afterThe following is an extract from the re “wards coloured, and they carry on the port drawn up by Mr. Strachey, who made manufacture at their own houses, having many enquiries on this subject, and who

previously received instructions from the had some shawl stuffs made under his own “ merchant respecting the quality of the inspection, of wool procured at Umrit sir. “goods he may require, their colours, patThe manufacturers were pioneers belong." terus, &c. ing to the embassy, and they worked in a “ After the goods are conipleted, the comenon tent; yet they appeared to find “ merchant carries them to the customao difficulty in their employment. A " office, where each shawl is stanıped, and "shop may be occapied with one shawl, “ he pays a certain duty, the amount of "provided it be a remarkably fine one, " which is settled according to the quality * above a year, while other shops make " and value of the piece. The officer of * six or eight in the course of that period. “ the government generally fixes the value * Of the best and most worked kinds, not beyond what the goods are really worth, " so much as a quarter of an inch is com “ The duty is at the rate of one fifth of the "pleted in one day, by three people, which " is the usual number employed at most “ Most shawls are exported unwashed, " of the shops. Shawls' containing much " and fresh from the loom. In India, #work are made in separate pieces at dif " there is no market for unwashed shawls, * ferent shops, and it may be observed " and in Umritsir they are better washed " that it very rarely happens that the “ and packed than in Cashmeer. Of "pieces, when completed, correspond in “ those sent to the westward, many are?

“ worn unwashed. * The shops consist of a frame work, at “ The wool of which the shawls are " which the persons employed sit on a “ made is imported from Tibet and Tar“ bench: their number is from two to four. tary, in which countries alope the goat "On plain shawls, two people alove are “ which produces it is said to thrive. That "employed, and a long narrow, but heavy “ which is brought from Rodauk is reckon.' "shuttle is used; those of which the pat “ed the best. Its price in Cashmeer is "tero is variegated, are worked with “ from ten to twenty rupees for a turruk " wooden needles, there being a separate " (which is supposed to be about twelve "needle for the thread of each colour; “ pounds): the whitest sort is the dearest. a for the latter, no shuttle is required. " It would perhaps be difficult to deter“The operation of their manufacture is of " mine with accuracy the quantity of coursé slow, proportionate to the quan

« shawls manufactured avnually; suppos* tity of work which their patterns may ing, however, that five of all kinds are * require.

“ on an average made at each shop or loom · The Oostaud, or head workman, su “ in the course of a vear, the number would "perintends while his journeymen are em “ be eighty thousand, which is probably *ployed near him immediately under his " not far from the truth.". * directions. If they have any new pat Mr. E. mentions a carpet made of "tern in hand, or one with which they are

these valuable materials, estimated at " not familiar, he describes to them the " figures, colours, and threads which they

more than ten thousand pounds. * are to use, while he keeps before him the

But, it is time that we attend the * pattern on which they happen to be em- Mission in its journey homewards. The * ployed, drawn upon paper.

return route was not the same as that " During the operation of making, the taken in going, which had led over des “ rougti side of the shawl in uppermost on sert plains of sand, little varied by

"size.

66

verdure, and less by fertility, yet not and from travellers, of various descripwholly destitute of lowus and cities. tions, who visited India : this he has The banks of the river, however, were combined with remarks obtained from diligently cultivated. In returning, the the Gentlemen who accompanied bim; Mission pursued a route rendered clas- and the whole forms an orderly, and even sical, by having been that (or nearly) systematic work, beyond what could have of Alexander the Great, when his wild been expected. A number of engravambition led him to India : but was ings, representing the people, and their stopped by tbe refusal of his troops to dresses, are very properly introduced; follow him.

and the whole is illustrated by approFew traces of Alexander's expedition priate maps. remain : yet Mr. E. presents a view of one Whether much intercourse is likely building, which the gentlemen of his suite to take place between the British domiunanimously ascribed to Grecian Ar- nions in India, and the kingdom of chitecture; and which, certainly, is nei- Caubul, we are not able to say ; but we ther Persian nor Indian. The crossing can safely say, that this volume contains of the rivers, the Indus, and those of by far the most complete account of the the Punjaub, known to scholars as the countries between Hindostan and Persia Hydaspes, the Arcesines, the Hydraotes, that we are acquainted with ; and that, the Hyphasis, and the Hysudrns, af- in composing it, the honourable Author fords much interest; nor is it dimi- has laid the Company, in whose sernished by the character and manners of vice he is, with the Nation to which be the Seicks, a nation that has rapidly belongs, under no trivial or ordinary risen to power ; through much of whose obligations. country thc Mission passed in its way from Attock to Delhi. They are a

The Second Usurpation of Buonapeople equally formidable and fanatic, and their priests excited an attack on

parte; or a History of the Revolution in the strangers, because they were Chris France in 1815, particularly of the Victians ; an instance of inhospitality, no tory of Waterloo, &c. By E. Boyce, thing like which had occurred among 2 vols. 8vo. price 1. 4s. Leigh. London, the Afghauns : Indeed, Mr. E. speaks 1816, rather favourably of the disposition of

Mr. Boyce is the translator of Lathis people towards Christians. But, baume's Campaign in Russia, one of these, with many other particulars, we the most impressive volumes produced must leave untouched.

by the press : and he claims advantages During its progress, several parties in favour of the present work, from from the Mission endeavoured to pene- that circamstance, and from communitrate to remarkable objects on either side cations with which he has been favoured of it's ronte, at some distance; one by “ those who shared in the honour of party, to the mountains of Soleimaun, the day of Waterloo.” We are desirous which they did not reach ; another, en- of doing justice to his talents; büt, we deavoured to ascertain the ruins of incline to think that his political inforTaxila, but without success. The Ap- mation has not been greatly increased pendix contains, besides a History of by confidential communication from any the Caubul Government, from the foun- who were thoroughly acquainted with dation of the Dooraunee monarchy, a the internal state of France. His work narrative of a Mr. Durie, a wanderer of should have begun earlier than it does, a lower class, and a peculiar kind, who, either in the Preface, or by an lotronevertheless, adds to our knowledge of duction : for, the causes of Buonaparte's the middling and lower classes, in second usurpation were in activity, beAfghaunistan. He penetrated to Cau- fore“ the King of France, in the spring bul, to Guznee, and other places, in of 1914, entered his Capital.” the interior of the country. Much in The remonstrances of the English formation was obtained by Mr. E. after minister against the selection of Elba his return, from patives of the country, for the residence of Buonaparte, plainly

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