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FRANCE.

will, we presume, attach more than usual Foreign Literary Gazette.

importance to a work lately announced at Paris, in two volumes, large quarto; but of

which the first only is published, under the AUSTRIA.

title of La Langue Hebraique restituét, &c. Erfindung,&c. Notice of a Mass in the true sense of Hebrew Words established

“ 'The Hebrew Language restored, and the form of a Paste, which, when it is per. and proved by their Analytical Analysis :" feetly dried, exceeds in solidity the most

By Fabre d'Olivet. compact wood, and when coated with a suitable varnish, completely resists humi-selves to the study of llebrew, and who

All the learned who have devoted theindity." This is announced in a single vo

have endeavoured to penetrate the princilume, with three plates, published at Vienna, 1815, at the price of one florio. ples and genius of that antient and cele. We know nothing more of it; but, if it whatever was their previous country or re

brated language, lave unanimously agreed, answers the description and the idea we have formed of it, it miglit prove benefi- ligious profession, that it has been long lost;

that is to say, that the true sense and incial to certain artizans among us, espe: port of its terms is no longer understood, cially, perhaps, to those conected with and that grammars and dictionaries, erdeabuilding: to say the least, it might be worth voured to be grounded on the culy authen. while to throw a single florin on the

tic version of the ouly book remaining in chance.

the language, are founded on erroneous

principles. The famous Richard Simon, to The History of a Piece of Wood, presents, whom we are beholden for a Critical Hisat first sight, nothing better than a very tory of the Bible, collected all the opinions dry subject; but under the hands and in- and researches which had been made on tellect of a philosopher it becomes truly this matter. His conclusion was, that the interesting and instructive. It leads in language was lost as early as the Babylonish the first place, to a consideration of the captivity; insomuch, that nearly six centugeneral principles and powers of vegetation, ries before our era, the Jews no longer un considered in the reproductive energy dis- derstood the language of their ancestors, played in the shooting or propulsion of but spake a corrupt mixture of Chaldee, an embryo bud, and the embryo itself, or Persian, Syriac, &c.: so that in reading the vital grain, contained in that bud.

Law in their synagogues for the instruction The sap ou which the nascent branch of the people, it was, of necessity, paradepends for its existence and increase, phrased, and interpreted. In this jargon, next demands attention, and at length the ill denominated Hebrew, enriched in later conformation of the constituent parts. ages with various words derived from the This has been lately exemplified in a Greek and Latin, the Talmuds are written, Work under this title by M. Aubert du with the greater part of those books whicla Pelit Thouars, Director of the Royal the Jews call antient; such as Zohar, Shrubberies, &c. which has lately ap- and certain Cabalistic works known atoong peared at Paris. The sap of vegeta- tbe Rabbios. bles has been the subject of this gentle This loss of a language essentially comman's particular examination, which he bined with the history of the earth, and on extends also to the etiology of layers, and which rests the credibility of many mo off-sets:'. After a variety of reflections ou morable events, has exercised the sagacity the nature and number of the nerves in of a great number of very laborious men, leaves, and in the parts of certain flowers, at different periods, and among all sects. on the growth, &c. of plants, the learued Not only Christians, but Jews and Mahowriter comes to the main object of his metans, have rivalled each other in zeal on volume, and traces the History of a piece this subject; but in vain have they consumed of wood, from the first burgeon, or shoot, their lives (many of them). The author through its subseqnent increase in sub was led to this object by particular circumstance, diameter, properties, &c. till it ac stances, and almost unknown to himself. quires the characters of world, and answers His studies had other purposes in view. to the description of that article which the He was employed on an Archaiologic Flisauthor had in view, and submits 10 his rea tory of the Earth; when, engaging deeply der.

in researches on the principal languages Hebrew Language retrieved.

of Asia and Africa ; such as the Chinese, The encreased study of the ancient Ie- the Sanscrit, the Arab, the Coptic, &c. brew language, with the number of Ile- he was led to examine the Hebrew, brew Bibles, &c. now publishing among us, with which he had been acquainted VOL. IV. No. 21. Lit. Pan. N. S. June ..

R

in his youth; after the usual manner;, useful to the general study of languages :: that is to say, very imperfectly. This lan a series of Hebrew roots, considered under guage, highly valuable on many accounts, new references, and intended to facilitate now occupied bim closely, and the more so correct understanding of the language, as he did not arrive at it, as heretofore, by and the science of Etymology, at large.means of the Latin or the Greek, but by A transiation into French of the first ten means of languages much more analogous chapters of the Sepher; containing the to itself, and much nearer to its origin. Cosmology of Moses: this translation, in. This difference in the quarter from which tended to serve as a proof of the truth of he approached it, gave him an entirely dis- principles adopted in the grammar and dic. tiuct view of the structure; and he was tionary, is preceded by a literal version How able to do, what no linguist had before into French and English, formed on the done ;- without labour he penetrated into Hebrew text, as it originally stood, with the principles of the Hebrew, and readily a transcription into modern characters, acascertained the meaning of its terms. companied by notes grammatical and cri. Looking at the Sepher of Moses, con- tical, in which the interpretation given to monly called the Genesis, with the accuracy each word, is determined by the analysis ot'scrutinizing inquiry, he discovered many of his roots, and comparison with the ana. things, which considered only as moral or logous term in Samaritan, Syriac, Arabic, philosophical propositions, are highly inte- or Greek. resting to mankind; and his opinion is, We have not ourselves seen this work ; that in this book, derived from the sanctua- but, presuming that it is the result of re. ries of Thebes and of Memphis, we pos- search, by an unusual course, we have sess, without any reasonable doubt, the given the earliest notice of it that has whole antient science of Egypt.

reached us; and shall have occasion, aq This discovery became a powerful mo

doubt, to resuine the subject. tive to induce the Author to endeavour to

GERMANY. restore the Hebrew, which might greatly

Exertions in Arts, fc. 86. facilitate this knowledge, to us. But, this was not his only motive; for being of the

It is proper that our countrymen should same mind as most who have studied the be reminded at this time, in stiong terms, subject, that the Hebrew is the same as

of the exertious made on the Continent, to the ancient Phenecian, as to its radical circulate information of every nature, by torm, he could not help reflecting how which industry, and the arts of life and greatly the possession of this language labour, may be facilitated. A new work, raight contribute to elucidate the history of of which this is the object, has recently Europe, and the idioms which have been been instituted at Halle, under the title successively formed in this quarter of the of Der Deutsche Gewerbfround, &c. The globe. Every body knows that the Phe- Friend of Industry. It is destined to consiecians were formerly to Europe, what tain accounts of all discoveries, and in. Europe has been lately to America; that ventions, iu mechanic proceedings, in mais to say, that it colonized the whole coast, nufactures, in rural and domestic economy, that it civilized the people which it found whether originating in Germany, or in savages, gave them laws, religion, arts, foreign parts: in short, selections from fo. architecture, and organized society, by reign journals, with additions and imwhich means it laid the foundations of provements, as well as original pieces, by whatever was illustrious in Greece and the Editor. Rome. The languages of those countries By way of rendering this · more im. supply the means of public education to pressive, we add one quarter's Contenta this day; and they even compose a part of the Museum des Neuestren, &c. Museum of it: it will not therefore be a matter of in- of Inventions and Discoveries made in Nadifference to become acquainted with the tural History, the Arts, Manufactures, Mafoot of these languages; and the motives nual Operations, Trades, and Rural and by which M. Fabre d'Olivet has been in- Domestic Economy. Published at Berlin, fluenced cannot but be applauded by the 1815, Scholar.

February.- Medical and Chemical Ob

servations, by Professor Driessen.-MeThe first volume, which is now before moir on Toxicology, by Leituer.-On the the Public, contains, an introductory dis- Graphite of Bohemia, by Schmiz.-The sertation on the origin of speech, on the actual State of the Fisheries on the Case study of languages which may afford as- pian Sea,-Thomson on Dew.-On the sistance in this enquiry, and on the purposes Growth and Maturity of Leaves, by Blesof the author. - A Hebrew Grammar, son--on the Perfection of Printing Presses, founded on new principles, and rendered by Kønig,

March.-Method employed to unroll the | 490. Works of this description are useful MSS. of Herculaneum. On the Compo- or otherwise, according to their correct. sition of Iron, by Blesson).--Method of ob ness and veracity, which usually depend taining Sulphuric Acid, by Bart.-New ou the opportunities of the writer to know Composition for Coating Copper, Iron, the facts he relates. We have seen some Arms, &c. as security against Rust, by in our own country which, by collecting reRichardais.

ports, have furnished no real assistance to April.-A stove for Drying Fruits, by history;-- while, at the same time, it Graschopt.-On employing Oxen to move

must be confessed, that private transacCylindrical Machines—The method of tions of courts and high personages

, are proceeding for the purpose of Carboniz- often revealed by means of reports, ouly, ing Peat, perfected. --Method of Tanning, at least in the first instance, which may practised at Pondicherry.—Paul's Appa- be founded on truth, as time afterwards ratus for Filtering Water.-On the Use of proves. Potatoes in the Distillation of Brandy, in

This work is described as important, Sweden and Denmark.-On Wind-Mills, and a translation of it into French is prehaving Sails, instead of those commonly paring for the press, under the author's inemployed; which are called Wings.

spection. The pieces it contains refer to Archiv Patriotischer Wunsche, &c.--Ar of Prussia ; and to the intention of the Em

the history of the last years of Frederic II. chives of Patriotic Wishes and Projects, press Catherine II. of Russia to establish a suggested on occasion of the revision and

new Empire in Greece, or in Western renovation of the Constitution of Ham. Asia, by driving the Turks out of Earope. burgh, by Ph. A. Nehmoich. This work -The squabbles of Frederic with the city opens with an bistoric notice of the events of Dautzic, which did not become Prussian which took place at Ilamburgh, while that till the reign of his successor.The protown was occupied by the French. The ject of the Armed Neutrality, the work of Author directs his attention to the be- 'Count Panin, opposed by Potemkin, at the nevolevt establishments of the town, espe instigation of England. The pretentions cially to the Orphan-House, to the direct of Joseph II. and the opposition of Holtaxes, to the bearing arms by the citizens land, which ended in the alliance between in a free and commercial state, and to pa- Holland and France, in 1785.— The inte. triotic opinions. As a citizen of Hamburgh, rior troubles of Holland, the part taken in he complains of the rivalship of the town them by Frederic Il. to which is added a of Altona, the commerce of which injures sketch of the reign of Jeseph II. with that of Hamburgh. The author insists, remarks on bis system of Toleration. that a merchant of Hamburgh is the only

The reader perceives that these are person authorized to transact the com- leading articles to the history of subsemerce of that city. He enlarges also on

quent events. The French Revolntion, ameliorations demanded by the present with the eventual punishments of Russia, state of things; in particular, he com- Prussia, Austria, Holland, and other plains of the clandestine traffic carried on

countries, were little more than natural by the Jews of the sale of manufactured consequences, in a political sense, of these articles in small quantities around the Ex: plans and proceedings. The work cannot change, and in private houses--which, if but be interesting. we rightly uuderstand, is principally sup; The opportunity afforded by the late ported by the Jewish smugglers, and changes in the Political World, gave ocprivate accommodations of entry, from casion to a number of works, treating our Altona. As to other matters, such as the the most desirable Constitution for Gervices introduced by the French, from

many; among others was

Deutchlands which the city was previously free, we Zukunst, &c. The Future of Germany, believe that in this respeet Hamburgh is in six discourses, by Dr. Kohlrausch, a sufferer in common with almost all Eu- of Elberfeld. The author enquireś wherope; but, it gives us pleasure to find that ther Germany would obtain by means they are acknowledged, censured, and of this great crisis, a stronger political condemned in their true character, as uuity, if it were formed into three or four Vices.

great states. From this subject may easily Denkwurdigkeiten, &c. - Memoirs of be inferred what were the ideas afloat iit my owo time, intended to promote an ac- Germany, at the time. After discussing quaintance with the history of the last the question, not without much hesitation, quarter of the eighteenth ceutury, and the the writer decides in the negative. The fourth beginning of the nineteenth-from 1778 to discourse seems to deserve attention: the 1806. By C. G. de Dobm. Vol. II. pp: question is, whether a whole nation should

not be trained to arms under the direction of its Government. It should seem that, in ReporT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE such a case, neighbouring countries would have little inducement to attack one the

ELGIN MARBLES. other under an expectation of conquest, or

(Second Part.) even of decisive advantages.

The Report of the Committee on the New Journal. In January 1310, was published at question of purchasing the ancient SculpStutigard, the first part of an Astronoinical tures, brought from Athens, by the Earl of and Mathematical Journal, intended to Elgin, may be considered as being divided promote the study of the liigler branches into two parts: the first referring to the of science. It bears the tide of « Combentarii in quibus de rebus ad Astronomiam acquisition and the value of these remains et cognatas cum ea literas spectantibus ex of Ancient Art, the second to their history. ponitür;" and seeks to compensate for the As it is not convenient for us, yet, to allot discoutinuance of a former work ou the

to this Report its due place, we anticipate same plan, designated “Mutua Literæ ad accuratiorem terræ et cæli cognitionem that duty by giving this division separately, evulgatæ, &c."

and the rather, as it has not appeared in It will receive the contributions of many the public prints; which have contented distinguished students, in the different themselves with publishing the former, countries of Europe, who have pledged

or first Part. their support to the work.

PRUSSIA. The Memoirs of the Royal Academy of It may not be deemed foreign to this subSciences of Berlin, from the year 1804 to ject, if Your Committee venture to extend 1811, accompanied by the History of the their observations somewhat beyond the Academy, during the same period, was strict limit of their immediate inquiry, and published at Berlin, from the Library of lay before the House what occurs to them the Schools, in 1815. The history includes as not unimportant with regard to the age the Eulogia of eminent men, M.M. Zoell- and authenticity of these Sculptures. The per, de Burgsdorff, Teller, and Merian, great works with which Pericles adorned, and the work itself is divided into classes, and strengthened Athens, were all carried on as usual. The re-appearanee of this learned under the dirretion and superintendance of work induces us to trust, that the dis- Phidias; for this, there is the authority of tresses of Prussia, in consequence of the various ancient writers, and particularly of war, are rapidly vanishing, while the Plutarch; but he distinctly asserts in the blessings of peace are diffusing themselves same passage, that Callicrates and Ictinus throughout the nation.

executed the work of the Parthenon ; Russia.

which is confirmed also by Pausanias, so Professor Graefe has published at Pe- far as relates to Ictinus, who likewise orna. tersburgh, the Hymns of Nonnus and Ni-mented and constructed the temple of caia, in Greek, pp. 50. Quarto. This Apollo at Phigalia*; from whence, by a fragment is accompanied by observations, singular coincidence, the Sculptures in high critical, philological, &c. The Author is relief lately purchased for the British Mualready known by the publication of two seum, and frequently referred to in the evi. other Greek poems, and by an Edition of dence were transported. the Fragments of Meleager.

The style of this work, in the opinion of SAXONY.

Artists, indicates, that it belongs to the House of Cobourg

same period, though the execution is rated M. Schulles has just published “ A His

as inferior to that of the Elgin Marbles. tory of Coburg in the Middle Ages," and

In the fabulous stories which are represent. has added to it several charters; among ed upon both, there is a very striking sithem is one of the Emperor Henry VII. milarity; and it may be remarked in pasdated Wornis, 1231. The Emperor re

sing, that the subjects t of the Metopes, and plies in it to the questions that had been

of the smaller Frize, which is sculptured put to him couceruing the rights of sub with the battle of the Amazons, correspond jects. According to liis decision-_“No Prince or Lord can establish new laws or The penultimate syllable should be new consti:utions without the consent of pronounced long: Phigalia closes two his principal vassals." The rights of the bexameter verses, one of which is quoted people were, therefore, not every where by Pausanias, and the other by Stephanus disregarded in the middle ages, as has Byzantipus, from Rhianus a poet of Crete. often beeu affirmed.

† Compare Lit. Pax.N.S.Vol. III. p.794.

with two out of the four subjects mentioned | nian of noble birth, and Agoracritus of by Pliny, as adorning the shield and dress | Paros; the latter of whom was his faof the Minerva ; so that there was a gene- rourite ; and it was reported, that out of ral uniformity of design in the stories affection to him, Phidias put his scholar's which were selected for the internal, and name upon several of his own works: external decoration of the Parthenon. The among which the statue of Rhamnusian taste of the same artist, Ictinus, probably Nemesis is particularized by Pliny, and led him to repeat the same ideas, which Suidas. abound in graceful forms, and variety of In another passage of Pliny, Alcamenes composition, when he was employed upon is classed with Critias, Nestocles, and the temple of another divinity, at a distance Hegias, who are called the rivals of Phifrom Athens.

dias, The name of Colotes is preserved as The statue of Minerva within the tem- another of his scholars. ple, was the work of Phidias bimself, and,

The other great Sculptors, who were with the exception of the Jupiter which living at the sare time with Phidias, and he made at Elis, the most celebrated of his flourished very soon after him, were Ageproductions. It was composed of ivory, lades, Callon, Polyeletus, Phragmon, Gorand gold ; with regard to which, some gias, Lacon, Myron, Pythagoras, Scopas, very curious anecdotes relating to the poli. and Perelius. tical history of that time, are to be found in the same writers: the earliest of which, tions the Sculptures on the pediments is

The passage in which Pausanias menfrom a passage in a contemporary poel, Aristoplianes, proves that the value of extremely short, and to thisefiert; “ As you these materials involved both Pericles and all that is contained in what is termed

enter the temple, which they call Parthenon, the director of his works in great trouble, the (Eagles) Pediments, relates in every and jeopardy; upon which account the jatter is said to have withdrawn to Elis

, the opposite or back front is the contest of

particular to the birth of Minerva; but on and to have ended his days there, leaving Minerva and Neptune for the land ;-but it doubtful whether his death was natural, the statue itself is formed of ivory and or in consequence of a judicial sentence; but Plutarch places his death at Athens, which this temple was fallen, when Stuart

gold." The state of dilapidation into and in prison, either by disease, or by visited it in 1731, and made most correct poison.

It has been doubted whether Phidias drawings for his valuable work, left little himself ever wrought in Marble; but, al. opportunity of examining and comparing

what remained upon that part of the temthough, when he did not use ivory, his chief material was unquestionably bronze; } account is preserved by travellers, who

ple with the passage referred to: but an there are authorities sufficient to establish, about 80 years earlier found one of these beyond all controversy, that he sometimes applied his hand to Marble. Pliny, for the war between the Turks and Venetiaus,

pediments in tolerable preservation, before instance, asserts that he did so, and mentions a Venus ascribed to him, existing in admirable structure. The observation of

in 1687, had done so much damage to this his owo time in the collection (or in the portico) of Octavia. Phidias is called by

one of these (Dr. Spon, a French plıysician) Aristotle a skilful worker in stone; and may be literally translated thus: Pausanias enumerates a Celestial Venus of “The highest part of the front which the Parian Marble, undoubtedly of his hand; Greeks cailed “the Eagle," and our arand the Rhamnusian Nemesis, also of the chitects “ the Fronton,” is enriched with a same material. Some of his statues in groupe of beautiful figures in marble, bronze, were brought to Rome by Paulus which appear from below as large as life. Æmilius, and by Catulus.

They are of entire reliet, and wonderfully His great reputation, however, was

well worked. Pausanias says nothing founded upon bis representations of the more, than that this Sculpture related to Gods, in which he was supposed more ex

the birth of Minerva. The general design cellent than in human forms, and especially is this: upon his works in ivory, in which he stood Jupiter, who is under the highest unrivalled. *

angle of the pediment (fronton) has the Elidas the Argive is mentioned as the right arm brokeu, in which, probably, he master of Phidias; which honour is also held his thunderbolt ; his less are thrown shared by Hippias. Flis two most cele-wide from each other, withont doubt to brated scholars were Alcamenes an Athe- make room for his eagle. Although these

two characterisiics are wanting, one cauQuintilian 12, c. 10.

not avoid recognizing him by his beard,

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